Royal Scots

The Royal Scots, once known as the Royal Regiment of Foot, was the oldest and most senior infantry regiment of the line of the British Army, having been raised in 1633 during the reign of Charles I of Scotland. The regiment existed continuously until 2006, when it amalgamated with the King's Own Scottish Borderers to become the Royal Scots Borderers, which merged with the Royal Highland Fusiliers, the Black Watch, the Highlanders and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland. In April 1633, Sir John Hepburn was granted a warrant by Charles I to recruit 1200 Scots for service with the French army in the 1618-1648 Thirty Years War; the nucleus came from Hepburn's previous regiment, which fought with the Swedes from 1625 until August 1632, when Hepburn quarrelled with Gustavus Adolphus. It absorbed other Scottish units in the Swedish army, as well as those with the French and by 1635 totalled around 8,000 men. Sir John was killed in 1636 and succeeded as Colonel by his brother George after his death in 1637, Lord James Douglas.

James died in a skirmish near Douai in 1645 and was replaced by his elder brother Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus, who remained in Scotland and had little contact with the regiment, other than supplying recruits. In 1653, he assigned the Colonelcy to his younger half-brother, George Douglas Earl of Dumbarton. In 1660, Charles II was restored as king; the revolt was crushed and it returned to France, since the recently-elected Cavalier Parliament disbanded the New Model Army but refused to fund replacements. It remained in France until 1679, apart from a period during the 1664-67 Second Anglo-Dutch War when it was based at the naval dockyard of Chatham; the diarist Pepys met George Douglas in Rochester and recorded that "Here in the streets, I did hear the Scotch march beat by the drums before the soldiers, odde." In 1667, the regiment was ordered back to France. During the 1672-74 Third Anglo-Dutch War, Douglas' was part of British Brigade that fought with the French, commanded by the Duke of Monmouth.

It served in the Rhineland throughout the Franco-Dutch War after the Anglo-Dutch war ended in February 1674. The 1678 Treaties of Nijmegen required the repatriation of all English units from France. Dumbarton's was posted to the Dauphiné in Southern France before being disbanded and its men prevented from travelling for 30 days thereafter; the regiment was listed on the English military establishment as the First Foot or Royal Scots, a temporary measure during the 1679-1681 Exclusion Crisis. Four of its twenty-one companies joined the Tangier Garrison in April 1680, with another twelve in September, it was awarded a battle honour for'Tangier' in 1908, but the colony and its garrison was evacuated in 1684. A war diary for 1680 was kept by its commander, Sir James Halkett one of the first examples to survive. On its return, the unit was renamed His Majesty's Royal Regiment of Foot in June 1684; when James II succeeded Charles in 1685, the regiment fought at the decisive Battle of Sedgemoor that ended the June Monmouth Rebellion.

It was the only unit where the majority remained loyal to James during the November 1688 Glorious Revolution. While awaiting transport from Ipswich to Flanders, it mutinied on 15 March 1689, a combination of not being paid and dislike at being commanded by a foreigner. However, the mutineers were treated with leniency and agreed to the move. At the start of the 1688-1697 Nine Years War, Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Robert Douglas commanded the first battalion at the Battle of Walcourt in 1689; the second battalion arrived from Scotland in 1690 and both fought at the Battle of Steenkerque in 1692, where Sir Robert was killed, the Battle of Landen in 1693 and the Siege of Namur. When the Treaty of Ryswick ended the war in 1697, it was transferred to Ireland. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment served under Marlborough at Schellenberg, Blenheim and Oudenarde. At Malplaquet in 1709, its members included William Hiseland, an 89 year old reputed to be the last serving veteran of the First English Civil War.

Both battalions spent 1715 to 1742 in Ireland, but after this were separated. The 1st was based in Flanders during the War of the Austrian Succession, where it fought at Fontenoy in 1745. After returning from Puerto Bello in 1743, the 2nd helped suppress the 1745 Rising, before being posted to Ireland once again. In the army reforms of 1751, the unit was ranked as the most senior infantry line regiment and titled the 1st Regiment of Foot. On the outbreak of the Seven Years' War in 1756, the 2nd Battalion moved to Nova Scotia in 1757, fighting at Louisburg and Havana returning home in 1764; until American War began in 1775, both served as garrisons in the Mediterranean, the 1st in Gibraltar, the 2nd in Minorca. Sent to the West Indies in 1781, the 1st Battalion helped c

Carpathian Biosphere Reserve

Carpathian Biosphere Reserve is a biosphere reserve, established as a nature reserve in 1968 and became part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves of UNESCO in 1992. Since 2007 bigger portion of the reserve along with some territories of the Uzh River National Park was listed with the UNESCO World Heritage Sites as part of the Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe. Located in the eastern parts of the Zakarpattia Oblast, it consists of six separate preservation massifs and two botanic zakazniks with a total area of 57,880 hectares; the greatest part of the reserve is covered by virgin forests. Administratively, the biosphere reserve is located in four districts of Ukraine, it is adjacent to the Carpathian National Nature Park. The territory of Carpathian Biosphere Reserve is divided into several functional zones: core and buffer zones, zone of the regulated protected regime and anthropogenic landscapes, they differ one from another by the nature use regimes.

Such division helps to achieve the most appropriate balance between nature protection needs and the requirements of local people. The biosphere reserve consists of six separate preservation massifs as well as two botanical reserves. Chornohora preservation massif Svydovets preservation massif Marmorosh preservation massif Kuziy preservation massif Uholka and Shyroka Luzhanka preservation massif Preservation massif "Dolyna Nartsysiv" Botanical zakaznik "Chorna Hora" Botanical zakaznik "Yulivska Hora" Chornohora preservation massif is located on the southern macroslope of the Chornohora, the highest mountain belt in the Eastern Beskids and the Ukrainian Carpathians, its total area is 16,375 hectares. Svydovets preservation massif has an area of 6,580 hectares and is located at an altitude of 600–1883 m.a.s.l in the highest region of the Svydovets mountains. Marmorosh preservation massif is located on the northern macroslope of the Rakhiv Mountains and covers a territory of 8,990 hectares at an altitude of 750–1940 m.a.s.l.

Kuziy preservation massif is located on the southern branches of the Svydovets mountain range at an altitude of 350–1409 m.a.s.l. with total area of 4925 ha. Its territory is located in the forest area. Uholka and Shyroka Luzhanka preservation massif is located on the southern slopes of the Krasna and the Menchil mountains grasslands at an altitude of 400 – 1280 m.a.s.l. The total area of the protected territory is 15580 ha. Preservation massif "Narcissus Valley" is located at an altitude of 180–200 m.a.s.l. in the western part of Khustsko-Solotvynska Valley and lies in a flatland of the Khustets river flood plain. The “Chorna hora" botanical zakaznik occupies a territory of 823 ha in the Volcanic Carpathians, on the Chornahora mountain, a part of the Hutynskiy range, it was established to preserve oak, hornbeam-oak, oak-beech and beech-oak forests in 1974 and became a part of the Carpathians biosphere reserve in 1997. The "Yulivska Hora" botanical zakaznik covers an area of 176 ha on the slopes of the Yulivski mountains island massif in the Vyhorlat-Hutynskiy volcanic ridge.

It was established in 1974 and became a part of the Carpathian biosphere reserve in 1997. It aimed to preserve the oak-groves formed by many heat-loving Mediterranean species, it is characterized by the warmest climate in the whole Ukrainian Carpathians. The flora of CBR consists of 262 fungi species, 392 species of lichens, 440 species of mosses and 1062 species of vascular plants; the algal flora includes 465 species. 64 of plants species represented in this reserve are listed in the Ukrainian Red Data Book as well as in IUCN and the European Red Lists. The fauna of the Carpathian biosphere reserve is represented by 64 mammal species, 173 birds, 9 reptiles, 13 amphibians, 23 fish and more than 10,000 invertebrate species. 72 of these species are listed in the Ukrainian Red Data Book and in IUCN and the European Red Lists. Carpathian Biosphere Reserve official website Detailed information on areas of the reserve


Hybotidae, the typical dance flies, are a family of true flies. They belong to the superfamily Empidoidea and were included in the Empididae as a subfamily. Some, such as Tachydromia, are predators that run around on the bark of trees in complex patterns, hence the common name. Tachydromia species are only about three millimeters long. Hybotidae share some similarities with the family Dolichopodidae, when looking at rotation of genetalia and wing characteristics. Male terminalia are rotated dextrally between 45° and 90°, excluding segment 7. Hybotidae wings always have a simple R4+5 vein, where the costa either ends near or at M1/M1+2, or near or at R4+5/R5. Furthermore, it can be distinguished from Dolichopodidae by the point of vein Rs, which it at a distance from the humeral crossvein equal to or longer than the length of h; the Hybotidae form a lineage quite distinct from the Empididae. Among the Empidoidea, they represent a lineage more basal than the main radiation of Empididae and Dolichopodidae, though they are not as ancient as the genera placed in the Atelestidae.

By and large, the Hybotidae are monophyletic. Among its subfamilies, the Hybotinae and Tachydromiinae represent clades; the status of the Ocydromiinae as a natural group is less clear, in particular whether the Trichininae should be included as tribe Trichinini or in the Bicellariini or Oedaleini, or whether they are more distinct and warrant recognition as a separate subfamily. Based on the most recent phylogenetic studies, the relationship between Hybotidae and other members of Empidoidea is as follows; the placement of Hybotidae is emphasized in bold formatting. The subfamilies with their tribes and selected genera are:Hybotinae Meigen, 1820 Genus Acarterus Loew, 1858 Genus Afrohybos Smith, 1967 Genus Ceratohybos Bezzi Genus Chillcottomyia Saigusa, 1986 Genus Euhybus Coquillett, 1895 Genus Hybos Meigen, 1803 Genus Lactistomyia Melander, 1902 Genus Lamachella Melander, 1928 Genus Neohybos Ale-Rocha & Carvalho, 2003 Genus Parahybos Kertész, 1899 Genus Smithybos Ale-Rocha, 2000 Genus Stenoproctus Loew, 1858 Genus Syndyas Loew, 1857 Genus Syneches Walker, 1852Ocydromiinae Tribe Bicellariini Bradley, Sinclair & Cumming, 2006 Genus Bicellaria Macquart, 1823 Genus Hoplocyrtoma Genus Leptocyrtoma Tribe Ocydromiini Genus Leptodromiella Tuomikoski, 1936 Genus Leptopeza Macquart, 1834 Genus Ocydromia Meigen, 1820 Genus Oropezella Collin, 1926 Tribe Oedaleini Chvála, 1983 Genus Allanthalia Melander, 1927 Genus Anthalia Zetterstedt, 1838 Genus Euthyneura Macquart, 1836 Genus Oedalea Meigen, 1820 Trichininae Genus Trichina Meigen, 1830 Genus Trichinomyia Tuomikoski, 1959 Tachydromiinae Tribe Symballophthalmini Bradley, Sinclair & Cumming, 2006 Genus Symballophthalmus Becker, 1889 Tribe Drapetini Collin, 1961 Genus Allodromia Genus Atodrapetis Plant, 1997 Genus Austrodrapetis Genus Austrodromia Collin, 1961 Genus Chaetodromia Genus Chersodromia Haliday in Walker, 1851 Genus Crossopalpus Bigot, 1857 Genus Drapetis Meigen, 1822 Genus Dusmetina Genus Elaphropeza Macquart, 1827 Genus Isodrapetis Collin, 1961 Genus Megagrapha Melander, 1928 Genus Micrempis Melander, 1928 Genus Nanodromia Genus Ngaheremyia Plant & Didham, 2006 Genus Pontodromia Genus Sinodrapetis Genus Stilpon Loew, 1859 Tribe Tachydromiini Genus Ariasella Genus Charadrodromia Melander, 1928 Genus Dysaletria Loew, 1864 Genus Pieltainia Arias, 1919 Genus Platypalpus Macquart, 1827 Genus Tachydromia Meigen, 1803 Genus Tachyempis Melander, 1928 Genus Tachypeza Meigen, 1830 Data related to Hybotidae at Wikispecies Media related to Hybotidae at Wikimedia Commons Family description Images at Key to UK genera