Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and their predominant religion is Christianity, Portuguese people were a key factor to the Age of Exploration, discovering several lands unknown to the Europeans in the Americas, Africa and Oceania, helping to pave the way for Globalization. There are around 10 million native Portuguese in Portugal, out of a population of 10.34 million. A small minority of about 15,000 speak the Mirandese language, in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, all of the speakers are bilingual with Portuguese. An even smaller minority of no more than 2,000 people speak Barranquenho, some people from the former colonies have been migrating to Portugal since the 1900s. More recently, a number of Slavs, especially Ukrainians, Moldovans and Russians. There is a Chinese minority, in addition, there is a small minority Gypsies of about 40,000 people, Muslims about 34,000 people and an even smaller minority of Jews of about 5,000 people.
Between 1886 and 1966, Portugal lost to more than any West European country except Ireland. From the middle of the 19th century to the late 1950s, about 40 million Brazilians have relatively recent Portuguese background, due to massive immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. About 1.2 million Brazilian citizens are native Portuguese, significant verified Portuguese minorities exist in several countries. Portuguese Sephardic Jews are in Israel, the Netherlands, the United States, Venezuela, Brazil, in Brazil many of the colonists were originally Sephardic Jews, converted, were known as New Christians. In the United States, there are Portuguese communities in New Jersey, the New England states, in the Pacific, Hawaii has a sizable Portuguese element that goes back 150 years and New Zealand have Portuguese communities. Canada, particularly Ontario and British Columbia, has developed a significant Portuguese community since 1940, argentina and Uruguay had Portuguese immigration in the early 20th century.
So has Chile where an estimated 50,000 descendants live, an estimated 800,000 Portuguese returned to Portugal as the countrys African possessions gained independence in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution, while others moved to Brazil and South Africa. Vincent and the Grenadines and Tobago, Equatorial Guinea, in 1989 some 4,000,000 Portuguese were living abroad, mainly in France, Brazil, the United Kingdom, South Africa, Canada and the United States. Portuguese constitute 13% of the population of Luxembourg, in areas such as Thetford and the crown dependencies of Jersey and Guernsey, the Portuguese form the largest ethnic minority groups at 30% of the population, 20% and 3% respectively. The British capital London is home to the largest number of Portuguese people in the UK, with the majority being found in the boroughs of Kensington and Chelsea and Westminster. The Portuguese diaspora communities still are very attached to their language, their culture and their national dishes, in colonial times, over 700,000 Portuguese settled in Brazil, and most of them went there during the gold rush of the 18th century
Spanish settlement of Puerto Rico
Spanish settlement of Puerto Rico began shortly after the formation of the Spanish state in 1493 and continues to the present day. On 25 September 1493, Christopher Columbus set sail on his voyage with 17 ships and 1, 200–1,500 men from Cádiz. On 19 November 1493 he landed on the island, naming it San Juan Bautista in honor of Saint John the Baptist, the Spanish heritage in Puerto Rico is palpable today in its customs and many traditions, and in the old and new architectural designs. The first Spanish settlement, was founded on 8 August 1508 by Juan Ponce de León, a lieutenant under Columbus, the following year the settlement was abandoned in favor of a nearby islet on the coast, named Puerto Rico, which had a suitable harbor. In 1511, a settlement, San Germán, was established in the southwestern part of the island. During the 1520s the island took the name of Puerto Rico while the port became San Juan, from the start of the conquest of Puerto Rico, Castilians ruled over the religious and political life.
Some came to the island for just a few years and returned to Spain, among Puerto Ricos founding families were the Castilian Ponce de León family. Their home was built in 1521 by Ponce de Leon but he died in the year, leaving La Casa Blanca, or The White House. The original structure didnt last long, two years after its construction a hurricane destroyed it and it was rebuilt by Ponce de Leóns son-in-law Juan García Troche. The descendants of Ponce de Leóns family lived in La Casa Blanca for more than 250 years when in 1779 the Spanish Army took control of it, the American military moved into La Casa Blanca in 1898. The southern city of Ponce is named after Juan Ponce de León y Loayza, the great-grandson of the islands first governor. The Spanish heritage of Puerto Ricans comes from the regions of Spain The first wave of Canarian migration to Puerto Rico seems to be in 1695, followed by others in 1714,1720,1731. The number of Canarians that immigrated to Puerto Rico in the first three centuries of Iberian rule is not known to any degree of precision, the Isleños increased their commercial traffic and immigration to the two remaining Spanish colonies in America, Puerto Rico and Cuba.
Even after the Spanish–American War of 1898, Canarian immigration to the Americas continued, successive waves of Canarian immigration continued to arrive in Puerto Rico, where entire villages were founded by relocated islanders. In the 1860s, Canarian immigration to America took place at the rate of over 2,000 per year, in the two-year period 1885-1886, more than 4,500 Canarians emigrated to Spanish possessions, with only 150 to Puerto Rico. Between 1891 and 1895 Canarian immigrants to Puerto Rico numbered 600 and these are official figures, when illegal or concealed emigration is taken into account, the numbers would be much larger. Immigration to the island caused the population to grow rapidly during the 19th century, in 1800 the population was 155,426 and ended the century with almost one million inhabitants, multiplying the population by about six times. Included were hundreds of Corsican, Irish, Scottish, Lebanese, Dutch, some countries were represented by only a few immigrants, i. e.
fifty-one Chinese immigrants during this century
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
French Revolution of 1848
The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution, was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. In France the revolutionary events ended the Orleans monarchy and led to the creation of the French Second Republic, following the overthrow of King Louis Philippe in February 1848, the elected government of the Second Republic ruled France. In the months that followed, this government steered a course became more conservative. On 2 December 1848, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected President of the Second Republic, exactly three years he suspended the elected assembly, establishing the Second French Empire, which lasted until 1870. Louis Napoléon would go on to become the de facto last French monarch, the February revolution established the principle of the right to work, and its newly established government created National Workshops for the unemployed. At the same time a sort of parliament was established at the Luxembourg Palace, under the presidency of Louis Blanc.
These tensions between liberal Orleanist and Radical Republicans and Socialists led to the June Days Uprising, under the Charter of 1814, Louis XVIII ruled France as the head of a constitutional monarchy. He had no desire to rule as a monarch, taking various steps to strengthen his own authority as monarch. In 1830, Charles X of France, presumably instigated by one of his chief advisors Jules, Prince de Polignac and these ordinances abolished freedom of the press, reduced the electorate by 75%, and dissolved the lower house. This action provoked a reaction from the citizenry, who revolted against the monarchy during the Three Glorious Days of 26–29 July 1830. Charles was forced to abdicate the throne and to flee Paris for the United Kingdom, as a result, Louis Philippe, of the Orléanist branch, rose to power, replacing the old Charter by the Charter of 1830, and his rule became known as the July Monarchy. Nicknamed the Bourgeois Monarch, Louis Philippe sat at the head of a liberal state controlled mainly by educated elites.
Supported by the Orleanists, he was opposed on his right by the Legitimists and on his left by the Republicans, Louis Philippe was an expert businessman and, by means of his businesses, he had become one of the richest men in France. Still Louis Philippe saw himself as the embodiment of a small businessman. Consequently, he and his government did not look with favour on the big business, Louis Philippe did, support the bankers and small. Indeed, at the beginning of his reign in 1830, Jaques Laffitte, a banker and liberal politician who supported Louis Philippes rise to the throne, said From now on, by 1848 only about one percent of the population held the franchise. Even though France had a press and trial by jury, only landholders were permitted to vote. Louis Philippe was viewed as generally indifferent to the needs of society, early in 1848, some Orleanist liberals, such as Adolphe Thiers, had turned against him, disappointed by Louis Philippes opposition to parliamentarism
History of slavery
The history of slavery spans nearly every culture and religion from ancient times to the present day. However the social and legal positions of slaves were vastly different in different systems of slavery in different times and places, Slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations, as it is developed as a system of social stratification. Slavery was known in the very oldest civilizations such as Sumer in Mesopotamia which dates back as far as 3500 BC, the Byzantine–Ottoman wars and the Ottoman wars in Europe resulted in the taking of large numbers of Christian slaves. Slavery became common within much of Europe and the British Isles during the Dark Ages, the Dutch, Spanish, British, Arabs and a number of West African kingdoms played a prominent role in the Atlantic slave trade, especially after 1600. During the 1983–2005 Second Sudanese Civil War people were taken into slavery, evidence emerged in the late 1990s of systematic slavery in cacao plantations in West Africa, see the chocolate and slavery article.
Evidence of slavery predates written records, and has existed in many cultures, slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations. Mass slavery requires economic surpluses and a population density to be viable. Due to these factors, the practice of slavery would have only proliferated after the invention of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution, about 11,000 years ago. Such institutions were a mixture of debt-slavery, punishment for crime, the enslavement of prisoners of war, child abandonment, French historian Fernand Braudel noted that slavery was endemic in Africa and part of the structure of everyday life. During the 16th century, Europe began to outpace the Arab world in the export traffic, the Dutch imported slaves from Asia into their colony in South Africa. In 1807 Britain, which extensive, although mainly coastal, colonial territories on the African continent, made the international slave trade illegal. In Senegambia, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved, in early Islamic states of the Western Sudan, including Ghana, Mali and Songhai, about a third of the population was enslaved.
In Sierra Leone in the 19th century about half of the population consisted of slaves. In the 19th century at least half the population was enslaved among the Duala of the Cameroon, the Igbo and other peoples of the lower Niger, the Kongo, among the Ashanti and Yoruba a third of the population consisted of slaves. The population of the Kanem was about a third slave and it was perhaps 40% in Bornu. Between 1750 and 1900 from one- to two-thirds of the population of the Fulani jihad states consisted of slaves. The population of the Sokoto caliphate formed by Hausas in northern Nigeria and it is estimated that up to 90% of the population of Arab-Swahili Zanzibar was enslaved. Roughly half the population of Madagascar was enslaved, the Anti-Slavery Society estimated that there were 2,000,000 slaves in the early 1930s Ethiopia, out of an estimated population of between 8 and 16 million
The history of Puerto Ricans of African descent begins with free African men, known as libertos, who accompanied the Spanish Conquistadors in the invasion of the island. The Spaniards enslaved the Taínos, many of whom died as a result of new infectious diseases, spains royal government needed laborers and began to rely on slavery to staff their mining and fort-building operations. The Crown authorized importing enslaved West Africans, when the gold mines in Puerto Rico were declared depleted, the Spanish Crown no longer considered the island to be a high colonial priority. Its chief ports served primarily as a garrison to support naval vessels, the Spaniards encouraged free people of color from British and French possessions in the Caribbean to emigrate to Puerto Rico, to provide a population base to support the Puerto Rican garrison. The Spanish decree of 1789 allowed slaves to earn or buy their freedom, the expansion of sugar cane plantations drove up demand for labor and the slave population increased dramatically as new slaves were imported.
Throughout the years, there were slave revolts in the island. Slaves who were promised their freedom joined the 1868 uprising against Spanish colonial rule in what is known as the Grito de Lares, on March 22,1873, slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico. The contributions of ethnic Africans to the music, language, when Ponce de León and the Spaniards arrived on the island of Borikén, they were greeted by the Cacique Agüeybaná, the supreme leader of the peaceful Taíno tribes on the island. Agüeybaná helped to maintain the peace between the Taíno and the Spaniards, according to historian Ricardo Alegria, in 1509 Juan Garrido was the first free black man to set foot on the island, he was a conquistador who was part of Juan Ponce de Leóns entourage. Garrido was born on the West African coast, the son of an African king, in 1508, he joined Juan Ponce de León to explore Puerto Rico and prospect for gold. In 1511, he fought under Ponce de León to repress the Carib and the Taíno, Garrido next joined Hernán Cortés in the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
Another free black man who accompanied de León was Pedro Mejías, Mejías married a Taíno woman chief, by the name of Yuisa. Yuisa was baptized as Catholic so that she could marry Mejías and she was given the Christian name of Luisa The peace between the Spanish and the Taíno was short-lived. The Spanish took advantage of the Taínos good faith and enslaved them, forcing them to work in the gold mines, many Taíno died, particularly due to epidemics of smallpox, to which they had no immunity. Other Taínos committed suicide or left the island after the failed Taíno revolt of 1511, friar Bartolomé de las Casas, who had accompanied Ponce de León, was outraged at the Spanish treatment of the Taíno. In 1512 he protested at the council of Burgos at the Spanish Court and he fought for the freedom of the natives and was able to secure their rights. The Spanish colonists, fearing the loss of their labor force and they complained that they needed manpower to work in the mines, build forts, and supply labor for the thriving sugar cane plantations.
As an alternative, Las Casas suggested the importation and use of African slaves, in 1517, the Spanish Crown permitted its subjects to import twelve slaves each, thereby beginning the slave trade in their colonies
Catalonia is an autonomous community of Spain, located on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula. It is designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy, Catalonia consists of four provinces, Girona and Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain, Catalonia comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia. It is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, the official languages are Catalan and the Aranese dialect of Occitan. The eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal the Count of Barcelona, in the Middle Ages Catalan literature flourished. Between 1469 and 1516, the King of Aragon and the Queen of Castile married and ruled their kingdoms together, retaining all their distinct institutions and constitutions. During the Franco-Spanish War, Catalonia revolted against a large and burdensome presence of the Royal army in its territory, within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, at a high economic cost for Catalonia, until it was largely reconquered by the Spanish army.
In the nineteenth century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic, in the second half of the century Catalonia experienced industrialisation. As wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a Commonwealth, and with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic, after the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan institutions and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, Catalonia has regained some political and cultural autonomy and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain, the origin of the name Catalunya is subject to diverse interpretations because of a lack of evidence. During the Middle Ages, Byzantine chroniclers claimed that Catalania derives from the medley of Goths with Alans.
Other less plausible theories suggest, Catalunya derives from the land of castles, having evolved from the term castlà or castlan. This theory therefore suggests that the names Catalunya and Castile have a common root, the source is of Celtic origin, meaning chiefs of battle. Although the area is not known to have been occupied by Celts, the Lacetani, an Iberian tribe that lived in the area and whose name, due to the Roman influence, could have evolved by metathesis to Katelans and Catalans. In English, Catalonia is pronounced /kætəˈloʊniə/, the native name, Catalunya, is pronounced in Central Catalan, the most widely spoken variety whose pronunciation is considered standard. The Spanish name is Cataluña, and the Aranese name is Catalonha, the first known human settlements in what is now Catalonia were at the beginning of the Middle Palaeolithic. From the next era, the Epipaleolithic or Mesolithic, important remains survive
Revolutions of 1848
It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history. The revolutions were essentially democratic in nature, with the aim of removing the old feudal structures, the revolutionary wave began in France in February, and immediately spread to most of Europe. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation between their respective revolutionaries, the uprisings were led by shaky ad hoc coalitions of reformers, the middle classes and workers, which did not hold together for long. Tens of thousands of people were killed, and many forced into exile. Significant lasting reforms included the abolition of serfdom in Austria and Hungary, the end of monarchy in Denmark. The revolutions were most important in France, the Netherlands, the states that would make up the German Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century and the Austrian Empire. The revolutions arose from such a variety of causes that it is difficult to view them as resulting from a coherent movement or set of social phenomena.
Numerous changes had been taking place in European society throughout the first half of the 19th century, both liberal reformers and radical politicians were reshaping national governments. Technological change was revolutionizing the life of the working classes, a popular press extended political awareness, and new values and ideas such as popular liberalism and socialism began to emerge. Some historians emphasize the serious crop failures, particularly those of 1846, that produced hardship among peasants, large swaths of the nobility were discontented with royal absolutism or near-absolutism. In 1846, there had been an uprising of Polish nobility in Austrian Galicia, additionally, an uprising by democratic forces against Prussia, planned but not actually carried out, occurred in Greater Poland. Next, the middle classes began to agitate, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, working in Brussels, had written Manifesto of the Communist Party at the request of the Communist League. Following the March insurrection in Berlin, they began agitating in Germany, the middle and working classes thus shared a desire for reform, and agreed on many of the specific aims.
Their participations in the revolutions, differed, while much of the impetus came from the middle classes, much of the cannon fodder came from the lower. The revolts first erupted in the cities, the population in French rural areas had risen rapidly, causing many peasants to seek a living in the cities. Many in the feared and distanced themselves from the working poor. Many unskilled laborers toiled from 12 to 15 hours per day when they had work, living in squalid, traditional artisans felt the pressure of industrialization, having lost their guilds. Revolutionaries such as Karl Marx built up a following, the situation in the German states was similar
Monarchy of Spain
The Monarchy of Spain, constitutionally referred to as the Crown, is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain. It used to be called the Hispanic Monarchy. The monarchy comprises the monarch, his or her family. The Spanish monarchy is represented by King Felipe VI, his wife Queen Letizia, and their daughters Leonor, Princess of Asturias, the Spanish Constitution of 1978 reestablished a constitutional monarchy as the form of government for Spain. The 1978 constitution affirmed the role of the King of Spain as the personification and embodiment of the Spanish State, the king is the head-of-state and commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armed Forces. According to the constitution, the monarch is instrumental in promoting relations with the nations of its historical community, the King of Spain serves as the president of the Ibero-American States Organization, purportedly representing over 700,000,000 people in twenty-four member nations worldwide. In 2008, Juan Carlos I was considered the most popular leader in all Ibero-America, a dynastic marriage between Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon united Spain in the 15th century.
The last pretender of the Crown of the Byzantine Empire, Andreas Palaiologos, sold his title to Ferdinand II of Aragon. However, there is no evidence that any Spanish monarch has used the Byzantine imperial titles, the Spanish Empire became one of the first global powers as Isabella and Ferdinand funded Christopher Columbuss exploratory voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. This led to the discovery of America, which became the focus of Spanish colonization, in 2010, the budget for the Spanish monarchy was 7.4 million euros, one of the lowest public expenditures for the institution of monarchy in Europe. One of the earliest influential dynasties was the House of Jiménez which united much of Christian Iberia under its leadership in the 11th century. From Sancho III of Navarre until Urraca of León and Castile, the Jiménez rulers sought to bring their kingdoms into the European mainstream and often engaged in cross-Pyrenees alliances and marriages, and became patrons to Cluniac Reforms. Urracas son and heir Alfonso VII of León and Castile, the first of the Spanish branch of the Burgundy Family, was the last to claim the title of Spain.
The Castilian Civil War ended with the death of King Peter at the hands of his illegitimate half-brother Henry, Henry II became the first of the House of Trastámara to rule over a Spanish kingdom. King Peters heiress, his granddaughter Catherine of Lancaster, married Henry III, reuniting the dynasties in the person of their son, each kingdom retained its basic structure. In 1492 the Catholic Monarchs conquered the Kingdom of Granada in southern Spain and this date marks the unification of Spain. The territories of the Spanish empire overseas were dependencies of the crown of Castile, in the early 16th century, the Spanish monarchy controlled several territories in Europe under the Habsburg King Charles I, son of Queen Joanna of Castile. His reign ushered in the Spanish Golden Age a period of colonial expansion
Irish immigration to Puerto Rico
From the 16th to the 19th century, there was considerable Irish immigration to Puerto Rico, for a number of reasons. During the 18th century many men such as Field Marshal Alejandro OReilly and this led to an influx of additional Irish immigration to the island by family members brought to the Island by these Irish serving in the Islands Spanish colonial armies. Almost all of those who fled the Island temporarily during this expulsion, survived the witch hunt created by Castro, many of these Irish settlers were instrumental in the development of the islands hugely successful sugar industry which was vital to the islands growing economy. After Puerto Rico was ceded to the United States by Spain as a consequence of the Spanish–American War in 1898, many U. S. The Irish influence in Puerto Rico is not limited to their contributions to the agricultural industry, they have influenced the fields of education, sciences. Since the early 16th Century, the Irish, who were predominantly Catholics were suffering horrific injustices at the hands of their English overlords and authorities who were Protestant.
William Stanley, An English Catholic, was given a commission by Queen Elizabeth I to organize an Irish regiment of solely native Irish soldiers. This was intended to get rid of Irish men who the English authorities wanted out of Ireland and these Irishmen were sent to fight as mercenaries on behalf of England in support of the Dutch United Provinces. However, in 1585, motivated by factors and bribes offered by the Spaniards, Stanley defected to the Spanish side. These Irishmen who fled the English Army to join the armies of other nations came to be known as Wild Geese. In 1765, the King of Spain, Carlos III sent Field Marshal Alejandro OReilly to Puerto Rico, some of OReillys other recommendations resulted in a massive 20-year program of revamping San Felipe del Morro Castle in San Juan, now a World Heritage Site. The training which he instituted was to bring fame and glory to the Puerto Rican militias 30 years during the English invasions of Puerto Rico in 1797, OReillys civilian militias had become known as the Disciplined Militia.
OReilly was appointed governor of colonial Louisiana in 1769 where he became known as Bloody OReilly, he was granted land in the vicinity of Guaynabo and ODaly developed it into a thriving sugar hacienda. ODaly and another fellow Irishman Miguel Kirwan became business partners in the Hacienda San Patricio, the plantation no longer exists, however the land in which the plantation was located is now a suburb called San Patricio with a shopping mall San Patricio Plaza. Easily, he joined an growing and thriving embryonic Irish immigrant community in Puerto Rico that would come to be associated with the growth of commercial agriculture, upon his untimely death in 1781, his brother Jaime took over the property and helped raise Tomás children. Jaime ODaly was named Director of the Real Fabrica de Tabaco in Puerto Rico by the Spanish Crown, Jaime ODaly became a successful sugar and tobacco planter. His nephews and Arturo ONeill, moved to Puerto Rico in 1783 with their slaves and plantation equipment and were followed by Tomás Armstrong, another Irishman.
ODaly s connections with the non-Hispanic Caribbean and European nations helped him economically, however, in 1787, the Spanish Crown appointed him director of the Royal Tobacco Factory