Naval architecture known as naval engineering, is an engineering discipline dealing with the engineering design process, shipbuilding and operation of marine vessels and structures. Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, development, design evaluation, preliminary design of the vessel, its detailed design, trials and maintenance, launching and dry-docking are the main activities involved. Ship design calculations are required for ships being modified. Naval architecture involves formulation of safety regulations and damage control rules, the word vessel includes every description of watercraft, including non-displacement craft, WIG craft and seaplanes, used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water. The principal elements of architecture are, Hydrostatics concerns the conditions to which the vessel is subjected to while at rest in water. This involves computing buoyancy, and other properties, such as trim. Hydrodynamics concerns the flow of water around the hull and stern.
Resistance – resistance towards motion in water primarily caused due to flow of water around the hull, powering calculation is done based on this. Propulsion – to move the vessel through water using propellers, water jets, engine types are mainly internal combustion. Some vessels are powered using nuclear or solar energy. Ship motions – involves motions of the vessel in seaway and its responses in waves, controllability – involves controlling and maintaining position and direction of the vessel. Arrangements involves concept design and access, fire protection, allocation of spaces, construction depends on the material used. Other joining techniques are used for materials like fibre reinforced plastic. Traditionally, naval architecture has been more craft than science, the suitability of a vessels shape was judged by looking at a half-model of a vessel or a prototype. Ungainly shapes or abrupt transitions were frowned on as being flawed and this included rigging, deck arrangements, and even fixtures.
Subjective descriptors such as ungainly and fine were used as a substitute for the precise terms used today. A vessel was, and still is described as having a ‘fair’ shape and these tools are used for static stability, dynamic stability, powering, hull development, structural analysis, green water modelling, and slamming analysis. Data is regularly shared in international conferences sponsored by RINA, Society of Naval Architects, computational Fluid Dynamics is being applied to predict the response of a floating body in a random sea
Royal University of Ireland
The Royal University of Ireland was founded in accordance with the University Education Act 1879 as an examining and degree-awarding university based on the model of the University of London. A Royal Charter was issued on 27 April 1880 and examinations were opened to candidates irrespective of attendance at college lectures, the first chancellor was the Irish chemist Robert Kane. The university became the first university in Ireland that could grant degrees to women on a par with those granted to men, in 1888 Letitia Alice Walkington had the distinction of becoming the first woman in Great Britain or Ireland to receive a degree of Bachelor of Laws. Among the honorary degree recipients of the university was Douglas Hyde, founder of the Gaelic League and President of Ireland, in addition to the Queens Colleges, Magee College, University College, Cecillia St. Medical School, St. Patricks College and Blackrock College presented students for examinations as well, in fact, many schools, including convent schools prepared students for the examinations of the Royal University.
The professorships and Senate of the Royal University were shared equally between Roman Catholics and Protestants, colleges of the university maintained full independence except in the awarding of degrees, and the compilation and enforcement of academic regulations and standards. Thomas Joseph Campbell Arthur W. Conway – BA – President of University College Dublin, Éamon de Valera – Mathematics and President of Ireland Alexander Ernest Donnelly William Egan – M. B. Kathleen OCallaghan – A founder member of Cumann na mBan, agnes OFarrelly BA, MA – Professor of modern Irish in UCD James OMara BA – Irish Parliamentary Party MP, and Sinn Féin MP for Kilkenny South. Alice Oldham BA, campaigned for women to be admitted to Trinity College Dublin, the final conferring of the Royal University of Ireland in 1909 of 350 students was marred by demonstrations in favour of the Irish Language being compulsory for the new National University. Education, Higher - Ireland/Royal University of Ireland index of official documents digitised by Enhanced British Parliamentary Papers On Ireland
The Commonwealth Institute was established, as the Imperial Institute, by royal charter from Queen Victoria in 1888. Its name was changed to the Commonwealth Institute in 1958, the organisation in corporate form proved not to be viable and in 2002 the members resolved to close the operations and sell the property which was too costly for the charity to maintain. The name is no longer associated with the property in Kensington, no funding was given by Her Majestys Government. The Imperial Institute building was opened in 1893 by Queen Victoria, the Institutes early activities are detailed in its journals. This was effected in 1902 by statute with the Prince of Wales remaining as President of the Institute, the building and endowment fund set up from the initial collection were recognised as charity assets which were consequently vested in its Trustees. With its President as Trustee and as the responsible Minister, the Board of Trade was required to fulfil the purposes of the Institute, which remained unchanged.
Its purposes were reconfigured with a change in prominence from the exhibition galleries, the Imperial Institute was housed in a substantial and architecturally noted building of the same name on Exhibition Road, South Kensington, from 1893. The building was designed by T. E, collcutt and built by John Mowlem & Co from 1887 to 1894, and was paid for almost entirely by public subscription. At the time the responsible Minister was the Minister of Education, in 1962, the Commonwealth Institute moved to a distinctive copper-roofed building on Kensington High Street, immediately south of Holland Park. The building, designed by Robert Matthew Johnson-Marshall & Partners, was opened on Tuesday,6 November 1962, by Queen Elizabeth II. It was open to the public and contained a permanent exhibition about the nations of the Commonwealth, in addition to the exhibition, the Institute ran an important library of Commonwealth literature and hosted cultural and educational events. Later that year the building was given a Grade II* listing with associated restrictions on any building works or development possibilities, in 1989 a further estimate of £10m was given for more extensive refurbishment.
In 1993 the FCO announced that funding would cease completely in 1996 and this failed to attract further funds and in 2002 the countries decided it would cease its activities and the building would be sold. Funding of £3,996,435 was provided for specified works to the building incorporating comprehensive repairs to the roof, the arrangements included an indemnity in favour of the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs as responsible Minister. The Statutes governing the Institute were not repealed until 2003 when the remainder of the original Victorian endowment fund was released to the company without restrictions, by April 2002, the financial model of the Institute as a corporate entity had been recognised as not sustainable. A revised plan was put in place immediately and all funded activities were closed by the end of November, in late 2002 in a general meeting the members agreed to the disposal of the building and to the application of the proceeds to advancing education in the Commonwealth.
The Institute held a number of ethnographic objects and an art collection that had been acquired during the period from the opening of the Imperial Institute. From 1958 to 2003 these were under control of the responsible Minister under the legislation until 2003, the remainder are now held under trust by the Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery
University of Hull
The University of Hull is a public university in Kingston upon Hull, a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It was founded in 1927 as University College Hull, the main university campus is located in Hull and is home to the Hull York Medical School, a joint initiative with the University of York. Students are served by Hull University Union, the Universitys Brynmor Jones Library was the workplace of the poet Philip Larkin who served as its Head Librarian for over thirty years. The Philip Larkin Society organises activities in remembrance of Larkin including the Larkin 25 festival which was organised during 2010 in partnership with the University, andrew Motion, another prominent poet, and former poet laureate, worked at the university. Lord Wilberforce was chancellor of the University from 1978 until 1994, robert Armstrong was the chancellor from 1994 to 2006. Virginia Bottomley was installed as the current chancellor in April 2006, alumni of the University of Hull are especially prominent in the fields of politics, academia and drama.
The foundation stone of University College Hull, a college of the University of London, was laid in 1927 by Prince Albert. The college was built on donated by Hull City Council. A year the first 14 departments, in pure sciences, the college at that time consisted of one building, now named the Venn building. The building now houses the centre of the university. Other early buildings include the Cohen Building, which housed the college library. Another early structure was the Chemistry Building, built in 1953, with its origins in the 1920s, has been categorised as a younger civic university and it is placed between the redbricks and the plateglass universities founded in the 1960s. The universitys expansion in recent decades has seen the addition of a variety of building styles, from the older buildings, through 1960s teaching blocks. The first principal of the college was Arthur E. Morgan, the second was John H Nicholson, the university coat of arms was designed by Sir Algernon Tudor-Craig in 1928.
These symbols were reused to create the current university logo, the motto, Lampada Ferens, incorporates the name of the universitys founding father within a Latin pun. The college gained its Royal Charter in 1954, which empowered it to award degrees of its own, making it the university in Yorkshire. Within a year of the charter being granted applications to study at the new university had doubled, the academic authority and autonomy of the university is symbolically embodied in the ceremonial mace. Made of gilt silver, and incorporating devices from the Hull University coat of arms, as a gift from the city it reflects the close relationship between town and gown existing in Hull
H. G. Wells
Herbert George H. G. Wells was an English writer. He was prolific in many genres, including the novel, politics, social commentary, Wells is now best remembered for his science fiction novels and is called a father of science fiction, along with Jules Verne and Hugo Gernsback. His most notable science fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man and he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature four times. Wellss earliest specialised training was in biology, and his thinking on ethical matters took place in a specifically and fundamentally Darwinian context and he was from an early date an outspoken socialist, often sympathising with pacifist views. His works became increasingly political and didactic, and he wrote science fiction. A diabetic, in 1934, Wells co-founded the charity The Diabetic Association, Herbert George Wells was born at Atlas House,46 High Street in Bromley, Kent, on 21 September 1866. Called Bertie in the family, he was the fourth and last child of Joseph Wells and his wife, Sarah Neal.
An inheritance had allowed the family to acquire a shop in which they sold china and sporting goods, although it failed to prosper, the stock was old and worn out, and the location was poor. Joseph Wells managed to earn an income, but little of it came from the shop. Payment for skilled bowlers and batsmen came from voluntary donations afterwards, a defining incident of young Wellss life was an accident in 1874 that left him bedridden with a broken leg. To pass the time he started reading books from the local library and he soon became devoted to the other worlds and lives to which books gave him access, they stimulated his desire to write. Later that year he entered Thomas Morleys Commercial Academy, a school founded in 1849 following the bankruptcy of Morleys earlier school. The teaching was erratic, the curriculum mostly focused, Wells said, Wells continued at Morleys Academy until 1880. In 1877, his father, Joseph Wells, fractured his thigh, the accident effectively put an end to Josephs career as a cricketer, and his subsequent earnings as a shopkeeper were not enough to compensate for the loss of the primary source of family income.
No longer able to support financially, the family instead sought to place their sons as apprentices in various occupations. From 1880 to 1883, Wells had an apprenticeship as a draper at the Southsea Drapery Emporium. Wellss parents had a turbulent marriage, owing primarily to his mother being a Protestant, when his mother returned to work as a ladys maid, one of the conditions of work was that she would not be permitted to have living space for her husband and children. Thereafter and Joseph lived separate lives, though they never divorced and remained faithful to each other, as a consequence, Herberts personal troubles increased as he subsequently failed as a draper and also, later, as a chemists assistant
South Kensington is an affluent district of West London in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea and the City of Westminster. It is a built-up area 2.4 miles west- south-west of Charing Cross and it is hard to define boundaries for South Kensington, but a common definition is the commercial area around the South Kensington tube station and the adjacent garden squares and streets. Although the postcode SW7 mainly covers South Kensington, some parts of Knightsbridge are covered, neighbouring the equally affluent centres of Knightsbridge and Kensington, South Kensington covers some of the most exclusive real estate in the world. It is home to numbers of French expatriates, but Spanish, American. There are several French bookshops and cafes in the area and is sometimes referred to as Paris’s 21st arrondissement. Two London Underground stations are located in South Kensington, South Kensington, the area was largely undeveloped until the mid-19th century, being an agricultural area supplying London with fruit and vegetables.
The area is the subject of Donovans song Sunny South Kensington, California was given that name in 1911 by Robert Brousefield, an American surveyor who at an ealier time lived in the British South Kensington. Notable residents have included, Sir Henry Cole, campaigner and first director of the South Kensington Museum, charles Booth, pioneer of social research, lived at 6 Grenville Place. George Wallis, FSA, museum curator and art educator and his children, including Whitworth Wallis and Rosa Wallis. Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree, actor-manager, lived at 31 Rosary Gardens. Sir J M Barrie and novelist, author of Peter Pan, virginia Woolf and her sister Vanessa Bell and interior designer, lived at 22 Hyde Park Gate until 1904. Francis Bacon, Irish-born British artist, lived at 17 Queensberry Mews and 7 Reese Mews, benny Hill, lived at 1 &2 Queens Gate. Nicholas Freeman, OBE, controversial Leader of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, lived in Harrington Gardens, dennis Gabor, electrical engineer and physicist, most notable for inventing holography,1971 Nobel Prize in Physics.
Peter Finch, English-born distinguished Australian actor, won 5 BAFTA acting awards and he was the first person to win a posthumous Academy Award in an acting category
Albert, Prince Consort
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the husband of Queen Victoria. He was born in the Saxon duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld to a family connected to many of Europes ruling monarchs, at the age of 20, he married his first cousin, Queen Victoria, they had nine children. He was heavily involved with the organisation of the Great Exhibition of 1851, the Queen came to depend more and more on his support and guidance. Albert died at the young age of 42, plunging the Queen into deep mourning for the rest of her life. Upon Queen Victorias death in 1901, their eldest son succeeded as Edward VII, Albert was born at Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, the second son of Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and his first wife, Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Alberts future wife, was earlier in the same year with the assistance of the same midwife. Albert was baptised into the Lutheran Evangelical Church on 19 September 1819 in the Marble Hall at Schloss Rosenau with water taken from the local river, in 1825, Alberts great-uncle, Frederick IV, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, died.
His death led to a realignment of Saxon duchies the following year and Alberts father became the first reigning duke of Saxe-Coburg and his elder brother, spent their youth in a close companionship marred by their parents turbulent marriage and eventual separation and divorce. After their mother was exiled from court in 1824, she married her lover, Alexander von Hanstein, Count of Polzig and she presumably never saw her children again, and died of cancer at the age of 30 in 1831. The brothers were educated privately at home by Christoph Florschütz and studied in Brussels, like many other German princes, Albert attended the University of Bonn, where he studied law, political economics and the history of art. He played music and excelled at sport, especially fencing and riding and his tutors at Bonn included the philosopher Fichte and the poet Schlegel. By 1836, the idea of marriage between Albert and his cousin, had arisen in the mind of their ambitious uncle Leopold, at this time, Victoria was the heiress presumptive to the British throne.
Her father, Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent, the son of King George III, had died when she was a baby. Her mother the Duchess of Kent, was the sister of both Alberts father—the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha—and King Leopold. Leopold arranged for his sister, Victorias mother, to invite the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, William IV, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander, second son of the Prince of Orange. Victoria was well aware of the matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes. Alexander, on the hand, she described as very plain. Victoria wrote to her uncle Leopold to thank him for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me and he possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy
Victoria and Albert Museum
The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, is the worlds largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4.5 million objects. It was founded in 1852 and named after Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and these include the Natural History Museum, the Science Museum and the Royal Albert Hall. The museum is a public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media. Like other national British museums, entrance to the museum has been free since 2001, the V&A covers 12.5 acres and 145 galleries. Its collection spans 5,000 years of art, from ancient times to the present day, from the cultures of Europe, North America and North Africa. The museum owns the worlds largest collection of sculpture, with the holdings of Italian Renaissance items being the largest outside Italy. The departments of Asia include art from South Asia, Japan, the East Asian collections are among the best in Europe, with particular strengths in ceramics and metalwork, while the Islamic collection is amongst the largest in the Western world.
Overall, it is one of the largest museums in the world, New 17th- and 18th-century European galleries were opened on 9 December 2015. These restored the original Aston Webb interiors and host the European collections 1600–1815, at this stage the collections covered both applied art and science. Several of the exhibits from the Exhibition were purchased to form the nucleus of the collection, by February 1854 discussions were underway to transfer the museum to the current site and it was renamed South Kensington Museum. In 1855 the German architect Gottfried Semper, at the request of Cole, produced a design for the museum, but it was rejected by the Board of Trade as too expensive. The site was occupied by Brompton Park House, this was extended including the first refreshment rooms opened in 1857, the official opening by Queen Victoria was on 22 June 1857. In the following year, late night openings were introduced, made possible by the use of gas lighting, in these early years the practical use of the collection was very much emphasised as opposed to that of High Art at the National Gallery and scholarship at the British Museum.
George Wallis, the first Keeper of Fine Art Collection, passionately promoted the idea of art education through the museum collections. From the 1860s to the 1880s the scientific collections had been moved from the museum site to various improvised galleries to the west of Exhibition Road. In 1893 the Science Museum had effectively come into existence when a director was appointed. The laying of the stone of the Aston Webb building on 17 May 1899 was the last official public appearance by Queen Victoria. It was during this ceremony that the change of name from the South Kensington Museum to the Victoria, the exhibition which the museum organised to celebrate the centennial of the 1899 renaming, A Grand Design, first toured in North America from 1997, returning to London in 1999
Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley PC PRS FLS was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. Huxleys famous debate in 1860 with Samuel Wilberforce was a key moment in the acceptance of evolution. Huxley had been planning to leave Oxford on the day, after an encounter with Robert Chambers. Wilberforce was coached by Richard Owen, against whom Huxley debated about whether humans were closely related to apes. Huxley was slow to accept some of Darwins ideas, such as gradualism, and was undecided about natural selection, instrumental in developing scientific education in Britain, he fought against the more extreme versions of religious tradition. Originally coining the term in 1869, Huxley elaborated on agnosticism in 1889 to frame the nature of claims in terms of what is knowable and what is not. Huxley states Agnosticism, in fact, is not a creed, but a method, the fundamental axiom of modern science. In matters of the intellect, follow your reason as far as it will take you, in matters of the intellect, do not pretend that conclusions are certain which are not demonstrated or demonstrable.
Use of that term has continued to the present day, Huxley had little formal schooling and was virtually self-taught. He became perhaps the finest comparative anatomist of the latter 19th century and he worked on invertebrates, clarifying relationships between groups previously little understood. Later, he worked on vertebrates, especially on the relationship between apes and humans, after comparing Archaeopteryx with Compsognathus, he concluded that birds evolved from small carnivorous dinosaurs, a theory widely accepted today. Thomas Henry Huxley was born in Ealing, which was a village in Middlesex and he was the second youngest of eight children of George Huxley and Rachel Withers. Like some other British scientists of the century such as Alfred Russel Wallace. His father was a teacher at Ealing School until it closed. As a result, Thomas left school at age 10, after two years of formal schooling. Despite this unenviable start, Huxley was determined to educate himself and he became one of the great autodidacts of the nineteenth century.
At first he read Thomas Carlyle, James Huttons Geology, in his teens he taught himself German, eventually becoming fluent and used by Charles Darwin as a translator of scientific material in German. He learned Latin, and enough Greek to read Aristotle in the original, on, as a young adult, he made himself an expert, first on invertebrates, and on vertebrates, all self-taught
Manchester Metropolitan University
Manchester Metropolitan University is a public university located in Manchester, England. It was established in 1970 as Manchester Polytechnic and gained university status in 1992 and its headquarters and central campus are in the city of Manchester, and there are additional facilities in Cheshire. The university has its roots in the Manchester Mechanics Institution and the Manchester School of Design, Manchester Metropolitan University receives approximately 52,000 applications every year, making it the second most applied-to university in the UK after the University of Manchester. It is the fifth largest university in the UK in terms of student numbers, the university is home to the Manchester School of Art and the Manchester School of Theatre. The university developed from mergers of various colleges with various specialisms, including Technology and Design, i. e. Manchester Mechanics Institution and Manchester School of Design. Later, Schools of Commerce and Domestic Science were added along with colleges at Didsbury, Crewe and the former Domestic and Trades College, latterly Hollings College.
The painter L. S. Lowry attended Manchester School of Art in the years after the First World War where he was taught by the noted impressionist Adolphe Valette and it became Manchester Polytechnic in 1970. On 1 January 1977, the merged with the Didsbury College of Education and Hollings College. In 1987 the institution became a member of the Northern Consortium. Having previously been a local authority institution, the became a corporate body on 1 April 1989. It was granted university status as Manchester Metropolitan University by the Privy Council on 15 September 1992 under the provisions of the Further and Higher Education Act 1992, the university absorbed Crewe and Alsager College of Higher Education on 1 October 1992 and the Manchester School of Physiotherapy in 2004. Manchester School of Physiotherapy, The Manchester School of Physiotherapy was an education institution based in Manchester. It provided undergraduate and postgraduate degree programmes within Physiotherapy and additionally offered NVQ level qualifications for unqualified Physiotherapy Support Workers, the School of Physiotherapy was affiliated to the Victoria University of Manchester and all degree level courses were validated and conferred by this institution.
The School was officially formed in 1991, through the amalgamation of the Manchester Royal Infirmary, from these two institutions it can date its history back to 1911 and during the 1980s via its M. R. I. Routes, became the first NHS School of Physiotherapy to offer an undergraduate honours degree programme. The academic building consisted of two large raked lecture theatres, a number of rooms, a gymnasium, seminar rooms, a library, office facilities. In 2004 the Manchester School of Physiotherapy officially joined the Manchester Metropolitan University and it was at this point the last NHS School of Physiotherapy to join a UK higher education institution. It subsequently became the Department of Health Professions and is based at the Birley Fields Campus of MMU in Hulme
Hanover Square, Westminster
Hanover Square is a square in Mayfair, situated to the south west of Oxford Circus, the major junction where Oxford Street meets Regent Street. The streets which converge at Hanover Square are, Brook Street, Dering Street, Hanover Street, Harewood Place and Princes Street. Hanover Square was developed from 1713 as a residential address by Richard Lumley, 1st Earl of Scarbrough. Like Scarbrough, most of the residents were staunch supporters of the Hanoverian succession of 1714. Early Hanover Square was decidedly Whig and most decidedly military, commented the architectural historian Sir John Summerson, early residents included Generals Earl Cadogan, Sir Charles Wills, Evans, Lord Carpenter and John Pepper, names conspicuously associated with episodes in Marlborough’s war and the Fifteen. While a few of the 18th-century houses remain intact, most of the square has been reconstructed in a variety of periods. The parish church of St Georges, Hanover Square, is a distance to the south of the square at the junction of St George Street and Maddox Street.
In 1759 James Abercrombie, commander-in-chief of British forces in North America during the French and Indian War, bibliography Sir John Summerson, Georgian London, Penguin,1969 Edward Walford, Hanover Square and neighbourhood and New London, Volume 4, pp. 314–326