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Royal Aeronautical Society

The Royal Aeronautical Society known as the RAeS, is a British multi-disciplinary professional institution dedicated to the global aerospace community. Founded in 1866, it is the oldest aeronautical society in the world. Fellows and Companions of the society can use the post-nominal letters CRAeS, respectively; the objectives of The Royal Aeronautical Society include: to support and maintain high professional standards in aerospace disciplines. The Royal Aeronautical Society is a worldwide society with an international network of 67 branches. Many practitioners of aerospace disciplines use the Society's designatory post-nominals such as FRAeS, CRAeS, MRAeS, AMRAeS, ARAeS; the RAeS headquarters is located in the United Kingdom. The staff of the Royal Aeronautical Society are based at the Society's headquarters at No. 4 Hamilton Place, London, W1J 7BQ. The headquarters is on the north-east edge of Hyde Park Corner, with the nearest access being Hyde Park Corner tube station. In addition to offices for its staff the building is used for Royal Aeronautical Society conferences and events and parts of the building are available on a private hire basis for events.

The Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society: ISSN 0368-3931 The Aeronautical Quarterly: Aerospace: Aerospace International: ISSN 1467-5072 The Aerospace Professional: The Aeronautical Journal: ISSN 0001-9240 The Journal of Aeronautical History: AEROSPACE: ISSN 2052-451X Branches are the regional embodiment of the Society. They deliver membership benefits and provide a global platform for the dissemination of aerospace information; as of September 2013, branches located in the United Kingdom include: Belfast, Boscombe Down, Brough, Cardiff, Christchurch, Cranfield, Derby, FAA Yeovilton, Gatwick, Gloucester & Cheltenham, Heathrow, Isle of Wight, Isle of Man, Manchester, Medway, Preston, Sheffield, Southend, Swindon and Yeovil. The RAeS international branch network includes: Adelaide, Blenheim, Brussels, Canterbury, Dublin, Hamilton, Hong Kong, Melbourne, Munich, Palmerston North, Perth, Singapore, Sydney and the UAE. Divisions of the Society have been formed in countries and regions that can sustain a number of Branches.

Divisions operate with a large degree of autonomy, being responsible for their own branch network, membership recruitment, subscription levels and lecture programmes. Specialist Groups covering all facets of the aerospace industry exist under the overall umbrella of the Society, with the aim of serving the interests of both enthusiasts and industry professionals; the Groups' remit is to consider significant developments in their field, they attempt to achieve this through their conferences and lectures, with the intention of stimulating debate and facilitating action on key industry issues in order to reflect and respond to the constant innovation and progress in aviation. The Groups act as focal points for all enquiries to the Society concerning their specialist subject matter, forming a crucial interface between the Society and the world in general; as of September 2013, the Specialist Group committees are as follows: Aerodynamics, Aerospace Medicine, Air Power, Air Law, Air Transport, Airworthiness & Maintenance, Avionics & Systems, Flight Operations, Flight Simulation, Flight Test, General Aviation, Greener by Design, Human Factors, Human Powered Flight, Rotorcraft, Structures & Materials, UAS, Weapons Systems & Technologies, Women in Aviation & Aerospace.

In 2009, the Royal Aeronautical Society formed a group of experts to document how to better simulate aircraft upset conditions, thus improve training programs. The Society was founded in January 1866 with the name "The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain" and is the oldest aeronautical society in the world. Early or founding members included James Glaisher, Francis Wenham, the Duke of Argyll, Frederick Brearey. In the first year, there were 65 members, at the end of the second year, 91 members, in the third year, 106 members. Annual reports were produced in the first decades. In 1868 the Society held a major exhibition at London's Crystal Palace with 78 entries. John Stringfellow's steam engine was shown there; the Society sponsored the first wind tunnel in 1870-71, designed by Browning. In 1918, the organization's name was changed to the Royal Aeronautical Society. In 1923 its principal journal was renamed from The Aeronautical Journal to The Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society and in 1927 the Institution of Aeronautical Engineers Journal was merged into it.

In 1940, the RAeS responded to the wartime need to expand the aircraft industry. The Society established a Technical Department to bring together the best available knowledge and present it in an authoritative and accessible form – a working tool for engineers who might come from other industries and lack the specialised knowledge required for aircraft design; this technical department became known as the Engineering Sciences Data Unit and became a separate entity in the 1980s. In 1987 the'Society of Licensed Aircraft Engineers and Technologists' called the'Society of Licensed Aircraft Engineers' was incorporated into the Royal Aeronautical Society; the follow

33rd Indian Infantry Brigade

The 33rd Indian Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade of the British Indian Army that saw active service in the Indian Army during the Second World War, notably in the Burma Campaign. The 33rd Indian Infantry Brigade was formed at Campbellpore in India; the brigade was assigned to the 7th Indian Infantry Division until July 1942, when it was attached to the North Western Army. It returned to the 7th Division in December 1942, took part in the Burma Campaign. Between April and May 1944, it was corps reserve for XXXIII Indian Corps and was attached to the 5th Indian Infantry Division in March 1945; the rest of the war it was under 7th Division command. The brigade included the following units: 4th Battalion, 5th Gurkha Rifles October 1941 to January 1944 4th Battalion, 10th Gurkha Rifles October to December 1941 4th Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment April 1942 to August 1945 4th Battalion, 8th Gurkha Rifles May to October 1942 4th Battalion, 1st Gurkha Rifles February 1944 to August 1945 1st Battalion, Queen's Royal Regiment December 1942 to September 1944 and April to August 1945 1st Battalion, 11th Sikh Regiment March to April 1944 1st Battalion, Burma Regiment May 1944 to April 1945 2nd Battalion, South Lancashire Regiment February 1945 2nd Battalion, 8th Punjab Regiment May 1945 1st Battalion, 19th Hyderabad Regiment May 1945 The brigade had the following commanders in the Second World War: List of Indian Army Brigades in World War II Kempton, Chris.'Loyalty & Honour', The Indian Army September 1939 – August 1947.

Part II Brigades. Milton Keynes: The Military Press. ISBN 0-85420-238-2. "33 Indian Brigade". Orders of Battle.com

Intute

Intute was a free Web service aimed at students and researchers in UK further education and higher education. Intute provided access via a large database of resources; each resource was reviewed by an academic specialist in the subject, who wrote a short review of between 100 and 200 words, described via various metadata fields what type of resource it was, who created it, who its intended audience was, what time-period or geographical area the resource covered, so on. As of July 2010, Intute provided 123,519 records. Funding was stopped in 2011, the site closed. A partial archive of the Intute library is maintained at XtLearn.net Intute was formed in July 2006 after the merger of the eight semi-autonomous "hubs" that formed the Resource Discovery Network. These hubs each served particular academic disciplines: Altis - Hospitality, leisure and tourism Artifact - Arts and creative industries Biome - Health and life sciences EEVL - Engineering and computing GEsource - Geography and the environment Humbul - Humanities PSIgate - Physical sciences SOSIG - Social sciencesThe restructuring and rebranding was undertaken to create a service with a more uniform identity and appearance, better cross-searching facilities, more focused technical and management teams.

As part of the restructuring, the eight RDN hubs were reorganised into four subject groups. This process incorporated the Virtual Training Suite, a series of continually updated, free online Internet training tutorials for over 65 subject areas; the Intute service was geographically distributed, with staff based at several UK universities. University of Birmingham University of Bristol Heriot-Watt University University of Manchester Manchester Metropolitan University University of Nottingham University of Oxford University College BirminghamIn July 2010, funding for Intute was reduced and the Consortium was disbanded. Intute was maintained by Mimas at the University of Manchester, the Virtual Training Suite was maintained and developed by the Institute for Learning and Research Technology at the University of Bristol; the Intute.ac.uk service ended July 2011. The educational social bookmarking service XtLearn.net now maintains an unofficial archive of the majority of the Intute content set. Intute was funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee.

Some of the subject groups received funding from the Arts and Humanities Research Council and the Economic and Social Research Council. The Wellcome Trust was a partner of Intute: Health and Life Sciences and contributed content to this section. In 2010, funding from Jisc was reduced, ceased in August 2011. In July of that year Intute stopped updating and maintaining the site, it remained available on the Internet without maintenance for three years beyond that. Intute looked for ways to fold its content into some other service but none were found. Intute's online database could be browsed using a standard Web browser; the database contained 123,519 records. Old records were reviewed by subject experts to ensure that information was as current as possible; the advanced search engine enabled users to search the database by keyword, subject, or resource type, whilst the browse structure enabled time period and resource type filtering, as well as the ability to restrict searches to within particular browse headings.

The Intute Integration tools enabled users to customise and export Intute content to their own web pages or VLEs. This included an embedded search box and MyIntute. Machine-readable interfaces to the database were available using the Z39.50, Search/Retrieve Web Service and OAI-PMH protocols. Intute was awarded the 2007 Jason Farradane Award in recognition of its outstanding work in the field of information science; the award was made on behalf of the UK eInformation Group, part of the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals. It is sponsored by the Journal of Information Science, published by SAGE Publications. Slainte.org, Harrison, N. J. 2009. "Gateway to engineering". Information Scotland. P10. Cilip.org.uk, Harrison, N. J. and Place, E. 2009. "The best of the web". Library and Information Update. Pp 48–50. Edinburghlibrariesagency.info, Harrison, N. J. 2008. "Raising the profile: Intute Engineering Online Library". TACIT. Mimas.ac.uk, Charnock, L. 2008. Intute: Informs Accessibility".

Focus on Mimas, Issue 37, September. Intute archive page XtLearn.net - Archive of Intute Library MIMAS Joint Information Systems Committee

First Unitarian Society of Minneapolis

First Unitarian Society of Minneapolis is a Unitarian Universalist congregation located at 900 Mount Curve, Minnesota. In the 1870s, the Minneapolis chapter of the National Liberal League began meeting to discuss the ideas of geologist Charles Lyell and naturalist Charles Darwin. Upon hearing visiting Unitarian minister Henry Martyn Simmons lecture, eighteen members of the Liberal League voted to incorporate as a Unitarian congregation on November 18, 1881 so that Simmons would join them in Minneapolis; the articles of incorporation defined the Society's purpose as to form an association where "people without regard to theological differences may unite for mutual helpfulness in intellectual and religious culture, humane work." The sermons of Rev. Simmons on evolution and ethics drew large crowds. Simmons was a vocal opponent of the U. S. invasion of the Philippines and the congregation was instrumental in convincing the state of Minnesota to withdraw its troops from the war. The Society's first building, designed by noted architect Leroy Buffington, was dedicated in June 1887.

The Society has always attracted progressive social activists. Congregants made clothes for the needy; the Women's Alliance of the congregation funded a free delivery room for unwed mothers at the Maternity Hospital of physician and social reformer Martha Ripley. Two congregants, Maud Conkey Stockwell and Clara Ueland, served as president of the Minnesota Woman Suffrage Association from 1901-1919. After voting rights had been achieved, the organization became the Minnesota League of Women Voters, with Clara Ueland as its first president. Beginning in 1906, the congregation sponsored the Saturday Lunch Club called the "university for progressive ideas." Lecturers included Clarence Darrow, John Haynes Holmes, Minnesota Governor Floyd B. Olson, Louis Brandeis. In 1916, the Society called John H. Dietrich as its minister. Dietrich is considered the father of "Religious Humanism," a secularization of the Sunday morning liturgical experience. Dietrich's talks proved so popular that services were moved to the Garrick Theater in downtown Minneapolis and to another large downtown theater, the Shubert, to accommodate the audiences that exceeded 1,000.

Dietrich's talks were published as pamphlets. In 1917, Dietrich met Curtis W. Reese, another midwestern Unitarian minister, advancing similar humanistic ideals, they formed the core of a growing number of Humanist ministers among Unitarian clergy. This movement led to the publication of A Humanist Manifesto in 1933. One of the principal authors of Manifesto I was Rev. Raymond Bragg, who would succeed John Dietrich as minister of the Society; the Society outgrew its Harmon Place building and built the Unitarian Center at 1526 Harmon Place in 1926. Sunday assemblies were still held in downtown theaters. In 1929, the Society's Women's Alliance formed the American Birth Control League after sponsoring a lecture by Margaret Sanger. In 1930, the League opened the first birth control clinic in the state, which became Planned Parenthood of Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota. During the Great Depression the Society was instrumental in forming the Humanist Credit Union, which became part of the Group Health Plan, Inc. and Group Health in 1957 before becoming HealthPartners, Inc. today the nation's largest health co-op.

The Society hosted the Minneapolis Theatre Union which, in collaboration with the Society's own acting group, the Assembly Players, produced plays concerning union organizing and liberal causes of the day. For example, the group raised money for the Scottsboro Defense Fund. In the 1940s, when cremation was not available, members formed the Minnesota chapter of Funeral Consumers Alliance. In 1951, the Society moved into its present building at 900 Mount Curve Avenue in urban Minneapolis. Designed by the architectural firm of Thorshov and Cerny, the building reflects the humanist values of the congregation in its minimalist design and absence of religious symbols; the progressive activism of the Society continued. From 1966 through 1978, the Society's minister, Robert Lehman, offered draft counseling and facilitated support groups for gay men. Public assembly of gay people was illegal in the state at the time. Minister Khoren Arisian participated in the formation of the North American Committee for Humanism and the establishment of the Humanist Institute, a national training center for humanist leadership.

Rev. Arisian was a signer of Humanist Manifesto II. First Unitarian Society remains a humanist congregation and is a focal point for humanist and atheist groups in the Twin Cities. Henry Martyn Simmons, 1881-1905 E. Stanton Hodgin, 1905-1909 Wilson Backus, 1910-1916 John H. Dietrich, 1916-1938 Raymond Bragg, 1938-1947 Carl Storm, 1947-1965 Robert Lehman, 1965-1978 Khoren Arisian, 1979-1997 Anne Heller, 1990-1994 Kendyl Gibbons, 1998-2012 David Breeden, 2013- First Unitarian Society of Minneapolis official website First Unitarian Society archives Dietrich, John H; the Humanist Pulpit, 1927-34. OCLC 608691071. Seaburg, John Hassler Dietrich, retrieved Oct 5, 2015

River Out of Eden

River Out of Eden: A Darwinian View of Life is a 1995 popular science book by Richard Dawkins. The book is about Darwinian evolution and summarizes the topics covered in his earlier books, The Selfish Gene, The Extended Phenotype and The Blind Watchmaker, it is Dawkins's shortest book. It is illustrated by Dawkins's wife; the book's name is derived from Genesis 2:10 relating to the Garden of Eden. The King James Version reads "And a river went out of Eden to water the garden. River Out of Eden has five chapters; the first chapter lays down the framework on which the rest of the book is built, that life is like a river of genes flowing through geological time where organisms are mere temporary bodies. The second chapter shows how human ancestry can be traced via many gene pathways to different most recent common ancestors, with special emphasis on the African Eve; the third chapter describes how gradual enhancement via natural selection is the only mechanism which can create the observed complexity of nature.

The fourth chapter describes the indifference of genes towards organisms they build and discard, as they maximise their own utility functions. The last chapter summarises milestones during the evolution of life on Earth and speculates on how similar processes may work in alien planetary systems. Dawkins begins the book by stating that all our ancestors reached adulthood and begot at least one child before they died. In a world where most organisms die before they can procreate, descendants are common but ancestors are rare, but we can all claim an unbroken chain of successful ancestors, right back to the first single-celled organism. If the success of an organism is measured by its ability to survive and reproduce all living organisms can be said to have inherited "good genes" from successful ancestors; each generation of organisms is a sieve against which mutated genes are tested. Good genes fall through the sieve into the next generation; this explains why organisms become better and better at whatever it takes to succeed, is in stark contrast to Lamarckism, which would require successful organisms to refine their genes during their lifetime.

Following this gene-centered view of evolution, it can be argued that an organism is no more than a temporary body in which a set of companion genes co-operate toward a common goal: to grow the organism into adulthood, before they go their separate ways in bodies of the organism's progeny. Bodies are created and discarded, but good genes live on as replicas of themselves, a result of a high-fidelity copy process typical of digital encoding. Through meiosis, genes share bodies with different companion genes in successive generations, thus genes can be said to flow in a river through geological time. Though genes are selfish, over the long run every gene needs to be compatible with all other genes in the gene pool of a population of organisms, to produce successful organisms. A river of genes may fork due to the geographical separation between two populations of organisms; because genes in the two branches never share the same bodies, they may drift apart until genes from the two branches become incompatible.

Organisms created by these two branches form separate, non-interbreeding species, completing the process of speciation. When tracing human lineage back in time, most people look at parents, great-grandparents and so on; the same approach is taken when tracing descendants via children and grandchildren. Dawkins shows that this approach is misguided, as the numbers of ancestors and descendants seem to grow exponentially as generations are added to the lineage tree. In just 80 generations, the number of ancestors can exceed a trillion trillion; this simple calculation does not take into account the fact that every marriage is a marriage between distant cousins which include second cousins, fourth cousins, sixteenth cousins and so on. The ancestry tree is not a tree, but a graph. Dawkins prefers to model ancestry in terms of genes flowing through a river of time. An ancestor gene flows down the river either as perfect replicas of itself or as mutated descendant genes. Dawkins fails to explicitly contrast ancestor organism and descendant organisms against ancestor genes and descendant genes in this chapter.

But the first half of the chapter is about differences between these two models of lineage. While organisms have ancestry graphs and progeny graphs via sexual reproduction, a gene has a single chain of ancestors and a tree of descendants. Given any gene in the body of an organism, we can trace a single chain of ancestor organisms back in time, following the lineage of this one gene, as stated in the coalescent theory; because a typical organism is built from tens of thousands of genes, there are numerous ways to trace the ancestry of organisms using this mechanism. But all these inheritance pathways share one common feature. If we start with all humans alive in 1995 and trace their ancestry by one particular gene, we find that the farther we move back in time, the smaller the number of ancestors become; the pool of ancestors continues to shrink until we find the most recent common ancestor of all humans alive in 1995 via this particular gene pathway. In theory, one can trace human ancestry via a single chromosome, as a chromosome contains a set of genes and is passed down from parents to children via independent assortment from only one of the two parents.

But genetic recombination mixes genes from non-sister chromatids from both parents during meiosis, thus muddling the ancestry path. However, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA

Auditor independence

Auditor independence refers to the independence of the internal auditor or of the external auditor from parties that may have a financial interest in the business being audited. Independence requires an objective approach to the audit process; the concept requires the auditor to carry out his or her work and in an objective manner. Independence of the internal auditor means independence from parties whose interests might be harmed by the results of an audit. Specific internal management issues are inadequate risk management, inadequate internal controls, poor governance; the Charter of Audit and the reporting to an Audit Committee provides independence from management, the code of ethics of the company helps give guidance on independence form suppliers, third parties, etc. Independence of the external auditor means independence from parties that have an interest in the results published in financial statements of an entity; the support from and relation to the Audit Committee of the client company, the contract and the contractual reference to public accounting standards/codes provides independence from management, the code of ethics of the Public Accountant profession) helps give guidance on independence form suppliers, third parties...

Internal and external concerns are convoluted when nominally independent divisions of a firm provide auditing and consulting services. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is a legal reaction to such problems; this article deals with the independence of the statutory auditor. For the independence of the Internal Audit, see Chief audit executive, articles "Independent attitude" and "organisational independence", or organizational independence analysed by the IIA; the purpose of an audit is to enhance the credibility of financial statements by providing written reasonable assurance from an independent source that they present a true and fair view in accordance with an accounting standard. This objective will not be met if users of the audit report believe that the auditor may have been influenced by other parties, more company managers/directors or by conflicting interests. In addition to technical competence, auditor independence is the most important factor in establishing the credibility of the audit opinion.

Auditor independence is referred to as the cornerstone of the auditing profession since it is the foundation of the public's trust in the accounting profession. Since 2000, a wave of high-profile accounting scandals have cast the profession into the limelight, negatively affecting the public perception of auditor independence. There are three main ways. Programming independence Investigative independence Reporting independenceProgramming independence protects the auditor's ability to select the most appropriate strategy when conducting an audit. Auditors must be free to approach a piece of work; as a client company grows and conducts new activities, the auditor's approach will have to adapt to account for these. In addition, the auditing profession is a dynamic one, with new techniques being developed and upgraded which the auditor may decide to use; the strategy/proposed methods which the auditors intends to implement cannot be inhibited in any way. While programming independence protects auditors’ ability to select appropriate strategies, investigative independence protects the auditor's ability to implement the strategies in whatever manner they consider necessary.

Auditors must have unlimited access to all company information. Any queries regarding a company's business and accounting treatment must be answered by the company; the collection of audit evidence is an essential process, cannot be restricted in any way by the client company. Reporting independence protects the auditors’ ability to choose to reveal to the public any information they believe should be disclosed. If company directors have been misleading shareholders by falsifying accounting information, they will strive to prevent the auditors from reporting this, it is in situations like this when auditor independence is most to be compromised. There are two important aspects to independence which must be distinguished from each other: independence in fact and independence in appearance. Together, both forms are essential to achieve the goals of independence. Real independence refers to independence of the auditor known as independence of mind. More real independence concerns the state of mind an auditor is in, how the auditor acts in/deals with a specific situation.

An auditor, independent'in fact' has the ability to make independent decisions if there is a perceived lack of independence present, or if the auditor is placed in a compromising position by company directors. Many difficulties lie in determining whether an auditor is independent, since it is impossible to observe and measure a person's mental attitude and personal integrity. An auditor's objectivity must be beyond question, but how can this be guaranteed and measurement, but appears independent too. If an auditor is in fact independent, but one or more factors suggest otherwise, this could lead to the public concluding that the audit report does not represent a true and fair view. Independence in appearances reduces the opportunity for an auditor to act otherwise than independently, which subsequently adds credibility to the audit report. An auditor earns a living from the fee, it is therefore automatic that he does not want to do