The Royal Academy of Music in London, England, is the oldest conservatoire in the UK, founded in 1822 by John Fane and Nicolas-Charles Bochsa. It received its Royal Charter in 1830 from King George IV with the support of the first Duke of Wellington, it is one of the leading conservatoires in the UK, rated fourth in the Complete University Guide and third in the Guardian University Guide for 2018. Famous Academy alumni include Sir Simon Rattle, Sir Harrison Birtwistle, Sir Elton John and Annie Lennox; the Academy provides undergraduate and postgraduate training across instrumental performance, jazz, musical theatre and opera, recruits musicians from around the world, with a student community representing more than 50 nationalities. It is committed to lifelong learning, from Junior Academy, which trains musicians up to the age of 18, through Open Academy community music projects, to performances and educational events for all ages; the Academy’s museum is home to one of the world’s most significant collections of musical instruments and artefacts, including stringed instruments by Stradivari and members of the Amati family.
It is a constituent college of a registered charity under English law. The Academy was founded by John Fane, 11th Earl of Westmorland in 1822 with the help and ideas of the French harpist and composer Nicolas Bochsa; the Academy was granted a Royal Charter by King George IV in 1830. The founding of the Academy was supported by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, he was determined to make the Academy a success. The Academy faced closure in 1866; the Academy's history took a turn for the better when its appointed Principal William Sterndale Bennett took on the chairmanship of the Academy's Board of directors and established its finances and reputation on a new footing. The Academy's first building was in Tenterden Street, Hanover Square and in 1911 the institution moved to the current premises, designed by Sir Ernest George, built at a cost of £51,000 on the site of an orphanage. In 1976 the Academy acquired the houses situated on the north side and built between them a new opera theatre donated by the philanthropist Sir Jack Lyons and named after him and two new recital spaces, a recording studio, an electronic music studio, several practice rooms and office space.
The Academy again expanded its facilities in the late 1990s, with the addition of 1-5 York Gate, designed by John Nash in 1822, to house the new museum, a musical theatre studio and several teaching and practice rooms. To link the main building and 1-5 York Gate a new underground passage and the underground barrel-vaulted 150-seat David Josefowitz recital hall were built on the courtyard between the mentioned structures; the Academy's current facilities are situated on Marylebone Road in central London adjacent to Regent's Park. The Royal Academy of Music offers training from infant level, with the senior Academy awarding the LRAM diploma, B. Mus. and higher degrees to Ph. D; the former degree GRSM, equivalent to a university honours degree and taken by some students, was phased out in the 1990s. All undergraduates now take the University of London degree of BMus. Most Academy students are classical performers: strings, vocal studies including opera, woodwind and choral conducting, percussion, organ, guitar.
There are departments for musical theatre performance and jazz. The Academy collaborates with other conservatoires worldwide, including participating in the SOCRATES student and staff exchange programme. In 1991, the Academy introduced a accredited degree in Performance Studies, in September 1999, it became a full constituent college of the University of London, in both cases becoming the first UK conservatoire to do so; the Academy has students from over 50 countries, following diverse programmes including instrumental performance, composition, musical theatre and opera. The Academy has an established relationship with King's College London the Department of Music, whose students receive instrumental tuition at the Academy. In return, many students at the Academy take a range of Humanities choices at King's, its extended academic musicological curriculum; the Junior Academy, for pupils under the age of 18, takes place every Saturday. The Academy's library contains over 160,000 items, including significant collections of early printed and manuscript materials and audio facilities.
The library houses archives dedicated to Sir Arthur Sullivan and Sir Henry Wood. Among the Library's most valuable possessions are the manuscripts of Purcell's The Fairy-Queen, Sullivan's The Mikado, Vaughan Williams' Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis and Serenade to Music, the newly discovered Handel Gloria. A grant from the National Heritage Memorial Fund has assisted in the purchase of the Robert Spencer Collection—a set of Early English Song and Lute music, as well as a fine collection of lutes and guitars; the Academy's museum displays many of these items. The Orchestral Library has 4,500 sets of orchestral parts. Other collections include the libraries of Sir Henry Otto Klemperer. Soon after violinist Yehudi Menuhin's death, the Royal Academy of Music acquired his personal archive, which includes sheet music marked up for performance, news articles and photographs relating to Menuhin, autograph musical manuscripts, several portraits of Paganini
Futebol Clube do Porto, an association football team based in Porto, is the most decorated Portuguese team in international club competitions. They have won two UEFA Champions League titles, two UEFA Europa League titles, one UEFA Super Cup, two Intercontinental Cups, for a total of seven international trophies. In addition, they were Cup Winners' Cup runners-up in 1984 – their first European final – and lost three other UEFA Super Cup matches, in 2003, 2004, 2011. Porto first participated in international competitions in 1956, when they qualified for the second season of the European Cup as the domestic league winners, they lost their first two European matches against Athletic Bilbao and were eliminated from the competition. Porto debuted in the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1962–63, in the Cup Winners' Cup in 1964–65, in the inaugural editions of the UEFA Cup and UEFA Champions League in 1971–72 and 1992–93, respectively; the club has qualified for UEFA competitions every season since 1974–75, shares the second place in the UEFA Champions League group stage with Bayern Munich, one less than Barcelona and Real Madrid.
Until their 1986–87 European Cup success, Porto were the only of Portugal's "Big Three" teams without international silverware – Benfica had won two consecutive European Cup titles in 1961 and 1962, Sporting CP were Cup Winners' Cup victors in 1964. As European champions, Porto contested the UEFA Super Cup and the Intercontinental Cup, lifting both trophies in their first appearance. To this date, they remain the only Portuguese team to have won either of these trophies or the UEFA Cup/UEFA Europa League; as of the end of the 2016–17 season, Porto occupies the eighth and ninth places in the all-time European Cup and UEFA Champions League club rankings, is the second best-placed Portuguese team in the UEFA club ranking. Tomislav Ivić and José Mourinho are Porto's most decorated head coaches, each with two international titles. Former Portuguese international goalkeeper and club captain Vítor Baía holds the record for the most appearances in international competitions, while Colombian striker Radamel Falcao is the club's top goalscorer, with 22 goals.
Porto first participated in international club competitions in 1956, when they took part in the second edition of the European Cup. Qualification for this competition – contested between Europe's national champions – was achieved after Porto secured their fourth Primeira Divisão title in the previous season, their debut was in a preliminary round tie against Spanish champions Atlético Bilbao. At their new home ground, the Estádio das Antas, Porto lost the first match 2–1 and were eliminated a week in Bilbao, after a 3–2 defeat. Porto returned to this tournament two years but fell at the same stage. After three seasons without qualifying for European competitions, Porto finished the 1961–62 league as runners-up and entered the non-UEFA-affiliated Inter-Cities Fairs Cup for the first time in 1962–63, they were knocked out in the first round by Dinamo Zagreb, who secured a draw in Yugoslavia after winning in Portugal. Porto failed to advance past the first round; the Cup Winners' Cup was a UEFA competition open to domestic cup winners.
Porto qualified for this tournament for the first time in 1964–65, after losing the 1964 Portuguese Cup final against champions Benfica. Porto progressed from the first round of a European competition for the first time, after a 4–0 aggregate victory over French Cup winners Lyon, but fell in the next round to 1860 Munich. At the end of that season, Porto finished runners-up to Benfica in the league and qualified for the following season's Fairs Cup; the club's performance was similar to that of the previous campaign: a first-round elimination of a French team followed by a second-round loss to a German team, which included a 5–0 away defeat that was, at the time, Porto's heaviest in Europe. They took part in the Fairs Cup in the following two seasons, but could not progress beyond the first round. In the first case, Porto were eliminated by the flip of a coin, after extra-time was not enough to break the deadlock with Bordeaux. In 1968, the club won qualified for the 1968 -- 69 Cup Winners' Cup.
As in previous years, they were unable to get past the second round, losing 4–1 on aggregate to Slovan Bratislava. Porto's last participation in the Fairs Cup, in 1969–70 ended in the second round, with a defeat against holders Newcastle United. Domestically, Porto finished the league in an all-time low ninth place, thus failing to qualify for European competition in the 1970–71 season, they returned the following season to participate in the inaugural edition of the UEFA Cup, which replaced the Fairs Cup, but their debut against Nantes led to another premature exit. Porto returned to this tournament in four of the following five seasons, the exception being 1973–74, when it failed qualification for European competitions. In the first of those seasons, Porto reached the third round of a European competition for the first time, but were eliminated by Dynamo Dresden, they beat Barcelona in the first round, in what was the teams' first European encounter and the only time Porto eliminated the Spanish side from European competitions.
In the 1975–76 UEFA Cup, Porto were again eliminated in the third round, but in the process they beat Luxembourg's Avenir Beggen with a club record home and aggregate win scores. In the first round of the
The 1978 Cincinnati Reds season was a season in American baseball. The Reds finished in second place in the National League West with a record of 92-69, 2½ games behind the Los Angeles Dodgers; the Reds played their home games at Riverfront Stadium. Following the season, Anderson was replaced as manager by John McNamara, Pete Rose left to sign with the Philadelphia Phillies for the 1979 season. October 31, 1977: Woodie Fryman and Bill Caudill were traded by the Reds to the Chicago Cubs for Bill Bonham. October 31, 1977: Joe Henderson was purchased from the Reds by the Toronto Blue Jays. December 9, 1977: Dave Collins was acquired by the Reds from the Seattle Mariners for Shane Rawley. February 25, 1978: Dave Revering and cash were traded by the Reds to the Oakland Athletics for Doug Bair. In honor of Saint Patrick's Day, Reds general manager Dick Wagner had green versions of the Reds' uniforms made; the Reds hosted the New York Yankees at Al Lopez Field on March 17, 1978. This was the first time a major league team wore green trimmed uniforms on March 17, a practice adopted in subsequent years by multiple major league teams.
During the season, Pete Rose tied the National League record with a 44-game hitting streak held by Willie Keeler. The streak began on June 14, came to an end on August 1. On June 16, 1978 at Riverfront Stadium, Tom Seaver recorded a 4-0 no-hitter against the St. Louis Cardinals, it was the only no-hitter of his professional career. June 6, 1978: 1978 Major League Baseball draft Skeeter Barnes was drafted by the Reds in the 16th round. Player signed June 8, 1978. Otis Nixon did not sign. May 19, 1978: Dale Murray was traded by the Reds to the New York Mets for Ken Henderson. On May 5, 1978, Rose became the 13th and youngest player in major league history to collect his 3,000th career hit, with a single off Expos pitcher Steve Rogers. On June 14 in Cincinnati, Rose singled in the first inning off Cubs pitcher Dave Roberts; the streak started but by the time it had reached 30 games, the media took notice and a pool of reporters accompanied Rose and the Reds to every game. On July 19 against the Phillies, Rose was hitless going into the ninth with his team trailing.
He ended up walking and the streak appeared over. But the Reds managed to bat through their entire lineup. Facing Ron Reed, Rose laid down a perfect bunt single to extend the streak to 32 games, he tied Willie Keeler's single season National League record at 44 games. The competitive Rose was sour after the game, blasting Garber and the Braves for treating the situation "like it was the ninth inning of the 7th game of the World Series" and adding that "Phil Niekro would have given me a fastball to hit." Note: Pos = Position. = Batting average. = Batting average. The Encyclopedia of Minor League Baseball. Durham, North Carolina: Baseball America. ISBN 978-0-9637189-8-3