Paris Métro Line 11
Paris Métro Line 11 is one of 16 Paris métro lines, France. It links Les Lilas in the North East of the city to Châtelet in the center of Paris, it is the shortest of the 14 metro lines having independent management. It is the thirteenth busiest line on the network. Unlike most Paris Métro lines, line 11 was not included in the original late 19th century scheme, it was built in the 1930s to replace the former Belleville funicular tramway. It was intended to create a more effective transportation system which could handle the increasing traffic on the route and to extend it to the center of Paris, at Châtelet. 29 December 1922: Paris council voted for the creation of a new metro line which would replace the Belleville funicular and which would be extended to Châtelet. 28 April 1935: Line 11 was inaugurated from Châtelet to Porte des Lilas. 17 February 1937: The line was extended from Porte des Lilas to Mairie des Lilas. 8 November 1956: The rails were adapted to allow for rubber-tyred trains. Being the first metro line to be converted to rubber-tyred pneumatic operation, the first set of rubber-tyred rolling stock to be in service on Line 11 was the MP 55, which operated from October 1956 through January 1999.
They were replaced by refurbished MP 59 stock from Line 4. The MP 55 stock consisted of 4 carriages, as well as the current MP 59 stock. One MP 73 of line 6 is in service on the 11 as well; the future of the MP 59 stock is unclear at the moment, but several possibilities have been raised over the years: The use of MP 73 stock from Line 6. The use of MP 89CC stock from Line 4. Eventual use of the proposed MP 14 stock, with possible automated option. Removal of rubber-tyred guideways and use of steel-wheel rolling stock, as there is no direct connection between Line 11 and the other rubber-tyred lines. In order to ensure better commuter service to the Northeastern inner suburbs, a six-station, 5 km extension eastbound from Mairie des Lilas to Rosny-sous-Bois is under consideration; the scheme has been proposed by local authorities, adopted during the 2007 review of the Ile-de-France Transportation Plan. The line should be extended to Rosny – Bois-Perrier by 2023. In 2015 preliminary work started on the extension.
It will provide new connections with the RER E and the extended tramway line 1, which will be linked more to the downtown and the commuter hub of Châtelet les Halles. On 6 March 2013, a revised plan for the proposed Grand Paris Express subway system was unveiled; the revisions call for a second extension of Line 11 to be built towards Noisy-Champs by 2030, although it is unclear if this goal will be attainable. Should the second extension commence, it is slated to bring forth a full automation of Line 11. Automation is not planned for the Rosny extension, though the RATP and STIF had considered the possibility of automating the line on. Metro line 11 passes near several places of interest: The Hôtel de Ville of Paris; the Centre Georges Pompidou accommodating the Paris Museum of Modern Art. The Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers; the popular quarter of Belleville, hosting one of Paris' "Chinatowns" and centres of other Asian cultures. RATP official website RATP english speaking website Interactive Map of the RER Interactive Map of the Paris métro Mobidf website, dedicated to the RER Metro-Pole website, dedicated to Paris public transports Line extension project
The Santiago Metro is the underground railway network serving the city of Santiago, Chile. It is 7th in frequency worldwide and has seven lines, 136 stations, 140 kilometres of revenue route; this service is managed by the state-owned Metro S. A. and is the first of four urban railway systems in Chile, along with the Biotrén of Concepción, Merval of Valparaíso and inter-urban Metrotrén service. The Santiago Metro carries around 2.5 million passengers daily. This figure represents an increase of more than a million passengers per day compared to 2007, when the ambitious Transantiago project was launched, in which the metro plays an important role in the public transport system serving the city, its highest passenger peak was reached on 31 October 2012. In June 2017 the government announced plans for the construction of Line 7, connecting Renca in the northwest of Santiago with Vitacura in the northeast; the new line will add 24.8 kilometers and 21 new stations to the Metro network, running along the municipalities of Renca, Cerro Navia, Quinta Normal, Providencia, Las Condes and Vitacura.
Its cost has been estimated at USD 2.53 bn and it is projected to open in 2025. In March 2012, the Santiago Metro was chosen as the best underground system in the Americas, after being honoured at the annual reception held by Metro Rail in London; the idea to build an underground railway network in Santiago dates back to 1944, when new ways to improve the chaotic transport system were sought after the rapid population growth the city was experiencing since the early 1930s. However, ideas would begin to take shape in the 1960s, when the government released an international tender for the development of an urban transport system. On 24 October 1968, the government of Eduardo Frei Montalva approved the draft submitted by the Franco-Chilean consortium BCEOM SOFRETU CADE, in which the construction of five lines with an extension of 60 kilometres by 1990 was proposed. On 29 May 1969, works began for the construction of the first line, which would link the Civil District and the area of Barrancas.
On 15 September 1975, the first line of the metro was opened by Augusto Pinochet during the military regime. Line 1, during its opening stage, was underground from San Pablo to La Moneda, running below the Alameda. In 1977, the line was extended towards Providencia and by 1980, the line reached as far as Escuela Militar. In March 1978, Line 2 was opened, its initial section ran at ground level from Los Héroes to Franklin. By December, the second segment of the line was opened, running underground towards the south along the Gran Avenida up to Lo Ovalle. Despite the fast growth of the network, the severe economic crisis that affected the country in 1982 halted the original plans. Furthermore, studies showed that southeast Santiago was becoming more populated than the north end of the capital, area, covered by the planned extensions of the service. In order to supply future demand, the layout for Line 2 was changed and the extension would start at Los Héroes and go around the Civic District, crossing Line 1 again at Baquedano to head south through Vicuña Mackenna.
Meanwhile, Line 3 was projected through Independencia and Irarrázaval to supply the northern area that Line 2 was supposed to run. However, these plans were affected once again when an earthquake struck the Chilean Central Valley on 3 March 1985. Most of the funds destined for the construction of the Line 2 extension and Line 3 were used to rebuild the city; the opening of two new stations towards the north in 1987 were the only finalised works from these plans: Santa Ana and Mapocho stations on Line 2. The latter would change its name as remains of the old Calicanto Bridge –emblem of the city for over a century– were discovered during the excavation process; that same year, the Metrobús service was launched with services operating from Escuela Militar, Lo Ovalle and Las Rejas. Institutionally, the management of Metro de Santiago was changed at the end of the decade; the former General Directorate of Metro, a branch of the Ministry of Public Works, became a state-funded public company, Metro S.
A. with the provisions of Law 18,772 published on 28 January 1989. Following the economic recovery after the second miracle, the metro's expansion plans resurged. Population growth in the southeastern area of the capital became unstoppable during the 1980s, La Florida became the most populous commune in the country, thus the construction of a new line to supply that area was paramount; the first plans were drawn in 1989 and it was announced in 1991 by President Patricio Aylwin. This new line would start from Baquedano and head southwards to Américo Vespucio Avenue, crossing through Vicuña Mackenna. Line 5 was opened on 5 April 1997 by President Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle; this new line would have a length of 10.3 kilometres running underground from Baquedano to Irarrázaval, emerging as a viaduct on Vicuña Mackenna and going underground before reaching its southeastern terminus, Bellavista de la Florida. In March 2000, a new section of Line 5 crossing the historic centre of the capital was opened to the public.
The new connection between Baquedano and Santa Ana through Plaza de Armas and Bellas Artes meant that all three at-the-time existing lines would be connected. With the election of Ricardo Lagos as President of Chile in 2000, one of his main objectives was an overhaul of the transport system serving the capital. To achieve this, a new extension for Line 5 was designed, heading westwards to Quinta Normal, following Catedral street, an extension for Line 2 from both ends of the line to reach the northern and southern ends of the Américo Vespucio ring
The MP 73 is a rubber tired variant of electric multiple units used on Paris's Métro system. The cars were delivered in 1974, when the RATP decided to convert Line 6 to rubber tyred pneumatic operation; the existing stock on Line 6 needed replacing at this time, the line was converted to rubber tyred operation due to the lengthy open air viaduct sections of track, which generated much noise and vibration with older steel-wheeled rolling stock. The body design was based on the successful MF 67 stock. A total of 252 cars were built, six of which have subsequently been scrapped, they were refurbished in 2000. Trains are formed into 5-car sets, they continue to serve on Line 6. One MP 73 runs on Line 11 in a four-car formation. A single MP 73 has intermittently operated on Line 11 since 1976. A six-car MP 73 operated on Line 4 on an intermittent basis until 1999, when it was moved back to Line 6. In some cases, trailers of an MP 73 would be paired with trailers of an MP 59, creating a hybrid formation.
This practice ended in 1999 when the MP 55 and many MP 59 stock were retired following the arrival of the MP 89. The future of the MP 73 is unknown, but there is much speculation that they will be replaced with the MP 89CC stock from Line 4, as the latter is being prepped for automation. Santiago Metro has a forked version named NS 74; the Mexico City Metro has another forked version named MP 82. TRUCK
Pont de Neuilly (Paris Métro)
Pont de Neuilly is a station on Paris Métro Line 1, situated in the prosperous suburban commune of Neuilly-sur-Seine. Between 1940 and 1950 it was known as Avenue de Madrid, it is named after a nearby bridge. The bridge - which carries parallel road and rail links between Neuilly and La Défense, over the river Seine - is in fact nearer to the Esplanade de la Défense station than to the Pont de Neuilly station, it was the western terminus of Line 1 from 1937 until 1992, when the western extension to La Défense was opened. Above the station lies an esplanade from which one can see the area of La Défense. Roland, Gérard. Stations de métro. D’Abbesses à Wagram. Éditions Bonneton
The Montreal Metro is a rubber-tired, underground rapid transit system serving the city of Montreal, Canada. The Metro, operated by the Société de transport de Montréal, was inaugurated on October 14, 1966, during the tenure of Mayor Jean Drapeau, it has expanded since the 1960s from 26 stations on three separate lines to 68 stations on four lines totalling 69.2 kilometres in length, serving the north and centre of the Island of Montreal with connections to Longueuil, via the Yellow Line, Laval, via the Orange Line. The Montreal Metro is Canada's busiest rapid transit system, North America's third busiest by daily ridership behind those of New York City and Mexico City, delivering an average of 1,298,400 daily unlinked passenger trips per weekday. In 2016, 354 million trips on the Metro were completed. According to the STM, the Metro system had transported over 7 billion passengers as of 2010. With the Metro, Montreal has built one of North America's largest urban rapid transit schemes, attracting the second-highest ridership per capita behind New York City.
The Montreal Metro was inspired by the Paris Métro, seen in the Metro's station design and rolling stock. Urban transit began in Montreal in 1861 when a line of horse-drawn cars started to operate on Craig and Notre-Dame streets; as the Canadian metropolis grew, a comprehensive network of streetcar lines provided service everywhere. But urban congestion started to take its toll on streetcar punctuality, so the idea of an underground system was soon considered. In 1902, as European and American cities were inaugurating their first subway systems, the federal government created the Montreal Subway Company to promote the idea in Canada. Starting in 1910, many proposals were tabled but the Montreal Metro would prove to be an elusive goal. First, the Montreal Street Railway Company, the Montreal Central Terminal Company and the Montreal Underground and Elevated Railway Company undertook fruitless negotiations with the city. A year the Comptoir Financier Franco-Canadien and the Montreal Tunnel Company proposed tunnels under the city centre and the Saint-Lawrence River to link the emerging South Shore neighbourhoods but faced the opposition of railway companies.
The Montreal Tramways Company was the first to receive the approval of the provincial government in 1913 and four years to start construction. The reluctance of elected city officials to advance funds foiled this first attempt; the issue of a subway remained present in the newspapers but World War I and the following recession hitting Montreal prevented any execution. The gradual return of the financial health during the 1920s brought the MTC project back and attracted support from the Premier of Quebec; the Great Depression, indebting Montreal again and atrophying its streetcars attendance, overcame this new attempt and the next devised by Mayor Camillien Houde in 1939 as a way to provide work for the jobless masses. World War II and the war effort in Montreal resurrected trams crowding. In 1944, the MTC proposed a two-line network, one line running underneath Saint Catherine Street, the other under Saint Denis and Notre-Dame and Saint Jacques Streets. In 1953 the newly formed public Montreal Transportation Commission replaced streetcars by buses and proposed a single subway line reusing the 1944 plans and extending it all the way to Boulevard Crémazie, right by the D'Youville maintenance shops.
By this point, construction was well underway on Canada's first subway line in Toronto under Yonge Street, which would be opened in 1954. Still, Montreal councillors remained cautious and no work was initiated. For some of them, including Jean Drapeau during its first municipal term, public transit was a thing of the past. In 1959, a private company, the Société d'expansion métropolitaine, offered to build a rubber-tired metro but the Transportation Commission wanted its own network and rejected the offer; this was the last missed opportunity, for the re-election of Jean Drapeau as mayor and the arrival of his right-hand man, Lucien Saulnier, changed everything. In the early 1960s, the western world experienced an economic boom and Quebec underwent its Quiet Revolution. From August 1, 1960, many municipal services were addressing the project and on November 3, 1961, the Montreal City Council voted appropriations amounting to $132 million to construct and equip an initial network of 16 kilometres in length.
The 1961 plan reused several previous studies and planned three lines carved into the rock under the city centre to the most populated areas of the city. The main line, or Line 1 was to pass between the two most important arteries, Saint Catherine and Sherbrooke streets, more or less under the De Maisonneuve Boulevard, it would extend between the English-speaking west at Atwater station and French-speaking east at Frontenac. Line 2 was to run from north of the downtown, from Crémazie station through various residential neighbourhoods to the business district at Place-d'Armes station. Construction of the first two lines began May 23, 1962 under the supervision of the Director of Public Works, Lucien L'Allier, the "father of the subway". On June 11, 1963 the construction costs for tunnels being lower than expected, Line 2 was extended by two stations at each end and the new termini became the Henri-Bourassa and Bonaventure stations; the project, which employed more than 5,000 workers at its height, cost the lives of 12 of them, ended on October 14, 1966.
The service was opened between October 1966 and April 1967 as the stations were completed. A third line was planned, it was to use Canadian National Railway t
A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways; the term electric street railways was used in the United States. In the United States, the term tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tyred trackless trains, which are unrelated to other kinds of trams. Tram vehicles are lighter and shorter than main line and rapid transit trains. Today, most trams use electrical power fed by a pantograph sliding on an overhead line. In some cases by a contact shoe on a third rail is used. If necessary, they may have dual power systems—electricity in city streets, diesel in more rural environments. Trams carry freight. Trams are now included in the wider term "light rail", which includes grade-separated systems; some trams, known as tram-trains, may have segments that run on mainline railway tracks, similar to interurban systems. The differences between these modes of rail transport are indistinct, a given system may combine multiple features.
One of the advantages over earlier forms of transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing the trams to haul a greater load for a given effort. Problems included the fact that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed and cared for day in and day out, produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company was charged with disposing of. Electric trams replaced animal power in the late 19th and early 20th century. Improvements in other forms of road transport such as buses led to decline of trams in mid 20th century. Trams have seen resurgence in recent years; the English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram derived from Middle Flemish trame; the identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is used in the French language. Etymologists believe that the word tram refers to the wooden beams the railway tracks were made of before the railroad pioneers switched to the much more wear-resistant tracks made of iron and steel.
The word Tram-car is attested from 1873. Although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; the term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, referred to horsecars. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or trolleys. A held belief holds the word to derive from the troller, a four-wheeled device, dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires. "Trolley" and variants refer to the verb troll, meaning "roll" and derived from Old French, cognate uses of the word were well established for handcarts and horse drayage, as well as for nautical uses. The alternative North American term'trolley' may speaking be considered incorrect, as the term can be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground supply. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US.
Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead been applied to open-sided, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires used to ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour and, in many countries, as tourist transport to major destinations. The term may apply to an aerial ropeway, e.g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Although the use of the term trolley for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was associated with the trolleybus, a rubber-tyred vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead wires; these electric buses, which use twin trolley poles, are called trackless trolleys, or sometimes trolleys. The New South Wales, government has decided to use the term "light rail" for their trams; the history of trams, streetcars or trolley systems, began in early nineteenth century. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used; the world's first passenger train or tram was the Swansea and Mumbles Railway, in Wales, UK.
The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1804, horse-drawn service started in 1807. The service was restarted in 1860, again using horses, it was worked by steam from 1877, from 1929, by large electric tramcars, until closure in 1961. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was something of a one-off however, no street tramway would appear in Britain until 1860 when one was built in Birkenhead by the American George Francis Train. Street railways developed in America before Europe due to the poor paving of the streets in American cities which made them unsuitable for horsebuses, which were common on the well-paved streets of European cities. Running the horsecars on rails allowed for a much smoother ride. There are records of a street railway running in Baltimore as early as 1828, however the first authenticated streetcar in America, was the New York and Harle
Esplanade de La Défense (Paris Métro)
Esplanade de La Défense is a station on Paris Métro Line 1 on the outskirts of La Défense on the border of Courbevoie and Puteaux. It has an island platform because of limitations on space due it being enclosed in a site earmarked for one of the underpasses of the A14 autoroute; the station was opened on 1 April 1992 as part of the western extension of the line from Pont de Neuilly to La Défense. Statues have been erected in the station's entrance and corridors; the end of the platform toward Paris is near the entrance and it is possible to see the coach station at Pont de Neuilly