The Royal Dramatic Theatre is Sweden's national stage for "spoken drama", founded in 1788. Around one thousand shows are put on annually on the theatre's eight running stages; the theatre has been at its present location in the Art Nouveau building at Nybroplan, since 1908. The theatre was built by the architect Fredrik Lilljekvist. Famous artists like Carl Milles and Carl Larsson were involved in making the decorations, some of the interior decorations were made by Prince Eugen; the theatre's acting school, Dramatens elevskola, produced many actors and directors who would go on to be famous, including Gustaf Molander, Alf Sjöberg, Greta Garbo, Vera Schmiterlöw, Signe Hasso, Ingrid Bergman, Gunnar Björnstrand, Max von Sydow, Bibi Andersson. The school was split off as a separate institution in 1967; the first Swedish theatre opened in Bollhuset and Lejonkulan in 1667 and employed only foreign companies. While the plays were sometimes open to the public, it remained less a court theatre; the first Swedish play, Den Svenska Sprätthöken, was performed in 1737 by the first Swedish theatre company.
The Swedish theatre was turned out of their playhouse by Queen Louisa Ulrika of Prussia after the 1753-54 season, the playhouse was given to a French company. In 1771, king Gustav III fired the French company and encouraged Swedish talents, thus, the Royal Swedish Opera was founded in Bollhuset. A theatre of spoken drama was founded by Fredrik Ristell in the same building in 1787, but was not to last long. In 1788 Ristell fled the country to escape his creditors; the actors formed a company and asked for the king's protection, which led to the establishment of the national theatre. Sweden's national stage for dramatic art was established by King Gustav III in 1788, it was that the Royal Theatre in Sweden was split in two, the Royal Theatre became thereafter an opera stage. For spoken drama a new theatre was built called Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern—the Royal Dramatic Theatre, to distinguish it from the Royal Theatre; the king became the formal director and placed the theatre under Royal protection, to be ruled by the actors themselves by votes every fourteenth day under the supervision of the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts.
This rule was quite chaotic, the voting is described as capricious and temperamental: "The male actors arguing with each other, one of the ladies voting yes because another lady voted no, others of them counting their buttons and letting fate decide", in 1803, the actors themselves asked for the system to be replaced by a director. The Royal Dramatic Theatre was located in the old premises at Bollhuset during its first years, but in 1792, the old building was deemed to be to run down, 1 November 1793, the theatre was opened in the Palace of Makalös called Arsenalen, where the theatre was to be located for the next thirty years. In 1798, the theatres and operas of Stockholm were united by a royal monopoly, the "Two Stages" ruled uncontested over the city for over forty years. In 1825, the old Palace building of the theatre caught fire and burned down in the middle of a performance; the theatre was now located in the same building as the Opera, an arrangement, to continue for forty years. The middle of the 19th century was to mean changes both without the theatre.
In 1834, the actors, infuriated by a new system that replaced their percent of the theatre income by a set salary, went on strike, knowing they had succeeded with a similar action against an unpopular director in 1828. This time, the strike was broken by the government, which gave some of them raised salaries and fired the others with pensions; the fired actors founded a theatre company that performed all around town, in 1842, the theatre monopoly was broken and a second theatre was founded in Stockholm. There was much criticism about the sharing of localities between the opera and the theatre, as the localities of the Opera were built for singing and considered unsuitable for spoken drama. In 1863, the Royal Dramatic Theatre purchased the playhouse of an old rival theatre, Mindre teatern, moved the theatre to it. Here the Royal Dramatic Theatre remained until 1907, it was here new dramas of the 19th Century were performed: the pioneering plays of Ibsen and Chekov, as well as August Strindberg's late dramatic works, for example Till Damaskus.
But at the beginning of the 20th century, the playhouse was rundown and in desperate need of renovation and a more modern, functional stage. From the 1880s the national stage had suffered stiff competition from several new private theatres in Stockholm, in particular, the Svenska teatern, run by the charismatic theatre personality Albert Ranft. Many of the original Swedish stagings of Ibsen's plays had been produced at the Swedish Theatre instead of the national stage, as well as new German and French dramatic works, the national stage was at the same time accused of being old and overcrowded. There was lively debate in the press on the subject of refurbishing the national stage at Kungsträdgården. Many different kinds of restoration were proposed, but King Oscar II was not satisfied with any of the suggestions. Instead, the decision was soon made to tear down the old theatre building and to build a new, fresher a
Les Grandes-Ventes is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France. A large village of farming and associated light industry situated in the Pays de Bray, some 12 miles southeast of Dieppe at the junction of the D77, the D915 and the D22 roads; the château de La Heuze. Vestiges of the priory of St-Marguerite, now a farm; the chapel de La Haye-le-Comte, dating from the seventeenth century. The church of Notre-Dame, dating from the sixteenth century. Osterwieck, in Germany. Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Seine-Maritime Normandy INSEE Les Grandes-Ventes on the Quid website
The African Central Bank is one of the original five financial institutions and specialized agencies of the African Union. Over time, it will take over responsibilities of the African Monetary Fund; the creation of the ACB, due to be completed by 2020, a roll out pilot project began May, 2015 under the sole supervision of the AFRA Commission, the African Finance Regulatory Authority. The mandate of the AFRA Commission is guided by Article 19 of the OAU Constitutive Act, the 1991 Abuja Treaty and as agreed by the Assembly of Member States for the Single AFRA Payments Area, the Common Economic and Monetary Systems and the creation of the African Central Bank, charged by the African Finance Regulatory Authority; the African Star Treaty Alliance Group, as declared by the FOURTH EXTRAORDINARY SESSION OF THE ASSEMBLY OF HEADS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT of the Organisation of African Unity, 1999, in Sirte, Libya. When it is implemented the ACB will be the sole issuer of the African Single Currency, will become the banker of the African Government, will be the banker to Africa's private and public banking institutions, will regulate and supervise the African banking industry, will set the official interest and exchange rates.
Abuja Treaty European Central Bank Economic Community of West African States Euro Central African CFA franc The Common Monetary Area Eco Monetary union "Pan African remittances conference, February 8th 2007". 4 September 2006. Retrieved 2015-11-09. Https://web.archive.org/web/20070828225900/http://commentisfree.guardian.co.uk/calestous_juma/2007/07/right_vision_wrong_strategy.html "BBC NEWS | Business | West African central bank robbed". Archived from the original on 2002-09-05. Retrieved 2015-11-09. Adebajo, A.. O. D.. West Africa's Security Challenges: Building Peace in a Troubled Region. Lynne Rienner Publishers. P. 61. ISBN 9781588262844. Retrieved 2015-11-09. Https://web.archive.org/web/20120609070731/http://www.edpsg.org/Documents/Dp14.doc Salacuse, J. W.. The Wise Advisor: What Every Professional Should Know about Consulting and Counseling. Praeger. P. 30. ISBN 9780275967260. Retrieved 2015-11-09