Union between Sweden and Norway
The Norwegian government was presided over by viceroys, Swedes until 1829, Norwegians until 1856. That office was vacant and abolished in 1873. Foreign policy was conducted through the Swedish foreign ministry until the dissolution of the union in 1905, by the 1814 Treaty of Kiel, the King of Denmark-Norway was forced to cede Norway to the King of Sweden. But Norway refused to submit to the treaty provisions, declared independence, after the adoption of the new Constitution of Norway on 17 May 1814, Prince Christian Frederick was elected king. On 4 November the Storting elected Charles XIII as the King of Norway, Sweden accepted the unions dissolution on 26 October. After a plebiscite confirming the election of Danish Prince Carl as the new king of Norway, he accepted the Stortings offer of the throne on 18 November and took the regnal name of Haakon VII. After the establishment of absolutism in 1660, a centralised form of government was established. The united kingdoms are referred to as Denmark-Norway by historians, the ambitious wars waged by king Charles XII, led to the loss of that status after the Great Northern War, 1700–1721.
Sweden invaded Norway in 1567,1644,1658 and 1716, to wrest the country away from the union with Denmark, the repeated wars and invasions led to popular resentment against Sweden among Norwegians. During the 18th century, Norway enjoyed a period of great prosperity, the biggest growth industry was the export of planks, with Great Britain as the chief market. Some members of the aristocracy saw Sweden as a more natural partner. Around 1800, many prominent Norwegians secretly favoured a break with Denmark and their undeclared leader was Count Herman Wedel-Jarlsberg. The Swedish policy during the period was to cultivate contacts in Norway. King Gustav III actively approached circles in Norway that might favour a union with Sweden instead of Denmark, such endeavours on both sides of the border toward a rapprochement were far from realistic before the Napoleonic Wars created conditions that caused political upheavals in Scandinavia. Sweden and Denmark-Norway tried to remain neutral during the Napoleonic wars, both countries joined Russia and Prussia in a League of Armed Neutrality in 1800.
Denmark-Norway was forced to withdraw from the League after the British raid on the navy during the first Battle of Copenhagen in April 1801, the league collapsed after the assassination of Tsar Paul I of Russia in 1801. Denmark-Norway was compelled into an alliance with France after the British preemptive second attack on the Danish navy, the defenceless capital had to surrender the navy after heavy bombardment, because the army was at the southern border to defend it against a possible French attack. As Sweden in the meantime had sided with the British, Denmark-Norway was forced by Napoleon to declare war on Sweden on 29 February 1808
Sophia of Nassau
Sophia of Nassau was Queen consort of Sweden and Norway. Sophia was Queen of Sweden for 35 years, longer any other Swedish queen before her. She was the longest serving queen until 2011 when she was surpassed by Queen Silvia and she is the latest Queen of Sweden to have held the official title of Dowager Queen of Sweden. Sophia was the youngest daughter of Wilhelm, Duke of Nassau and her father died when she was three, and was succeeded by her half-brother Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Sophia was given what was considered an education for princesses at the time by private tutors. She was trained in fencing, normally reserved for males, to strengthen her back, Sophia socialized with academics and artists, and the court of Nassau was considered more democratic than what was usual at most German courts. She early learned the English language, and felt sympathy for the British parliamentarian system, the language spoken in her childhood home was not German but English. Sophia was given what has been referred to as a more similar to the middle class Victorian life style.
Her brothers used to refer to her as Unsere demokratische Schwester and she was described as serious and dutiful, and interested in language and history, she was genuinely religious. In 1848, she witnessed a rebellion in the Duchy of Nassau, suppressed by her mother and she spent the winter of 1853-54 with her mother at the court of her maternal aunt in St Petersburg in Russia. Her maternal aunt, Princess Charlotte of Württemberg, was married to Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich of Russia, during her stay in Russia, she was a student of the pianist Anton Rubinstein. Sophia and her mother were forced to leave Russia at the outbreak of the Crimean war, after the death of her mother in 1856, Sophia lived with her half sister Princess Mary of Wied. In July 1856, at her sister Marys summer residence Monrepos outside Nassau, she received a visit from Prince Oscar of Sweden and it was therefore politically necessary for Oscar to marry. In 1855-56, Oscar was sent to various royal courts in Europe in order to find a suitable marriage partner in both rank and to his own taste.
He visited the British court but did not wish to marry Princess Mary of Cambridge and Oscar, mutually fell in love with each other. After the visit, Oscar returned to Sweden to ask for his parents consent to marriage and he returned to Nassau, where the engagement was made in September and announced in October. Sophia and Oscar were married on 6 June 1857 at the Castle in Wiesbaden-Biebrich, there they were greeted with salute and crowds. She was dressed in blue at her arrival, and was therefore nicknamed The Blue Duchess, in 1858, Sophia gave birth to a son, which secured the Bernadotte dynasty and gave her much popularity
Karl Johans gate
Karl Johans gate is the main street of the city of Oslo, Norway. The street was named in honor of King Charles III John, Karl Johans gate is a composite of several older streets that used to be separate thoroughfares. The eastern section was part of Christian IVs original city near the surrounding the city. When the ramparts were removed to make way for Oslo Cathedral, the wider western section was built during the 1840s as an avenue connecting the newly erected Norwegian Royal Palace with the rest of the city. In 1852, it was named Karl Johans gate in honor of the deceased king. His equestrian statue, by sculptor Brynjulf Bergslien, was erected during 1875 in front of the Royal Palace. When the Norwegian parliament building was completed in 1866 at the junction of the two separate streets, the two streets were joined and the whole length was named Karl Johans gate. In its current route, it connects Oslo Central Station, the railroad station in Oslo. The route changes its direction and width slightly halfway between two points, at Egertorget, a square at the intersection of Karl Johans gate and Øvre Slottsgate.
This is the highest point and, both ends of the street may be seen, the street is 1,020 metres long, in addition there are 300 metres of direct extensions, Palace Hill and Palace Place. Oslo Cathedrals lower end is surrounded by the Bazaar Market, which is integrated with the historic Fire Watch that served as Oslos main fire station from 1860 until 1939
Norwegian Constitution Day
Norwegian Constitution Day is the National Day of Norway and is an official national holiday observed on May 17 each year. Among Norwegians, the day is referred to simply as syttende mai, Nasjonaldagen or Grunnlovsdagen, the Constitution of Norway was signed at Eidsvoll on May 17 in the year 1814. The constitution declared Norway to be an independent kingdom in an attempt to avoid being ceded to Sweden after Denmark–Norways devastating defeat in the Napoleonic Wars, the celebration of this day began spontaneously among students and others from early on. However, Norway was at time in a union with Sweden and for some years the King of Sweden. For a few years during the 1820s, King Karl Johan actually banned it, believing that celebrations like this were in fact a kind of protest and disregard — even revolt — against the union. The kings attitude changed after the Battle of the Square in 1829, the address was held by Henrik Wergeland, thoroughly witnessed and accounted for by an informant dispatched by the king himself.
After 1864 the day became more established when the first childrens parade was launched in Christiania and this initiative was taken by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, although Wergeland made the first known childrens parade at Eidsvoll around 1820. It was only in 1899 that girls were allowed to join in the parade for the first time, in 1905, the union with Sweden was dissolved and Prince Carl of Denmark was chosen to be King of an independent Norway, under the name Haakon VII. Obviously, this ended any Swedish concern for the activities of the National Day, by historical coincidence, the Second World War ended in Norway nine days before that years Constitution Day, on May 8,1945, when the occupying German forces surrendered. Even if The Liberation Day is a flag day in Norway. Instead, a new and broader meaning has been added to the celebration of Norwegian Constitution Day on May 17, the day focused originally on the Norwegian constitution, but after 1905, the focus has been directed towards the royal family.
A noteworthy aspect of the Norwegian Constitution Day is its very non-military nature, all over Norway, childrens parades with an abundance of flags form the central elements of the celebration. Each elementary school district arranges its own parade with marching bands between schools, the parade takes the children through the community, often making stops at homes of senior citizens, war memorials, etc. The longest parade is in Oslo, where some 100,000 people travel to the city centre to participate in the main festivities and this is broadcast on TV every year, with comments on costumes, etc. together with local reports from celebrations around the country. The massive Oslo parade includes some 100 schools, marching bands, after the band, the rest of the school children follow with hand-sized flags, often with the junior forms first, and often behind self-made banners for each form or even individual class. Nearby kindergartens may have been invited to join in, as the parade passes, bystanders often join in behind the official parade, and follow the parade back to the school.
Depending on the community, the parade may make stops at particular sites along the route, in Oslo the parade stops at the Royal Palace while Skaugum, the home of the crown prince, has been a traditional waypoint for parades in Asker. During the parade a marching band will play and the children will sing lyrics about the celebration of the National Day, the parade concludes with the stationary singing of the national anthem Ja, vi elsker dette landet, and the royal anthem Kongesangen
Harald V of Norway
Harald V is the King of Norway, having ascended the throne following the death of his father on 17 January 1991. Harald was the child and only son of Olav V of Norway. He was second in the line of succession at the time of his birth, in 1940, as a result of the German occupation during World War II, the royal family went into exile. Harald spent part of his childhood in Sweden and the United States and he returned to Norway in 1945, and subsequently studied for periods at the University of Oslo, the Norwegian Military Academy, and Balliol College, Oxford. In 1957, following the death of his grandfather, Haakon VII, a keen sportsman, he represented Norway in sailing at the 1964,1968, and 1972 Olympic Games, and became patron of World Sailing. Harald married Sonja Haraldsen in 1968, with their relationship initially being controversial due to her status as a commoner, the couple had two children, Märtha and Haakon. Harald succeeded his father as king in 1991, with Haakon becoming his heir apparent, Prince Harald was born in Skaugum and was baptized in the Royal Chapel in the Royal Palace in Oslo on 31 March 1937 by Bishop Johan Lunde.
His parents already had two daughters, Princess Ragnhild and Princess Astrid, in 1940 the entire royal family had to flee Oslo because of the German invasion. It was deemed safer for the family to split up, the King and Crown Prince Olav would remain in Norway and the Crown Princess was to make her way to Sweden with the three children. The latter party reached Sweden on the night of 10 April, according to Princess Astrid and others who were present, they were admitted only after the driver threatened to ram the border gate. Another account does not describe the escape so dramatically, when the King and Crown Prince inquired of Swedish foreign minister Christian Günther whether they could sleep one night in Sweden without being interned, they were denied. Harald spent the days in Sälen before moving to Prince Carl Bernadottes home in Frötuna on 16 April. On 26 April the group moved to Drottningholm in Stockholm, King Gustaf V has been accounted to have had an amicable relationship with his Norwegian guests, but the topic of the war in Norway was not to be raised.
However, influential Swedish politicians, including Minister of Justice Westman, wanted the Crown Princess and Prince Harald to be sent back to Norway so he could be proclaimed King by the Germans. After the King and Crown Prince had to leave Norway on 7 June they felt Sweden might not be the best place for the rest of the family, and started planning for them to go to the United States. On 17 August the Crown Princess and her left for the United States from Petsamo, Finland. One of the events he remembers from that time is standing behind Franklin D. Roosevelt when he was sworn in for his fourth term on the South Portico of the White House in 1945. Such childhood experiences are reflected in a trace of an American accent when he speaks English, Harald visited Norwegian servicemen training in the United States
Throne Chairs of Norway
The Throne Chairs of Norway are the physical representations of the Throne of the Kingdom of Norway. One stands in the building of the Parliament in Oslo, the capital of Norway. The other stands in Trondheim, the capital of Norway. A lesser known is the Throne Chair in the Council Chamber in the Royal Palace, in addition to the Throne Chairs, there are two coronation chairs, which are located in Trondheim. Between 1671 and 1814, the Throne Chair of Denmark was de facto Norways, the Throne Chair was made in 1847 by Wilhelm Heinrich Hoffmann and placed in the Throne Room in the Castle of Oslo. Later in the 19th century, the Throne Chair was transferred to the Parliament and it is, used when the King opens the Parliament every year. The Throne Chair is covered with gold, and the textile is red and these are the colours of the King. On the top of the Chair is the Coat of arms of Norway, the Chair has two crowned lion heads, and the two foremost of the Chairs legs resemble lion paws. A golden lion symbolises the King, the Throne Chair is 207 centimetres tall and 100 centimetres broad.
Two smaller chairs belong together with the Throne Chair, one for the queen, in the Council Chamber in the Castle of Oslo, where the King receives the Government every Friday, the King has an additional throne chair. This was made in the 1840s by Hans Linstow, there is a slightly smaller chair made in 1997. This belongs to the heir apparent, the Throne Chair in Trondheim was acquired to the coronation of Oscar II and Sophia of Nassau in 1873. The Throne Chair was used for the last time during the coronation of Haakon VII, in 1818, Charles III John used a pair of identical chairs, one as a coronation chair during the ceremony and one as a throne chair when he was crowned. In addition, there was a chair without arms, used by his son and heir apparent, the 1906 coronation was the last in Norway, in 1908, this custom was abolished. However, when Olav V became king in 1958, he desired and arranged a ceremony in the Cathedral of Nidaros. In this ceremony, the former coronation chairs were used during the service, the same happened in 1991, when Harald V and Sonja Haraldsen were blessed on their royal office.
Other depictions of the Coronation Chairs, The Throne Chair during the coronation of King Charles III John in 1818, made of the horn of unicorns, it was guarded by three lions of silver
The city is spread across 14 islands on the coast in the southeast of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren, by the Stockholm archipelago and the Baltic Sea. The area has settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC. It is the capital of Stockholm County, Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden. The Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the countrys GDP and it is an important global city, and the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region. The city is home to some of Europes top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and it hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the citys most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited museum in Scandinavia. The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is known for its decoration of the stations. Swedens national football arena is located north of the city centre, Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city.
The city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, and hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, and the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister. The government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, and the Prime Ministers residence is adjacent at the Sager House. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BCE, there were already a number of people living in the present-day Stockholm area. Thousands of years later, as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable, at the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings. They had a positive impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholms location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, and in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne, the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade.
The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification, the second part of the name means islet, and is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. Stockholms core, the present Old Town was built on the island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid 13th century onward. The city originally rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League, Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time
Oslo is the capital and the most populous city in Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality, founded in the year 1040, and established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814, after being destroyed by a fire in 1624, the city was moved closer to Akershus Fortress during the reign of Christian IV of Denmark and renamed Christiania in his honour. It was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838, following a spelling reform, it was known as Kristiania from 1877 to 1925, at which time its original Norwegian name was restored. Oslo is the economic and governmental centre of Norway, the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is an important centre for industries and maritime trade in Europe. The city is home to companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the worlds largest shipping companies, shipbrokers.
Oslo is a city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a city and ranked Beta World City in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group. It was ranked one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, as of January 1,2016, the municipality of Oslo has a population of 658,390, while the population of the citys urban area was 942,084. The metropolitan area had an population of 1.71 million. The population was during the early 2000 increasing at record rates and this growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing faster than the Norwegian population.
As of January 1,2016, the municipality of Oslo has a population of 658,390, the urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus, the total population of this agglomeration is 942,084. To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre. The urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden
The dissolution of the union between the kingdoms of Norway and Sweden under the House of Bernadotte, was set in motion by a resolution of the Norwegian Parliament on 7 June 1905. Norwegian nationalistic aspirations in 1814 were frustrated by Swedens victory in a brief, the Norwegian constitution was largely kept intact, allowing for an independent Norwegian state with its own parliament and executive powers. Foreign relations were, conducted by the King through the Swedish ministry of foreign affairs, there were largely feelings of goodwill between the two peoples, and the common King generally tried to act in the interest of both Kingdoms. However over the years, a divergence of Norwegian and Swedish interests became apparent, in particular, Norwegians felt that their foreign policy interests were inadequately served by Swedens ministry of foreign affairs. Norway had trading and other links with the United Kingdom, whereas Sweden had closer links with Germany, Norway had greater interests outside Europe than Sweden.
When free trade between the two countries was restricted in 1895 through the abolition of the Interstate laws, the reasons for the continued union were diminished. Although both parties made efforts to resolve the issue through negotiations, Norwegian public opinion became more entrenched. In early 1905, Christian Michelsen formed a government consisting of liberals and conservatives. The law was passed by the Norwegian parliament, as expected and probably as planned, King Oscar II refused to accept the laws, and the Michelsen government resigned. When the king declared himself unable to form a cabinet under the present circumstances, initially reacting to this declaration as a rebellious act, the Swedish government indicated an openness to a negotiated end to the union, insisting among other things on a Norwegian plebiscite. However, the Norwegian government had anticipated this, and had scheduled a plebiscite for 13 August—thus avoiding the appearance that it had been called in response to demands from Sweden.
Besides internal changes within Norway, a key factor that allowed Norway to break from Sweden was the emerging Swedish social democratic movement. In the early years of the 20th century, Hjalmar Branting led the Social Democrats in opposing a war to keep Norway united with Sweden, when the crisis came in 1905, he coined the slogan Hands off Norway, King. The Social Democrats organized resistance to a call-up of reserves and a strike against a war. The majority of Sweden supported a state of Norway as much as the people of Norway did. The plebiscite was held on 13 August and resulted in an overwhelming 368,208 votes in favour of confirming the dissolution of the union against only 184 opposed and it is one of the most lopsided referenda in history. The government thereby had confirmation of the dissolution,85 percent of Norwegian men had cast their votes, but no women as universal suffrage was not extended to women until 1913. Norwegian feminists however collected 279,878 signatures in favour of dissolution, polar explorer Fridtjof Nansen weighed in heavily for dissolving the union and travelled to the United Kingdom, where he successfully lobbied for British support for Norways independence movement
The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, laterally competing with Romanticism. In architecture, the style continued throughout the 19th, 20th, European Neoclassicism in the visual arts began c.1760 in opposition to the then-dominant Baroque and Rococo styles. Each neo-classicism selects some models among the range of classics that are available to it. They ignored both Archaic Greek art and the works of Late Antiquity, the Rococo art of ancient Palmyra came as a revelation, through engravings in Woods The Ruins of Palmyra. While the movement is described as the opposed counterpart of Romanticism. The case of the main champion of late Neoclassicism, demonstrates this especially well. The revival can be traced to the establishment of formal archaeology, the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann were important in shaping this movement in both architecture and the visual arts. With the advent of the Grand Tour, a fad of collecting antiquities began that laid the foundations of many great collections spreading a Neoclassical revival throughout Europe, Neoclassicism in each art implies a particular canon of a classical model.
In English, the term Neoclassicism is used primarily of the arts, the similar movement in English literature. This, which had been dominant for decades, was beginning to decline by the time Neoclassicism in the visual arts became fashionable. Though terms differ, the situation in French literature was similar, in music, the period saw the rise of classical music, and Neoclassicism is used of 20th-century developments. Ingress coronation portrait of Napoleon even borrowed from Late Antique consular diptychs and their Carolingian revival, much Neoclassical painting is more classicizing in subject matter than in anything else. A fierce, but often very badly informed, dispute raged for decades over the merits of Greek and Roman art, with Winckelmann. The work of artists, who could not easily be described as insipid, combined aspects of Romanticism with a generally Neoclassical style. Unlike Carstens unrealized schemes, the etchings of Giovanni Battista Piranesi were numerous and profitable and his main subject matter was the buildings and ruins of Rome, and he was more stimulated by the ancient than the modern.
Neoclassicism in painting gained a new sense of direction with the success of Jacques-Louis Davids Oath of the Horatii at the Paris Salon of 1785. Despite its evocation of republican virtues, this was a commission by the royal government, David managed to combine an idealist style with drama and forcefulness. David rapidly became the leader of French art, and after the French Revolution became a politician with control of government patronage in art