Catsfield is a village and civil parish in the Rother district of East Sussex, England. It is located six miles north of Bexhill, three miles southwest of Battle; the village was first documented in the Domesday Book of 1086 where it was recorded "there is a little church serving the hall". It is one of the oldest settlements in the area; the village once consisted of two manors: Catsfield and Catsfield Levett. Thomas Lyvet held the lordship of the manor of Catsfield in 1445 but forfeited it, along with the lordship of Firle, for his debts, but the manor of Catsfield Levett remained in the Levett family for centuries, in the seventeenth century a Levett heiress carried it into the Eversfield family. With a fortune built on ancestral landholdings and on iron making, the Levetts held land across Sussex; the parish church is dedicated to St Laurence. Catsfield is located in the Sussex Weald within the designated landscape the High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. At a local level, Catsfield is governed by a parish council, responsible for street lighting and recreational areas.
They provide a local voice to the county councils. The parish council consists of seven councillors; the May 2007 was uncontested. Rother District council provides the next level of government with services such as refuse collection, planning consent, leisure amenities and council tax collection. Catsfield is within the Crowhurst ward, along with the parishes of Ashburnham and Penhurst and part of Battle. In the May 2007 election Crowhurst ward was won by the Conservative candidate. East Sussex county council is the third tier of government, providing education and highway maintenance. Catsfield falls within the Crowhurst ward. Kathryn Margaret Field, Liberal Democrat, was elected in the May 2005 election with 48.8% of the vote. The UK Parliament constituency for Catsfield is Battle. Huw Merriman was elected in the May 2015 election. At European level, Catsfield is represented by the South-East region, which holds ten seats in the European Parliament; the June 2004 election returned four Conservatives, two Liberal Democrats, two UK Independence, one Labour and one Green, none of whom live in East Sussex.
The Site of Special Scientific Interest Ashburnham Park is within the parish. The National Monuments Record documents sites of Roman Cremation, Post-Medieval Iron Works and Architectural Remains in Catsfield. Monument No. 414618 is located within an area of ancient woodland "Twisly Wood". A Romano British cremation burial accompanied by pottery was found in 1902 during the construction of "Twisly" house. While excavating for a rain-water drain about 6 feet from the house and at a depth of 10–12 inches, a workman James Hodgkin found a pottery vessel of about one gallon capacity, it was of rather soft paste. It was full of earth and in the bottom there was chalk-like material. About a yard away he found another vessel, smaller and of thinner material which contained the remains of fine bones; the British Museum assessed the smaller vessel as the remains of a small Roman vase found with cremated burials. Monument No. 414623 is located at Watermill Stream. The site of a forge having a large bay with cinder below it.
The name "Hamerwyse" is given to the meadow at the site in a 13th-century document suggesting a bloomery and in a lease of 1582 it is mentioned as "lyemeweke or lyerne Forge and Foryers". A forge pond is shown on a map dated 1795. Across the valley of Watermill Stream is a breached pond-bay containing sufficient forge cinder to indicate ironworking nearby. Monument No. 1513805 is a documented site of Pulhamite garden features within the grounds of Normanhurst Court. The features were installed in 1886 by James Pulham II and James Pulham III; the Church dates from the early medieval period: the Nave is 1100, the Tower late 12th century, the Chancel 13th century and the Tower buttresses 15th century. The medieval church bells are hung in the Tower; the first and smallest bell is inscribed "Sum Rosa Pulsata Mundi Katerina Vocata". Both bells were cast in the vicinity of the church during the late 14th or early 15th century by William Wodewarde of London; the third and largest bell is said to have been the greatest cast by William Hull of Hailsham and has the inscription "William Hull of Hailsham made me in 1685.
John Maynard, John Blaskit, Churchwardens". The church clock was made and installed during the late 19th century by J. W. Benson of Ludgate Hill, London; the most venerable oak of Sussex was once to be found in the churchyard dating to the time before the Conquest. It was lost in the 1960s. Many suggestions have been made about the origin of the name Catsfield but it is unlikely its true derivation will be known as the early Britons and Saxons left few written records. One theory advanced is the village takes its name from a North Saxon or Belgic tribe called the Catti, who were known to have settled in Sussex in Roman times, another based on a tradition that a church was built in Catsfield by St. Chad of Lichfield, or his brother St. Cedd, active in the South East, hence Caedsfeld or Chaddesfield; the earliest written record of Catsfield is contained in the Domesday Book of 1086. William Markwick, an inhabitant of Catsfield and a Fellow of the Linnaean Society, made pioneering observations in phenology, the times at which natural events such as when the f
River Rother, East Sussex
The River Rother flows for 35 miles through the English counties of East Sussex and Kent. Its source is near Rotherfield in East Sussex, its mouth is on Rye Bay, part of the English Channel. Prior to 1287, its mouth was further to the east at New Romney, but it changed its course after a great storm blocked its exit to the sea, it was known as the Limen until the sixteenth century. For the final 14 miles, the river bed is below the high tide level, Scots Float sluice is used to control levels, it prevents salt water entering the river system at high tides, retains water in the river during the summer months to ensure the health of the surrounding marsh habitat. Below the sluice, the river is tidal for 3.7 miles. The river has been used for navigation since Roman times, is still navigable by small boats as far as Bodiam Castle, it flowed in a loop around the northern edge of the Isle of Oxney until 1635, when it was diverted along the southern edge. Scots Float Sluice was built before 1723, when the engineer John Reynolds made repairs to it, extended it, to try to keep the channel clear of silting, but it was criticised by John Rennie in 1804, as it was inconvenient to shipping.
The river became part of a defensive line to protect England from the threat of invasion by the French in the early 1800s, when its lower section and part of the River Brede formed a link between the two halves of the Royal Military Canal. Scots Float Sluice was again rebuilt in 1844; some 31 square miles of the valley were inundated by floodwater in 1960, which resulted in the Rother Area Drainage Improvement Scheme being implemented between 1966 and 1980. The river banks were raised, 20 pumping stations were installed; the river has been managed by a number of bodies, including the Rother Levels Commissioners of Sewers, the Rye Harbour Commissioners, the Board of Conservators for the River Rother. After the passing of the Land Drainage Act 1930, it was managed by the Rother and Jury's Gut Catchment Board, the Kent River Board, the Kent and Sussex River Authorities, the National Rivers Authority and the Environment Agency, it is unusual, in that while it is under the jurisdiction of the Environment Agency, it has been a free river since 1826, so no licence is required to use it.
Management of the levels adjacent to the river is undertaken by the Romney Marshes Area Internal Drainage Board. The Rother passes by or near the villages of Etchingham, Bodiam and Wittersham; the modern name of the river is comparatively recent dating from around the sixteenth century. It is derived from hundred of Rotherfield, located where the river rises. Rotherfield means'open land of the cattle', based on the Old English Hrydera-feld. Prior to being called the Rother, it was known as the Limen throughout its length; this is a Celtic word meaning'river'. In several Anglo-Saxon charters, it is suffixed with -ea, appearing as Limenea, where the suffix means'river', but in Old English. During the thirteenth century, it was known as the River of Newenden; the Rother rises in the High Weald of Sussex, at around 490 feet above ordnance datum, descends rapidly. It is joined by the River Dudwell at Etchingham and the River Darwell at Robertsbridge, by the time it reaches Udiam, it is only 7 feet AOD.
Average annual rainfall in the High Weald is 35 inches, most of the underlying geology is impermeable, resulting in rain reaching the river and flowing down to the sea. The river valley is thus prone to winter floods, while during the summer months, the flow can be quite low in dry periods, as there are few groundwater aquifers. Between Udiam and Bodiam, the bed of the river drops below sea level, the lower river flows slowly; the surrounding land is crossed by networks of canals and ditches, which are pumped into the river during the winter to drain the land. During the summer, water is transferred in the other direction, to manage the habitat of the marshland. Scots Float sluice, some 3.7 miles from the mouth of the river, is used to control levels. It is named after Sir John Scot, who enlarged a harbour on the site around 1480; the river below it is tidal, it is closed as the tide rises, to prevent salt water passing up the river. During dry years, the sluice may be kept closed for most of the summer, as the water is used to maintain the marsh environment.
A navigation lock bypasses the sluice. If heavy rainfall coincides with a high tide, where outflow is tide-locked, the river above the sluice to Bodiam acts as a huge holding reservoir for flood water, is managed as such. In times of high flow, water is pumped from the river at Robertsbridge into Darwell Reservoir, which can hold 167 million cubic feet of water, it covers an area of 156 acres and was built between 1937 and 1949. Since the 1980s, its output has been taken by pipeline to Beauport Park, from where it provides a public water supply for Hastings. Near its mouth, the River Rother no longer follows its ancient course, as it once flowed across Romney Marsh and joined the sea at Dungeness, it is asserted that in 1287 a hurricane, known as the Great Storm, caused large quantities of shingle and mud to be deposited on the port of Romney and the mouth of the river. The water from the river created a new channel, joining the River Brede and the River Tillingham near Rye, where the combined rivers flow into the sea.
However, Tatton-Brown has argued that patterns of occupation on Romney Marsh suggest that the change of route took place at least a century before that date. Rye became part of the Cinque Ports in the thirteenth century, although it is situated some distance from the sea, its harbour is still visited by commercial shipping and has a fle
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Etchingham is a village and civil parish in the Rother district of East Sussex in southern England. The village is located 15 miles southeast of Royal Tunbridge Wells in Kent and 13 miles northwest of Hastings, on the A265, half a mile west of its junction with the A21. Etchingham railway station is on the Hastings Line to London Charing Cannon Street. Etchingham was a manor a long time before the Norman conquest of 1066. In 1166 it was left to the de Achyngham family; the Etchingham family papers record that William was so pleased with his right-hand man that he gave him the land now known as Etchingham. The moated manor house, long since demolished, stood at the point now occupied by the London to Hastings railway line; some of the stone from the manor was used in the construction of the station buildings. There is one legend that a great bell lay at the bottom of the moat surrounding the church and manor, that it would never be seen until six yoke of white oxen were brought to drag it up. Centuries have passed by, the moat is long gone and no bell has surfaced.
The 14th-century church was built within the grounds of the manor. The name Etchingham is derived from Old English, translates as "The homestead or enclosure of family and followers of a man called Ecci". In a place name, "inga" refers to'people of' or'dwellers at', and'ham' to a homestead or settlement. A second possible derivation of the name is that it could come from the Anglo-Saxon "ecen", meaning great and "ham", but the former explanation is the most likely; the 14th-century parish church is dedicated to The Assumption of St Nicholas. On its spire is what is England's oldest brass weather vane, it has the second largest series of misericords in the county. A memorial brass to Agnes Oxenbridge and Elizabeth Etchingham is visible on the floor of the side aisle; the design of the village sign is based on the de Etchingham family coat of arms. A similar design is used for the parish council logo, the primary school badge and the church weathervane. Among the famous former residents of Etchingham is the regicide James Temple, who lived at Haremere Hall in the 1620s.
He signed the execution warrant. Haremere was owned by the second Sir John Lade, a notorious gambler and close friend of the Prince Regent, he was a notable whip. His wife, had been the mistress of a highwayman before becoming a mistress of the Duke of York, she was painted by Stubbs. Sir John ended his life as a coachman. Another famous resident, the novelist and critic Anthony Burgess, lived in a semi-detached house called Applegarth on the south side of the A265 road, his house can be distinguished by the presence of a small statue of a Siamese cat next to the building. The folk musicians Ashley Hutchings and Shirley Collins lived there in the 1970s and formed the Etchingham Steam Band in 1974; the village had an old village hall, subsequently demolished. The new Village Halls are two halls at the new community complex at Parsonage Croft. One is shared between the other serving the community; the shared hall is known as the Ahrens Hall and the smaller hall is the Parker Hall which serves as the meeting place for the Toddlers' Group.
Other groups in the village include Brownies and a Darby and Joan Club. A Social Club exists that serves as the base for the village branch of the Royal British Legion and the clubhouse for the Etchingham & Fontridge Cricket Club. Henry Corbould FSA, the designer of the first postage stamp, the Penny Black, died at Hurst Green, having been taken ill there while travelling back to London from the coast, was buried in Etchingham parish church. There is a memorial tablet on the wall of the church, which for many years was believed to be the only known likeness of Corbould. In 1990, as part of the 150th anniversary of the postage stamp, the village produced two First Day Covers to mark the Corbould connection, held the Etchingham Stamp Festival to raise funds for church repairs; the festival was held over the weekend following the issue of the Miniature Sheet in May, in the church and village hall. The design on the cover is based on architectural detail in the church. One cover was issued in January with the full set of the'double headed' commemorative stamps and another for the miniature sheet issued in May, both covers bearing special handstamps featuring detail from the church weathervane.
Both covers were limited editions. Sarah Godwin, the designer of the 1987 Isaac Newton stamps, designed the cover, her family home being in Etchingham. Etchingham had an active cricket team in 1939, the Etchingham & Fontridge Cricket Club, but the start of World War II brought play to an abrupt end. After the war the cricket field was not brought back into use. In early 2006, a group of enthusiasts decided to revive the tradition; the new club has in its possession several artefacts, minutes of meetings and games dating back to the 1920s, when the club was known as the "Etchingham & Fontridge Cricket Club". Keen to maintain a link with the original club, the new club uses the same name; the original club was formed by Mr. W. F. Foster, who became its President. A pavilion was erected in 1920, as the number of playing
East Sussex is a county in South East England. It is bordered by the counties of Kent to the north and east, Surrey to the north west and West Sussex to the west, to the south by the English Channel. East Sussex is part of the historic county of Sussex, which has its roots in the ancient kingdom of the South Saxons, who established themselves there in the 5th century AD, after the departure of the Romans. Archaeological remains are plentiful in the upland areas; the area's position on the coast has meant that there were many invaders, including the Romans and the Normans. Earlier industries have included fishing, iron-making, the wool trade, all of which have declined, or been lost completely. Sussex is traditionally sub-divided into six rapes. From the 12th century the three eastern rapes together and the three western rapes together had separate quarter sessions, with the county town of the three eastern rapes being Lewes; this situation was formalised by Parliament in 1865, the two parts were made into administrative counties, each with distinct elected county councils in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888.
In East Sussex there were three self-administered county boroughs: Brighton and Hastings. In 1974 East Sussex was made a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county, the three county boroughs became districts within the county. At the same time the western boundary was altered, so that the Mid Sussex region was transferred to the county of West Sussex. In 1997, Brighton and Hove became a self-administered unitary authority. East Sussex is divided into five local government districts. Three are larger, districts: Lewes. Eastbourne and Hastings are urban areas; the rural districts are further subdivided into civil parishes. From a geological point of view East Sussex is part of southern anticline of the Weald: the South Downs, a range of moderate chalk hills which run across the southern part of the county from west to east and mirrored in Kent by the North Downs. To the north lie parallel valleys and ridges, the highest of, the Weald itself; the sandstones and clays meet the sea at Hastings. The area contains significant reserves of shale oil, totalling 4.4 billion barrels of oil in the Wealden basin according to a 2014 study, which Business and Energy Minister Michael Fallon said "will bring jobs and business opportunities" and help with UK energy self-sufficiency.
Fracking in the area is required to achieve these objectives, opposed by environmental groups. East Sussex, like most counties by the south coast, has an annual average total of around 1,750 hours of sunshine per year; this is much higher than the UK's average of about 1,340 hours of sunshine a year. The relief of the county reflects the geology; the chalk uplands of the South Downs occupies the coastal strip between Eastbourne. There are two river gaps: Cuckmere; the Seven Sisters, where the Downs meet the sea, are the remnants of dry valleys cut into the chalk. To the east of Beachy Head lie the marshlands of the Pevensey Levels flooded by the sea but now enclosed within a deposited beach. At Bexhill the land begins to rise again where the clays of the Weald meet the sea. Further east are the Pett Levels, more marshland, beyond, the estuary of the River Rother. On the far side of the estuary are the dunes of Camber Sands; the highest point of the Downs within the county is Ditchling Beacon, at 814 feet: it is termed a Marilyn.
The Weald occupies the northern borderlands of the county. Between the Downs and Weald is a narrow stretch of lower lying land; the High Weald is wooded in contrast to the South Downs. Part of the Weald is the Ashdown Forest; the location of settlements in East Sussex has been determined both by its history and its geography. The original towns and villages tended to be where its economy lay: fishing along the coast and agriculture and iron mining on the Weald. Industry today tends to be geared towards tourism, along the coastal strip. Here towns such as Bexhill-on-Sea and Hastings lie. Newhaven and Rye are ports, although the latter is of historical importance. Peacehaven and Seaford are more dormitory towns than anything else. Away from the coast lie former market towns such as Hailsham and Uckfield. Lewes, the County town of East Sussex; this is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
The Seven Sisters Park is part of the South Downs National Park. Beachy Head is one of the most famed local attractions, along with the flats along Normans Bay. Apart from the physical landmarks such as the Downs and the Weald, East Sussex has a great many landmarks of historical interest. There are castles at Bodiam, Herstmonceux and Pevensey. Battle Abbey, built to commemorate the Battle of Hastings.
Amber Augusta Rudd is a British politician serving as Secretary of State for Work and Pensions since 16 November 2018. A member of the Conservative Party, she served as Home Secretary from July 2016 to April 2018. Rudd was first elected Member of Parliament for Hastings and Rye in 2010, she identifies herself as a one-nation conservative, has been associated with both economically liberal and liberal policies. Rudd was born in Marylebone and studied History at the University of Edinburgh School of History and Archaeology, she was first elected to the House of Commons for Hastings and Rye, in East Sussex in 2010 after defeating incumbent Labour MP Michael Foster. Rudd served in the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change from 2015 to 2016 in the Cameron Government, where she spearheaded the need for renewable energy resources and climate change mitigation, she served as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, deputising for Ed Davey at the Department for Energy and Climate Change from 2014 to 2015.
She was appointed Home Secretary in the May Government on 13 July 2016, given the additional role of Minister for Women and Equalities in January 2018. Rudd was the third female Home Secretary, the fifth woman to hold one of the Great Offices of State and the fastest-rising politician to a Great Office of State since the Second World War. Rudd resigned as Home Secretary in April 2018 in connection with the Windrush deportation scandal. On 16 November 2018, Rudd was appointed Secretary of State for Work and Pensions by Prime Minister Theresa May, succeeding Esther McVey. Rudd was born on 1 August 1963 in Marylebone, the fourth child of stockbroker Tony Rudd and magistrate Ethne Fitzgerald, daughter of Maurice Fitzgerald, QC and Christine. Tony Rudd and Ethne Fitzgerald were married for 56 years.. Through her mother, Rudd is a direct descendent of Charles II and his mistress Barbara Palmer and a tenth cousin once removed of The Queen, her elder brother Roland is a public relations executive, was a prominent Labour supporter.
She was educated at Cheltenham Ladies' College, an independent school in Gloucestershire, from 1979 to 1981 at Queen's College, London, an independent day school for girls in London, followed by Edinburgh University where she read History. After graduating from university, Rudd joined J. P. Morgan & Co. working in both London and New York. Rudd became a director of the investment company Lawnstone Limited at the age of 24 in January 1988, taking over from her sister and brother-in-law. Lawnstone became involved with Zinc Corporation, taken over by Monticello in 1999, before going into liquidation in 2001. Rudd was a co-director of Monticello between 1999 and 2000, but the company was liquidated in 2003. Between 1998 and 2000, she was a director of two companies based in the Bahamas, Advanced Asset Allocation Fund and Advanced Asset Allocation Management. Rudd helped to find extras for the film Four Weddings and a Funeral, for which she was credited as the "aristocracy co-ordinator", appeared in one of the church scenes in the film.
After she had stood at the 2005 general election as the Conservative candidate for the Labour-held seat of Liverpool Garston, Rudd's name was added to the Conservative A-List. Following her selection to contest the Hastings and Rye constituency in 2006, she moved to the Old Town in 2007. In the May 2010 general election, Rudd was elected as the MP for Hastings and Rye with a majority of 1,993 votes. Shortly afterward, she was elected to serve as a Conservative member on the Environment and Rural Affairs Select Committee. Rudd is vice-chair of the Parliamentary committee on female genital mutilation, which has campaigned against FGM and called for tougher legal penalties in the area, she has championed the cause of sex equality as chairperson of the All-party parliamentary group for Sex Equality, which published a report on women in work. Rudd chaired a cross-party enquiry into unplanned pregnancies, which called for statutory sex-and-relationships education in all secondary schools, she has called for a higher proportion of women in Cabinet.
In September 2012, she was made Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne. In October 2013, she became an assistant government whip. In July 2014, Rudd was appointed Minister for the Department for Climate Change. Following the 2015 general election, where she held her seat with an increased majority, she was promoted as Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change. In May 2015, she was appointed as a member of the Privy Council. In November 2015, she proposed that the UK's remaining coal-fired power stations would be shut by 2025 with their use restricted by 2023. "We need to build a new energy infrastructure, fit for the 21st century." In November 2015, a leaked letter showed that the government was not on course to deliver its 2020 mandatory renewable energy target, leading to accusations from The Ecologist that Rudd had knowingly misled Parliament. In July 2015, Craig Bennett of Friends of the Earth accused Rudd of hypocrisy in claiming to want to address climate change while at the same time, in his view, "dismantling an architecture of low-carbon policies put together with cross-party agreement over the course of two parliaments".
Rudd replied that " support must help technologies stand on their own two feet, not encourage a permanent reliance on subsidy."During her time as Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change, when she was expected to make a final decision on the construction of the Hinkley Point C nuclear power stat
Beckley, East Sussex
Beckley is a village and civil parish in the Rother district of East Sussex, England. It is located on the B2088 minor road above the Rother Levels five miles northwest of Rye and ten miles from Hastings; the northern border follows the river Rother. Beckley was part of the Wealden iron industry. An iron furnace was built at the small settlement still called Beckley Furnace. A watermill powered the bellows. Production ceased in 1770; the 1830s saw a mass emigration of Beckley residents to New South Wales. At the time, the developing colony of New South Wales was in need of skilled agricultural labourers, whilst the English labourers were suffering hard times. Various schemes were introduced to provide finance for workers to emigrate. 165 Beckley residents emigrated. Amongst those residents were Thomas and Maria Ann Smith, the cultivator of the Granny Smith apple. Another of those residents who emigrated at this time was Henry Charles Packham, whose son Charles, in Molong, New South Wales, was the cultivator of the Packham pear.
The parish church is the All Saints church, located at the far west end of the town. Its isolated position indicating that the main village has relocated during its history; the lowest level of government is the Beckley parish council. The parish council is responsible for local amenities such as the provision of litter bins, bus shelters and allotments, they provide a voice into the district council meetings. The parish council comprises seven councillors with elections being held every four years; the May 2007 election was uncontested. Current details about the Parish can be found on the official Parish Council website. Rother District council provides the next level of government with services such as refuse collection, planning consent, leisure amenities and council tax collection. Beckley lies within the Rother Levels ward; the May 2007 election returned two Conservatives councillors. East Sussex county council is the third tier of government, providing education and highway maintenance. Beckley falls within the Northern Rother ward.
Peter Jones, was elected in the May 2005 election with 49.7% of the vote. The UK Parliament constituency for Beckley is Battle. Gregory Barker was re-elected in the May 2005 election. At European level, Beckley is represented by the South-East region, which holds ten seats in the European Parliament; the June 2004 election returned 4 Conservatives, 2 Liberal Democrats, 2 UK Independence, 1 Labour and 1 Green, none of whom live in East Sussex. Media related to Beckley at Wikimedia Commons