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Rubrication

Rubrication was one of several steps in the medieval process of manuscript making. Practitioners of rubrication, so-called rubricators or rubrishers, were specialized scribes who received text from the manuscript's original scribe and supplemented it with additional text in red ink for emphasis; the term rubrication comes from the Latin rubrīcāre, "to color red". The practice entailed the addition of red headings to mark the end of one section of text and the beginning of another; such headings were sometimes used to introduce the subject of the following section or to declare its purpose and function. Rubrication was used so in this regard that the term rubric was used as a generic term for headers of any type or color, though it technically referred only to headers to which red ink had been added. In liturgical books such as missals, red may be used to give the actions to be performed by the celebrant or others, leaving the texts to be read in black. Important feasts in liturgical calendars were often rubricated, rubrication can indicate how scribes viewed the importance of different parts of their text.

Rubrication may be used to emphasize the starting character of a canto or other division of text. This particular type of rubrication is similar to flourishing, wherein red ink is used to style a leading character with artistic loops and swirls. However, this process is far less elaborate than illumination, in which detailed pictures are incorporated into the manuscript set in thin sheets of gold to give the appearance of light within the text. Quite the manuscript's initial scribe would provide notes to the rubricator in the form of annotations made in the margins of the text; such notes were indications to "rubricate here" or "add rubric". In many other cases, the initial scribe held the position of rubricator, so he applied rubrication as needed without the use of annotations; this is important, as a scribe's annotations to the rubricator can be used along with codicology to establish a manuscript's history, or provenance. Medieval practitioners extended the practice of rubrication to include the use of other colors of ink besides red.

Most alternative colors included blue and green. After the introduction of movable type printing, readers continued to expect rubrication, which might be done by hand, if there were few rubrics to add, or by a separate print using a red-ink form the normal method; the "great majority of incunables did not issue from the press in a finished state… hardly any incunable was considered'finished' by its printer…", suggesting that hand rubrication provided a sense of legitimacy to the efforts of early printers and their works. This fact, the notion that something about hand written rubrication completes a printed work by attributing to it a sense of legitimacy and finality, is further supported by the fact that red ink "was not decorative… red's original function was to articulate the text by indicating such parts as headings that were so essential to the function of manuscripts that the printers had to deal with them in some way"; the title "generally was written in one or more lines that the scribe of the text had left blank to receive the title", showing both the importance of the section and the knowledge one may gain from this process.

As mentioned above, the initial scribe of a text left notes for the rubricator of where rubrication would be necessary, a fact that helps the modern historian learn of the provenance of the manuscript. Rubrication affected how generations read and interpreted a text, this process helped ensure editorial standardization throughout Western Europe; the recipe for the red ink is given in Theophilus' De diversis artibus: To prepare white-flake, get some sheets of lead beaten out thin, place them dry in a hollow piece of wood and pour in some warm vinegar or urine to cover them. After a month, take off the cover and remove whatever white there is, again replace it as at first; when you have a sufficient amount and you wish to make red lead from it, grind this flake-white on a stone without water put it in two or three new pots and place it over a burning fire. You have a slender curved iron rod, fitted at one end in a wooden handle and broad at the top, with this you can stir and mix this flake-white from time to time.

You do this for a long time. The process took a long time to complete, but used common materials; the white material is lead carbonate and the red material is lead oxide. Red letter day Red letter edition Butterfield, Ardis. "Articulating the Author: Gower and the French Vernacular Codex". The Yearbook of English Studies. Medieval and Early Modern Anthologies. Modern Humanities Research Association. 33: 80–96. Doi:10.2307/3509018. ISSN 2222-4289. JSTOR 3509018. Clemens, Raymond. Echard, Printing the Middle Ages, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Echard, Sian. "Making of Illuminated Manuscripts", Encyclopedia of Irish and World Art, retrieved April 5, 2010. "Companion to the Book", Oxford Reference Online, Oxford University, retrieved April 5, 2010. Rytzenthaler, Mary Lynn, Preserving Archives and Manuscripts, Chicago: Society of American Archivists. Smith, Margaret M. "The design relationship between the manuscript and the incunable". In Myers, Robin. A millennium

British Lions (album)

British Lions is the 1978 eponymous debut album by British Lions, the band consisting of members of Mott—Morgan Fisher, Ray Major, Pete Overend Watts and Dale Griffin—alongside singer/guitarist John Fiddler of Medicine Head. It was released on the RSO label in the United States. A single "One More Chance to Run" b/w "Booster" was released by Vertigo in the UK to promote the album. "One More Chance to Run" was covered by Joe Elliott's Down'n' Outz on their 2010 album My ReGeneration. All tracks composed except where noted. British Lions John Fiddler – lead vocals, rhythm guitar Ray Major – lead guitar, backing vocals Morgan Fisherpiano, backing vocals, Hammond organ, Korg synthesizer, davolisint Pete Watts – bass, backing vocals Dale "Buffin" Griffindrums, backing vocalsTechnical Alan "Ghastly Toad" Douglas and Mick "School Bully" Glossop - recording Alan Schmidt - art direction

Taylor's salamander

Taylor's salamander, Ambystoma taylori, is a species of salamander found only in Laguna Alchichica, a high-altitude crater lake to the southwest of Perote, Mexico. It had been known to science prior to that, it is a neotenic salamander, breeding while still in the larval state and not undergoing metamorphosis. The lake in which it lives is becoming saline and less suitable for the salamander, declining in numbers; the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated it as being "critically endangered". It was described in 1982 by Brandon and Rumph, named for Edward Harrison Taylor, an American herpetologist. However, the species had been known to science long before then. Taylor himself attempted to describe the species as Ambystoma subsalsum in 1943, but mistakenly used a Mexican or plateau tiger salamander as the holotype; this rendered the name invalid, made it into a synonym for the tiger salamander. This salamander is moderately sized, with most individuals measuring 70 mm being mature, while the largest one being 102–113 mm in snout–vent length.

It is a neotenic species, which means it retains its caudal fin and external gills into adulthood, never undergoing complete metamorphosis. It is aquatic and laying its eggs in the same lake where it lives. Taylor's salamanders are pale yellowish in color, with dark spots along their dorsal sides, they have short, thick external gill stalks. Their heads are quite large, their limbs are underdeveloped, as in most Ambystoma neotenes, they feed by buccal suction, are omnivores. The A. taylori habitat in Lake Alchichica is brackish, with a salinity of 9.2 g/L. It is very alkaline, with a pH of 8.5–10. The lake's water has a temperature range of 18–21 °C; the salamanders hide below the water line, under overhangs in the crater's edge, into the deep water. Lake Alchichica is becoming more saline as water is extracted for drinking; the level of the lake has fallen and if this deterioration in water quality continues, this salamander is to become extinct. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed the salamander's conservation status as being "critically endangered" and has proposed that a captive breeding programme be established

Lepani Nabuliwaqa

Lepani Nabuliwaqa, nicknamed Leps, is a Fijian rugby union footballer. He plays as a wing. Nabuliwaqa was an influential member of the Red Rock sevens team which participated in Fiji domestic sevens competition in 2003-04 season, he made his debut for the Fiji sevens team. He copped a six-week ban for a dangerous tackle but still he made the 12-man squad for the Commonwealth Games in Melbourne, he took over as the playmaker in the 2005/06 IRB Sevens World Series and became one of Fiji's star performers. He was given the Digicel Fiji sevens best player award ahead of Sireli Naqelevuki and Dale Tonawai at the Fiji Rugby Union annual awards. Nabuliwaqa played 15s and 7s for Nakasi, was recruited by Lote Rasiga into the Red Rock team at the Nataleira 7s tournament joining the likes of Sireli Bobo, Manasa Bola, Neumi Cakacaka and Aporosa Dauvucu. For the 2012 and 2013 season played 15s for The South Darwin Rabbitohs, made Sevens appearances for the Country King Browns. Leps has been named in the Squad for the King Browns in the 2014 Hottest Sevens In Darwin, Australia.

Fiji Rugby Union Player Profile at the Wayback Machine

Rizal Park Hotel

The Rizal Park Hotel is a 110-room, historic five-star hotel and casino located along Manila Bay in Manila, Philippines. The hotel, which opened on 26 July 2017, occupies the Manila Army and Navy Club building following its redevelopment in 2014 by hotel developer Oceanville Hotel and Spa Corporation. Prior to the building's redevelopment, the building once served as the City Architect's Office and as the Museo ng Maynila before being abandoned for several years; the Rizal Park Hotel occupies the building of the Manila Army and Navy Club, a social club exclusive to US Army and Navy personnel stationed in the Philippines. The club was founded in 1898 at a site on the corner of P. Burgos Street and Nozaleda Street in Intramuros, Manila. Following the completion of the Luneta Extension, a reclaimed land in front of the Luneta Park, part of American architect and urban planner Daniel Burnham's plan for the city of Manila, a piece of land in the extension was reserved for the club where the present building was constructed.

Designed by architect William E. Parsons, the building was completed on 17 April 1911; the building shares the lot with the neighboring Manila Elks Club, a local branch of the fraternal lodge of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. According to historian Manolo Quezon, the building was the "center of the American military's social life" in the Philippines from the time it was built until the outbreak of World War II in the Pacific in 1941. American military personnel and their families enjoyed amenities they enjoyed in the US during their stay at the building; the club had a swimming pool, a lawn tennis court, a dining area, a lounge area, a ballroom, a barber shop and a shoeshine stand. It had several rooms where American military personnel and their families can stay and rest. At the back of the building, there was a small dock where American navy personnel can be offloaded from their ships. With the outbreak of World War II, the Americans designated the building as a bomb shelter and evacuation center.

When the invading Japanese forces arrived in Manila, they used the abandoned building as headquarters for senior officers. During the Battle of Manila in 1945, the Japanese used it as a garrison and command post, before being burned, sustaining substantial damage to the roof and ballroom. After the combined Filipino and American forces recaptured the city, the US Army and Navy Engineering Corps rebuilt the building and it opened again on 1 December 1945. In the years that followed the war, the club experienced a decline in membership as American military personnel began to be shipped home. To continue attracting clients, the club decided to open the club's membership to civilians from the US and other countries, it converted the large ballroom into a theater which hosted entertaining performances each night. Throughout the 1950s to the 1980s, the club was one of the famous hangout places for Manila's social elite. In 1980, the City of Manila took over the property and used it as the City Architect's Office but was abandoned after it showed signs of structural defects.

It was subsequently used as a manufacturing site for the city's Christmas lanterns before becoming the site of the short-lived Museo ng Maynila in 2007. On 26 April 1991, the National Historical Institute declared the building a National Historical Landmark, becoming eligible for preservation as a historical site. For several years after the Museo ng Maynila closed, the Manila Army and Navy Club building was left in a state of disrepair. In 2014, the City of Manila, with the approval of the NHCP entered into a lease agreement with Oceanville Hotel and Spa Corporation for the renovation and use of the building as a five-star hotel. Oceanville entered into memorandum of agreement with Vanderwood Management Corporation for the sublease of a portion of the building for 20 years for use as a gaming facility, which it subleased to the Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation for 15 years; the redevelopment of the building started in 2014 consultant being tapped for the design and structural assessment of the building, respectively.

After the assessment was completed, work began in the retrofitting of the building's columns using reinforced concrete. It was decided, with the approval of the NHCP, including many of the original wrought-iron windows, wrought-iron railings and ceramic floor tiles inside the building, were cleared, which caused controversy after photos of the clearing operation circulated in social media. On 5 September 2014, the NHCP issued a cease-and-desist order against Oceanville for tampering with the main building without their permission. Oceanville argued that the clearing was done to remove debris that might pose danger to workers on the site, but the NHCP said. Following Oceanville and Palafox Associates' presentation of the final plan for the building, the NHCP withdrew its cease-and-desist order provided that no additional demolition of the building's historical components will be conducted without the agency's approval. By 2015, the redevelopment of the building resumed but it caused controversy again after the engineering firm behind the project cut several old trees located in the site.

It drew criticism from heritage environmentalists. According to the developer, 31 trees were cut while 13 were earth-balled and replanted in another location, all with the approval of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources; the redevelopment of the building costs P2.4 billion. The Rizal Park Hotel had its soft opening and grand launch on 26 July 2017; the launch was attended by Philippine president Rodrigo Duterte who, in his sp

Nickel(II) bis(acetylacetonate)

Nickel bis is a coordination complex with the formula 3, where acac is the anion C5H7O2− derived from deprotonation of acetylacetone. It is a dark green paramagnetic solid, soluble in organic solvents such as toluene, it reacts with water to give the blue-green diaquo complex Ni22. Anhydrous nickel acetylacetonate exists as molecules of Ni36; the three nickel atoms are collinear and each pair of them is bridged by two μ2 oxygen atoms. Each nickel atom has tetragonally distorted octahedral geometry, caused by the difference in the length of the Ni-O bonds between the bridging and non-bridging oxygens. Ni36 molecules are centrosymmetric, despite the non-centrosymmetric point group of the cis-Ni2 "monomers,", uncommon; the trimeric structure allows all nickel centers to achieve an octahedral coordination. The trimer is only formed if intramolecular sharing of oxygen centers between pairs of nickel centers occurs; the anhydrous complex has interesting magnetic properties. Down to about 80 K it exhibits normal paramagnetism with an effective magnetic moment of 3.2 μB, close to the spin-only moment expected of a d8 ion with two unpaired electrons.

The effective moment rises to 4.1 μB at 4.3 K, due to ferromagnetic exchange interactions involving all three nickel ions. When bound to bulkier analogues of acetylacetonate ligand, steric hindrance favors formation of the mononickel derivatives; this behavior is observed for the derivative of 3-methylacetylacetonate. As in the anhydrous form, the Ni centres occupy octahedral coordination sites; the coordination sphere is provided by two aquo ligands. Ni22 exists as trans isomers; the trans isomer is preferred over the cis isomer. In the trans isomer, the X group occupies the axial position, forming Ni-O bonds in ethanol solvents; these axial bonds are greater in length than the equatorial Ni-O bonds. Bisnickel is prepared by treating nickel nitrate with acetylacetone in the presence of base; the product is the blue-green diaquo complex Ni22. Ni2 + 2 CH3COCH2COCH3 + 2 H2O + 2 NaOH → Ni22 + 2 NaNO3This complex can be dehydrated using a Dean-Stark trap by azeotropic distillation: 3 Ni22 → 3 + 6 H2OSubliming Ni22 at 170–210 °C under reduced pressure gives the anhydrous form.

The anhydrous complex reacts with a range of Lewis bases to give monomeric adducts: 3 + 6 L → 3 Ni2L2Ni22 reacts in high yield at a methine positions, producing diamides from isocyanates. Related reactions occur with diethyl azodicarboxylate and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate: Ni22 + 2 PhNCO → Ni2 + 2 H2OThe trimer cleaves with bases such as N,N-dimethylaminoethanol and TMEDA. 3 + 3 chel → 3 The anhydrous complex is the precursor to nickel-based catalysts such as nickel bis. 3 is a precursor for the deposition of NiO thin film on conductive glass substrates using sol-gel techniques. Palladium bis Platinum bis