Royal Canadian Navy

The Royal Canadian Navy is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the unified Canadian Armed Forces; as of 2017, The Royal Canadian Navy operates 12 frigates, 4 attack submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels and 8 patrol/training vessels, as well as several auxiliary vessels. The Royal Canadian Navy consists of 8,500 Regular Force and 5,100 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 5,300 civilians. Vice-Admiral Art McDonald is the current Commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and Chief of the Naval Staff. Founded in 1910 as the Naval Service of Canada and given royal sanction on 29 August 1911, the Royal Canadian Navy was amalgamated with the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Canadian Army to form the unified Canadian Armed Forces in 1968, after which it was known as Maritime Command until 2011. In 2011, its historical title of "Royal Canadian Navy" was restored. Over the course of its history, the RCN has served in the First and Second World Wars, the Korean War, the Persian Gulf War, the War in Afghanistan and numerous United Nations peacekeeping missions and NATO operations.

Established following the introduction of the Naval Service Act by Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier, the Naval Service of Canada was intended as a distinct naval force for Canada, should the need arise, could be placed under British control. The bill received royal assent on 4 May 1910. Equipped with two former Royal Navy vessels, HMCS Niobe and HMCS Rainbow, King George V granted permission for the service to be known as the Royal Canadian Navy on 29 August 1911. During the first years of the First World War, the RCN's six-vessel naval force patrolled both the North American west and east coasts to deter the German naval threat, with a seventh ship, HMCS Shearwater joining the force in 1915. Just before the end of the war in 1918, the Royal Canadian Naval Air Service was established with the purpose of carrying out anti-submarine operations. After the war, the Royal Canadian Navy took over certain responsibilities of the Department of Transport's Marine Service, started to build its fleet, with the first warships designed for the RCN being commissioned in 1932.

At the outbreak of the Second World War, the Navy had 145 officers and 1,674 men. During the Second World War, the Royal Canadian Navy expanded ultimately gaining responsibility for the entire Northwest Atlantic theatre of war. During the Battle of the Atlantic, the RCN sank 31 U-boats and sank or captured 42 enemy surface vessels, while completing 25,343 merchant crossings; the Navy lost 1,797 sailors in the war. From 1950 to 1955, during the Korean War, Canadian destroyers maintained a presence off the Korean peninsula, engaging in shore bombardments and maritime interdiction. During the Cold War, the Navy developed an anti-submarine capability to counter the growing Soviet naval threat. In the 1960s, the Royal Canadian Navy retired most of its Second World War vessels, further developed its anti-submarine warfare capabilities by acquiring the Sikorsky CH-124 Sea King, pioneered the use of large maritime helicopters on small surface vessels. At that time, Canada was operating an aircraft carrier, HMCS Bonaventure, flying the McDonnell F2H Banshee fighter jet until 1962, as well as various other anti-submarine aircraft.

From 1964 through 1968, under the Liberal government of Lester B. Pearson, the Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army were amalgamated to form the unified Canadian Forces; this process was overseen by then–Defence Minister Paul Hellyer. The controversial merger resulted in the abolition of the Royal Canadian Navy as a separate legal entity. All personnel and aircraft became part of Maritime Command, an element of the Canadian Armed Forces; the traditional naval uniform was eliminated and all naval personnel were required to wear the new Canadian Armed Forces rifle green uniform, adopted by former Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army personnel. Ship-borne aircraft continued to be under the command of MARCOM, while shore-based patrol aircraft of the former Royal Canadian Air Force were transferred to MARCOM. In 1975 Air Command was formed and all maritime aircraft were transferred to Air Command's Maritime Air Group; the unification of the Canadian Forces in 1968 was the first time that a nation with a modern military combined its separate naval and air elements into a single service.

The 1970s saw the addition of four Iroquois-class destroyers, which were updated to air defence destroyers, in the late 1980s and 1990s the construction of twelve Halifax-class frigates and the purchase of the Victoria-class submarines. In 1990, Canada deployed three warships to support Operation Friction. In the decade, ships were deployed to patrol the Adriatic Sea during the Yugoslav Wars and the Kosovo War. More Maritime Command provided vessels to serve as a part of Operation Apollo and to combat piracy off the coast of Somalia. Following the Official Languages Act enshrinement in 1969, MARCOM instituted the French Language Unit, which constituted a francophone unit with the navy; the first was HMCS Ottawa. In the 1980s and 1990s, women were accepted into the fleet, with the submarine service the last to allow them, beginning in 2001; some of the changes that had taken place during the unification of the forces began to be undone. In 1985, MARCOM received new black uniforms. By 1990, the three senior naval officers of MARCOM had recreated the Naval Board.

On 16 August 2011, the government restor


Tinglish refers to any form of English mixed with or influenced by Thai. It is produced by native Thai speakers due to language interference from the first language. Differences from standard native English occur in pronunciation and grammar; the earliest term is Thailish, dating to 1970, then: Thainglish, Tinglish, Thinglish and Tenglish. Characteristics and examples include: omission of pronouns zero copula use of present tense + in contrast to past tense of Standard English non-standard use or omissions of articles, declension and conjugation. Addition of Thai final particles, e.g. I don’t know na any and every are used interchangeably different use of conditional constructions pronunciation of silent letters in a word omission of the consonant at the end of words ending in a diphthong and a consonant, for instance Mickey Mouse pronounced “Mickey Mao”, white wine pronounced “why why”, news pronounced “new”. Inserting vowel sounds into consonant clusters, for instance slow pronounced “sah-low” no use of double negatives /ɹ/ pronounced as /l/ ⟨th⟩ pronounced as /t/ using "N" to replace an "L" sound at the end of the word, for instance "school" pronounced "sah-koon" or "football" pronounced "futbon" moving "S" on singular verbs to the subject, for instance "He's talk too much" instead of "He talks too much" omission of prepositions, for instance "I wait you" instead of "I'll wait for you" or "I listen him" for "I listened to him".

"very" and "very much" are used interchangeably, for instance "I love my daughter" and "She beautiful much". Examples include: As some sounds in English don't exist in the Thai language, this affects the way native Thai speakers pronounce English words: Non-rhotic, e.g. more -> maw, gear -> gia, car -> kah. all syllables are stressed with the same intensity omits consonant clusters. "Mixed" is pronounced "mik". Final consonants are omitted or converted according to the rules of Thai pronunciation: l and r become n. Perversely, given the language constraints for d and l among the rules above, l can become r and d can become sh, for instance blood can become brush. If there is more than one consonant at the end of a syllable, only the first is pronounced, the others are omitted. "W" and "Y" sounds count as consonants, too. So, "count down" becomes "cow dow", "size" becomes "sigh" "sh" and "ch" sounds can be indistinguishable as the Thai language does not have the "sh" sound, e.g. ship/chip, sheep/cheap "v" sound is always replaced by "w" sound, e.g. "TV" is pronounced "tee-wee" and "video" is pronounced "wee-dee-oh".

"g" and "z" sounds are devoiced, e.g. dog -> dock, zoo -> sue "th" sound is replaced by "t" or "d" sound. The voiceless "th" is replaced by or, while the voiced "th" is replaced by, e.g. thin -> tin or ), through -> true, thank you -> tang kyou or, -> den. ambiguity between the short "e", as in "bled", a long "a", as in "blade" because both are pronounced as. "e " so cherry is pronounced chuhr-lee, error is pronounced err-rerIn Thai, certain consonants cannot occur as a consonant cluster. Such illicit clusters include those with sibilant sounds followed by obstruent sounds. In order to avoid such illicit forms, a short "a" sound is added between these consonants: start - sahtat sleep - sahleep speak - sahpeak snore - sahnore swim - sahwim school - sahkoon album - alabum'R' or'l' after another consonant may be omitted completely. Investigating Thai Loan Phonology, Sound Systems of English, LG.236, Lecture 8, Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Arts, Thammasat University, 8 Sep 2008

Pang Juan

Pang Juan was an ancient Chinese military general of the Wei state during the Warring States period. Pang Juan was a fellow student of Sun Bin and both of them studied military strategy together under the tutelage of the hermit Guiguzi, they developed a close friendship and became sworn brothers, while studying in seclusion with their teacher in mountainous regions. Pang left and ventured to the Wei state when he heard that King Hui of Wei was recruiting men of talent to serve him. Pang impressed the king with his proposals on policies to strengthen the Wei state and boldly asserted that he had the ability to help Wei conquer the other six major rival states; the king put him in charge of Wei's military forces. Pang led the Wei armies to victories in battles against smaller states such as Song, Lu and Zheng and became a respected figure in Wei. Pang invited Sun Bin to join him in serving the Wei state but he was secretly jealous of Sun because Sun learnt more from their teacher than him. Pang Juan framed Sun Bin on charges of treason and reported Sun to King Hui.

The king was furious, that he ordered Sun Bin to be executed. Pang pretended to plead for mercy on Sun's behalf and the king agreed to spare Sun's life. Sun had his kneecaps removed, becoming a cripple. Pang pretended to take pity on Sun and tried to trick him to compile his knowledge about military strategy into a book and kill him later, but some servants told Sun Bin the truth and Sun Bin discovered Pang's true intentions and feigned madness. Sun escaped from Wei with the help of officials from the Qi state and became an important strategist and statesman in Qi later. A struggle between Pang Juan and Sun Bin began, as each of them led his respective state's armies to attack the other. Pang Juan led the Wei army to attack the Zhao state and Zhao requested help from the Qi state. Sun Bin led the Qi army together with Tian Ji and proposed the strategy of "besieging Wei to rescue Zhao", luring Pang Juan to turn back to save Wei from the Qi army, hence lifting the siege on Zhao. At the Battle of Guiling, Pang Juan's forces were defeated in an ambush by Sun Bin's army.

Pang led the Wei army to attack the Han state and Sun Bin led the Qi forces to invade Wei to save Han. Sun used a strategy to lure Pang Juan's army to follow the Qi army by feigning defeat. Pang fell for the ruse and trailed Sun, where he noticed that the Qi army was shrinking in size. Pang was eager to defeat Sun Bin and he led a light cavalry unit in pursuit, but fell into an ambush by the Qi army in a narrow valley at the Battle of Maling; the Wei army suffered a crushing defeat and the Wei crown prince was captured by Qi forces, while Pang Juan committed suicide. In traditional folklore, Sun Bin carved the words "Pang Juan dies under this tree" on a tree at the ambush area; when Pang and his men arrived, he saw that there were carvings on the tree so he lit a torch for a closer look. At that moment, the Qi troops lying in ambush attacked and Pang Juan committed suicide under that tree. Pang Juan sometimes appears as a door god in Chinese and Taoist temples paired with Sun Bin. Baidu Baike