SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Rudder

A rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship, submarine, aircraft, or other conveyance that moves through a fluid medium. On an aircraft the rudder is used to counter adverse yaw and p-factor and is not the primary control used to turn the airplane. A rudder operates by redirecting the fluid past the hull or fuselage, thus imparting a turning or yawing motion to the craft. In basic form, a rudder is a flat plane or sheet of material attached with hinges to the craft's stern, tail, or after end. Rudders are shaped so as to minimize hydrodynamic or aerodynamic drag. On simple watercraft, a tiller—essentially, a stick or pole acting as a lever arm—may be attached to the top of the rudder to allow it to be turned by a helmsman. In larger vessels, pushrods, or hydraulics may be used to link rudders to steering wheels. In typical aircraft, the rudder is operated by pedals via mechanical hydraulics. A rudder is "part of the steering apparatus of a boat or ship, fastened outside the hull", denoting all different types of oars and rudders.

More the steering gear of ancient vessels can be classified into side-rudders and stern-mounted rudders, depending on their location on the ship. A third term, steering oar, can denote both types. In a Mediterranean context, side-rudders are more called quarter-rudders as the term designates more the place where the rudder was mounted. Stern-mounted rudders are uniformly suspended at the back of the ship in a central position. Although some classify a steering oar as a rudder, others argue that the steering oar used in ancient Egypt and Rome was not a true rudder and define only the stern-mounted rudder used in ancient Han China as a true rudder; the steering oar has the capacity to interfere with handling of the sails while it was fit more for small vessels on narrow, rapid-water transport. In regards to the ancient Phoenician use of the steering oar without a rudder in the Mediterranean, Leo Block writes: A single sail tends to turn a vessel in an upwind or downwind direction, rudder action is required to steer a straight course.

A steering oar was used at this time. With a single sail, a frequent movement of the steering oar was required to steer a straight course; the second sail, located forward, could be trimmed to offset the turning tendency of the main sail and minimize the need for course corrections by the steering oar, which would have improved sail performance. The steering oar or steering board is an oversized oar or board to control the direction of a ship or other watercraft prior to the invention of the rudder, it is attached to the starboard side in larger vessels, though in smaller ones it is if attached. Rowing oars set aside for steering appeared on large Egyptian vessels long before the time of Menes. In the Old Kingdom as many as five steering oars are found on each side of passenger boats; the tiller, at first a small pin run through the stock of the steering oar, can be traced to the fifth dynasty. Both the tiller and the introduction of an upright steering post abaft reduced the usual number of necessary steering oars to one each side.

Single steering oars put on the stern can be found in a number of tomb models of the time during the Middle Kingdom when tomb reliefs suggests them employed in Nile navigation. The first literary reference appears in the works of the Greek historian Herodotus, who had spent several months in Egypt: "They make one rudder, this is thrust through the keel" meaning the crotch at the end of the keel. In Iran, oars mounted on the side of ships for steering are documented from the 3rd millennium BCE in artwork, wooden models, remnants of actual boats. Roman navigation used sexillie quarter steering oars that went in the Mediterranean through a long period of constant refinement and improvement, so that by Roman times ancient vessels reached extraordinary sizes; the strength of the steering oar lay in its combination of effectiveness and simpleness. Roman quarter steering oar mounting systems survived intact through the medieval period. By the first half of the 1st century AD, steering gear mounted on the stern were quite common in Roman river and harbour craft as proved from reliefs and archaeological finds.

A tomb plaque of Hadrianic age shows a harbour tug boat in Ostia with a long stern-mounted oar for better leverage. The boat featured a spritsail, adding to the mobility of the harbour vessel. Further attested Roman uses of stern-mounted steering oars includes barges under tow, transport ships for wine casks, diverse other ship types; the well-known Zwammerdam find, a large river barge at the mouth of the Rhine, featured a large steering gear mounted on the stern. According to new research, the advanced Nemi ships, the palace barges of emperor Caligula, may have featured 14 m long rudders; the world's oldest known depiction of a sternpost-mounted rudder can be seen on a pottery model of a Chinese junk dating from the 1st century AD during the Han Dynasty, predating their appearance in the West by a thousand years. In China, miniature models of ships t

Gilesgate

Gilesgate is a place in County Durham, England. It is situated east of the centre of Durham, it is a ward of Durham, England with a total population taken at the 2011 census was 8,074. Gilesgate was the main street in a settlement associated with the Hospital of St Giles, sited by the existing St Giles Church; the street was divided in the 1960s by the construction of the A690 and the demolition of a number of houses and shops at the foot of Gilesgate Bank to construct a roundabout. East of Gilesgate itself was Gilesgate Moor. During the 19th century, housing extended along the Sherburn and Sunderland Roads and the colliery village of New Durham was built within the parish. Additional housing was constructed along the Sherburn Road in the 1930s, including the Sherburn Road Estate, built to house residents from the slums of Framwelgate. Following the Second World War, a further council housing estate was constructed north of the Sunderland Road with the streets taking the names of war leaders and local recipients of the Victoria Cross.

In modern usage Gilesgate can refer to the street, the smaller area consisting of the street above the roundabout and the Sunderland Road estate, Gilesgate Moor and High Grange Estate. The areas closest to the city have proved popular with students at Durham University; this is helped by the location of the College of St Hild and St Bede, the education department on the edge of Gilesgate. There are shops sited around Gilesgate such as a large Tesco Extra and a number of pubs, including New Durham Club and the Queens Head; the historic parish church of St Giles is a grade I listed building, with the Roman Catholic church of St Joseph located on Mill Lane. Local primary schools include Laurel Avenue, St Hilds and St Joseph's, it has 2 retail parks containing shops such as KFC, B and Q, Currys and PC World which are known as Durham Retail Park and Dragonville Retail Park. In 2004'Soccarena' was opened, providing eight 6-a-side soccer pitches for aspiring footballers of all ages; the facility operates a number of different league formats, using the top divisions and lower divisions for each night of the week.

Gilesgate Moor is part of Gilesgate. It is part of the civil parish of Belmont, it had a post office and a cinema. Kepier Hospital Margot Johnson. "Gilesgate and St. Mary Magdalene" in Durham: Historic and University City and surrounding area. Sixth Edition. Turnstone Ventures. 1992. ISBN 094610509X. Page 15

Catalan Countries

Catalan Countries refers to those territories where the Catalan language, or a variant of it, is spoken. They include the Spanish regions of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and parts of Aragon and Murcia, as well as the department of Pyrénées-Orientales in France, the Principality of Andorra, the city of Alghero in Sardinia. In the context of Catalan nationalism, the term is sometimes used in a more restricted way to refer to just Catalonia and the Balearic Islands; the Catalan Countries do not correspond to any present or past political or administrative unit, though most of the area belonged to the Crown of Aragon in the Middle Ages. Parts of Valencia and Catalonia are not Catalan-speaking; the "Catalan Countries" have been at the centre of both cultural and political projects since the late 19th century. Its cultural dimension became politically charged by the late 1960s and early 1970s, as Francoism began to die out in Spain, what had been a cultural term restricted to connoisseurs of Catalan philology became a divisive issue during the Spanish Transition period, most acrimoniously in Valencia during the 1980s.

Modern linguistic and cultural projects include the Institut Ramon Llull and the Fundació Ramon Llull, which are run by the governments of the Balearic Islands and Andorra, the Department Council of the Pyrénées-Orientales, the city council of Alghero and the Network of Valencian Cities. Politically, it involves a pan-nationalist project to unite the Catalan-speaking territories of Spain and France in the context of the independence movement in Catalonia; the political project does not enjoy wide support outside Catalonia, where some sectors view it as an expression of pancatalanism. Linguistic unity, however, is recognized except for the followers of a political movement known as Blaverism though some of its main organizations have abandoned such idea. Països Catalans has different meanings depending on the context; these can be classified in two groups: linguistic or political, the political definition of the concept being the widest, since it encompasses the linguistic side of it. As a linguistic term, Països Catalans is used in a similar fashion to the English Anglosphere, the French Francophonie, the Portuguese Lusofonia or the Spanish Hispanophone territories.

However, it is not universally accepted as a linguistic concept, in the territories it purports to unite. As a political term, it refers to a number of political projects as advocated by supporters of Catalan independence. These, based on the linguistic fact, argue for the existence of a common national identity that would surpass the limits of each territory covered by this concept and would apply to the remaining ones; these movements advocate for "political collaboration" amongst these territories. This stands for their union and political independence; as a consequence of the opposition these political projects have received –notably in some of the territories described by this concept – some cultural institutions avoid the usage of Països Catalans in some contexts, as a means to prevent any political interpretation. Catalan and its variants are spoken in: the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia – though in the comarca of Val d'Aran, Occitan is considered the language proper to that territory.

Most of the French department of the Pyrénées-Orientales called Le Pays Catalan in French or Catalunya Nord in Catalan. Catalan is the official language of Andorra, co-official with Spanish and Occitan in Catalonia, co-official with Spanish in the Balearic Islands and the Valencian Community—with the denomination of Valencian in the latter—and co-official with Italian in the city of Alghero, it is part of the recognized minority languages of Italy along with Sardinian spoken in Alghero. It is not official in Aragon, Murcia or the Pyrénées-Orientales though on 10 December 2007 the General Council of the Pyrénées-Orientales recognized Catalan, along with French, as a language of the department. In 2009, the Catalan language was declared llengua pròpia of Aragon. There are several endeavors and collaborations amongst some of the diverse government and cultural institutions involved. One such case is the Ramon Llull Institute, founded in 2002 by the government of the Balearic Islands and the government of Catalonia.

Its main objective is to promote the Catalan language and culture abroad in all its variants, as well as the works of writers, artists and researchers of the regions which are part of it. The Xarxa Vives d'Universitats, an association of universities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, Northern Catalonia and Andorra founded in 1994, was incorporated into the IRL in 2008. In 2008, in