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Royal Spanish Academy

The Royal Spanish Academy is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language. It is based in Madrid, but is affiliated with national language academies in 22 other hispanophone nations through the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language; the RAE's emblem is a fiery crucible, its motto is Limpia, fija y da esplendor. The RAE dedicates itself to language planning by applying linguistic prescription aimed at promoting linguistic unity within and between various territories, to ensure a common standard; the proposed language guidelines are shown in a number of works. The Royal Spanish Academy was founded in 1713, modeled after the Accademia della Crusca, of Italy, the Académie Française, of France, with the purpose "to fix the voices and vocabularies of the Spanish language with propriety and purity". King Philip V approved its constitution on 3 October 1714, its aristocratic founder, Juan Manuel Fernández Pacheco, Duke of Escalona and Marquess of Villena, described its aims as "to assure that Spanish speakers will always be able to read Cervantes" – by exercising a progressive up-to-date maintenance of the formal language.

The RAE began establishing rules for the orthography of Spanish beginning in 1741 with the first edition of the Ortographía. The proposals of the Academy became the official norm in Spain by royal decree in 1844, they were gradually adopted by the Spanish-speaking countries in the Americas. Several reforms were introduced in the Nuevas Normas de Prosodia y Ortografía. Since the establishment of the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language in 1951, the Spanish academy works in close consultation with the other Spanish language academies in its various works and projects; the 1999 Orthography was the first to be edited by the twenty two academies together. The current rules and practical recommendations on spelling are presented in the latest edition of the Ortografía; the headquarters, opened in 1894, is located at Calle Felipe IV, 4, in the ward of Jerónimos, next to the Museo del Prado. The Center for the Studies of the Royal Spanish Academy, opened in 2007, is located at Calle Serrano 187–189.

According to Salvador Gutiérrez, an academic numerary of the institution, the Academy does not dictate the rules but studies the language, collects information and presents it. The rules of the language are the continued use of expressions, some of which are collected by the Academy. Although he says that it is important to read and write correctly. Article 1 of the statutes of the Royal Spanish Academy, translated from Spanish, says the following:The Academy is an institution with legal personality whose main mission is to ensure that the changes experienced by the Spanish language in its constant adaptation to the needs of its speakers do not break the essential unity it maintains throughout the Hispanic world, it must ensure that this evolution preserves the characteristic nature of the language, as consolidated over the centuries, as well as establishing and disseminating the criteria for its proper and correct use, contributing to its splendor. To achieve these ends, it shall study and promote the study of the history and present of Spanish, it shall disseminate the writings, literary—especially classics—and non-literary, that it deems important for the knowledge of such matters, will seek to keep alive the memory of those who, in Spain or in the Americas, have cultivated our language with glory.

As a member of the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language, it shall maintain a special relation with the corresponding and associated academies. Members of the Academy are known as Académicos de número, chosen from among prestigious people within the arts and sciences, including several Spanish-language authors, known as The Immortals to their French Academy counterparts; the numeraries are elected for life by the other academicians. Each academician holds a seat labeled with a letter from the Spanish alphabet, although upper and lower case letters denote separate seats; the Academy has included Latin American members from the time of Rafael María Baralt, although some Spanish-speaking countries have their own academies of the language. Joint publications of the RAE and the Association of Academies of the Spanish LanguageDiccionario de la lengua española; the 1st edition was published in 1780, the 22nd edition in 2001 and the 23rd edition in 2014, which since 2001 can be consulted online for free as of October 2017 and was published in Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries to mark the tricentennial of the founding of the RAE).

The Diccionario esencial de la lengua española was published in 2006 as a compendium of the 22nd edition of the Dictionary of the Spanish Language. Ortografía de la lengua española; the 1st edition was published in 1741 and the latest edition in 2010. The edition of 1999 was the first spelling book to cover the whole Hispanic world, replacing the Nuevas normas de prosodia y ortografía of 1959. Nueva gramática de la lengua española; the latest edition is the first grammar to cover the whole Hispanic world, replacing the prior Gramática de la lengua española and the Esbozo de una Nueva gramática de la lengua española (Outl

Kazuhisa Hamaoka

Kazuhisa Hamaoka is a former Japanese football player. Hamaoka was born in Nagasaki Prefecture on February 28, 1981. After graduating from high school, he joined newly was promoted to J2 League club, Oita Trinita in 1999. On August 1, he debuted as substitute midfielder from the 83rd minute against Montedio Yamagata; however he could hardly play in the match until 2000. In 2001, he moved to newly was promoted to Japan Football League club, Ehime FC, he played many matches as midfielder. The club won the champions in 2005 and was promoted to J2 from 2006. In 2007, he played as regular player in 1 season. In 2008, he played in 1 season. After 1 year blank, he joined JFL club Tochigi Uva FC in 2010, he played. In 2014, he moved to Regional Leagues club Nara Club in 2014. In July he moved to JFL club MIO Biwako Shiga. In 2015, he moved to JFL club Tochigi Uva FC again, he played as regular player and left the club in August 2016. Kazuhisa Hamaoka at J. League

Shaun Hart

Shaun Hart is a former Australian rules football player, who played for the Brisbane Bears/Lions in the Australian Football League. Hart played in Brisbane’s Hatrick of premierships from 2001-2003 as well as in the clubs reserves premiership in 1991, he is the director of coaching at Port Adelaide Power and has been an assistant coach. He was born in Ferntree Gully and moved to country Victoria where he played for the Shepparton United Football Club. Hart was recruited to the Brisbane Bears from Shepparton in the 1989 national VFL draft. Shaun Hart played his first senior game in the first match of the 1990 season, he struggled with the demands of professional football and played a great deal of football in reserve grade. This allowed him to gain a place in the Bears' only premiership side by being eligible to play in the 1991 reserve grade Grand Final. In 2001 he was awarded his highest individual honour, the Norm Smith Medal, as best on ground in the Lions' first premiership win, he went on to play important roles in the Lions successful campaigns in 2002 and 2003.

In the 2004 Preliminary Final, with the Lions poised to enter a playoff for a record-equalling fourth consecutive premiership, Hart was unlucky enough to find himself in the path of teammate Daniel Bradshaw on a lead. Bradshaw was unable to avoid a collision and Hart emerged with massive facial injuries, he was taken to hospital, where shocked medical staff commented that his injuries were consistent with being in a car crash at speed without wearing a seat belt. As a consequence of consistent head injuries, for much of his career, he wore a soft helmet. Unable to take his place in the Lions side for the 2004 Grand Final, he was forced to watch from his hospital bed as his team failed to maintain a half-time lead over Port Adelaide due to injuries to key forwards Jonathan Brown and Alastair Lynch, he announced his retirement from football not long afterwards. Not long after retiring, Hart supported the newly formed, Christian-aligned Family First Party in 2004 Federal election to the Australian House of Representatives.

In 2007 he stood as a Family First candidate in Queensland for the Senate at the 2007 Australian federal election, although he was unsuccessful. In 2008, Hart was appointed the senior coach of the Broadbeach football club in Queensland. Hart held a number of coaching and development roles at the Gold Coast Football Club from 2009 until January 2014 and joined Port Adelaide as Director of Coaching in January 2014. Brisbane Lions Shaun Hart information page "Christian speaks out as he takes leave of Lions" Melbourne Age 1 October 2004, retrieved 15 December 2005 "Surviving in the Lions Den" Sydney Anglicans 25/7/2003 retrieved 15 December 2005