Rules of chess

The rules of chess are rules governing the play of the game of chess. While the exact origins of chess are unclear, modern rules first took form during the Middle Ages; the rules continued to be modified until the early 19th century, when they reached their current form. The rules varied somewhat from place to place. Today, the standard rules are set by the international governing body for chess. Slight modifications are made by some national organizations for their own purposes. There are variations of the rules for fast chess, correspondence chess, online chess, Chess960. Chess is a two-player board game utilizing a chessboard and sixteen pieces of six types for each player; each type of piece moves in a distinct way. The goal of the game is to checkmate the opponent's king. Games do not end in checkmate. A game can end in a draw in several ways. Besides the basic moves of the pieces, rules govern the equipment used, time control and ethics of players, accommodations for physically challenged players, recording of moves using chess notation.

Procedures for resolving irregularities that can occur during a game are provided as well. Chess is played on a chessboard, a square board divided into 64 squares of alternating color, similar to that used in draughts. No matter what the actual colors of the board, the lighter-colored squares are called "light" or "white", the darker-colored squares are called "dark" or "black". Sixteen "white" and sixteen "black" pieces are placed on the board at the beginning of the game; the board is placed. Horizontal rows are called ranks and vertical rows are called files; each player controls sixteen pieces: At the beginning of the game, the pieces are arranged as shown in the diagram: for each side one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, eight pawns. The pieces are placed, one on a square, as follows: The rooks are placed on the outside corners and left edge; the knights are placed inside of the rooks. The bishops are placed inside of the knights; the queen is placed on the central square of the same color of that of the player: white queen on the white square and black queen on the black square.

The king takes the vacant spot next to the queen. The pawns are placed one square in front of all of the other pieces. Popular mnemonics used to remember the setup are "queen on her own color" and "white on right"; the latter refers to setting up the board so that the square closest to each player's right is white. The player controlling the white pieces is named "White". White moves first players alternate moves. Making a move is required. Play continues until a king is checkmated, a player resigns, or a draw is declared, as explained below. In addition, if the game is being played under a time control players who exceed their time limit lose the game; the official chess rules do not include a procedure for determining. Instead, this decision is left open to tournament-specific rules or, in the case of non-competitive play, mutual agreement, in which case some kind of random choice is employed. A common method is for one player to conceal a piece of each color in either hand; each type of chess piece has its own method of movement.

A piece moves to a vacant square except. Except for any move of the knight and castling, pieces cannot jump over other pieces. A piece is captured; the captured piece is thereby permanently removed from the game. The king can not be captured; the king moves one square horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. A special move with the king known as castling is allowed only once per game. A rook moves any number of vacant squares vertically, it is moved when castling. A bishop moves any number of vacant squares diagonally; the queen moves any number of vacant squares horizontally, diagonally. A knight moves to the nearest square not on file, or diagonal; the knight is not blocked by other pieces: it jumps to the new location. Pawns have the most complex rules of movement:A pawn moves straight forward one square, if that square is vacant. If it has not yet moved, a pawn has the option of moving two squares straight forward, provided both squares are vacant. Pawns cannot move backwards. Pawns are the only pieces.

A pawn can capture an enemy piece on either of the two squares diagonally in front of the pawn. The pawn is involved in the two special moves en passant and promotion. Castling consists of moving the king two squares towards a rook placing the rook on the other side of the king, adjacent to it. Castling is only permissible if all of the following conditions hold: The king and rook involved in castling must not have moved.


Chronaxie is the minimum time required for an electric current to double the strength of the rheobase to stimulate a muscle or a neuron. Rheobase is the lowest intensity with indefinite pulse duration which just stimulated muscles or nerves. Chronaxie is dependent on the density of voltage-gated sodium channels in the cell, which affect that cell’s excitability. Chronaxie varies across different types of tissue: fast-twitch muscles have a lower chronaxie, slow-twitch muscles have a higher one. Chronaxie is the tissue-excitability parameter that permits choice of the optimum stimulus pulse duration for stimulation of any excitable tissue. Chronaxie is the Lapicque descriptor of the stimulus pulse duration for a current of twice rheobasic strength, the threshold current for an infinitely long-duration stimulus pulse. Lapicque showed that these two quantities define the strength-duration curve for current: I = b, where d is the pulse duration. However, there are two other electrical parameters used to describe a stimulus: charge.

The minimum energy occurs with a pulse duration equal to chronaxie. Minimum charge occurs with an infinitely short-duration pulse. Choice of a pulse duration equal to 10c requires a current of only 10% above rheobase. Choice of a pulse duration of 0.1c requires a charge of 10% above the minimum charge. The terms chronaxie and rheobase were first coined in Louis Lapicque’s famous paper on Définition expérimentale de l’excitabilité, published in 1909; the above I curve is attributed to Weiss - see e.g.. It is the most simplistic of the 2'simple' mathematical descriptors of the dependence of current strength on duration, it leads to Weiss' linear charge progression with d: Q = I d = b Both Lapicque's own writings and more recent work are at odds with the linear-charge approximation. In 1907 Lapicque was using a linear first-order approximation of the cell membrane, modeled using a single-RC equivalent circuit. Thus: I = b / where τ = R C is the membrane time constant - in the 1st-order linear membrane model: C d v d t + v R = I, where v ≡ V − V r e s t.

Notice that the chronaxie is not explicitly present here. Notice that - with short duration d ≪ τ, by the Taylor series decomposition of the exponent: I ≈ b τ / d which leads to a constant-charge approximation; the latter may fit well more complex models of the excitable membrane, which take into account ion-channel gating mechanisms, as well as intracellular current flow, which may be the main contributors for deviations from both simple formulas. These'subtleties' are described by Lapicque, but not too well by Geddes who emphasized the Weiss level, attributing it to Lapicque. An electrode is inserted into the muscle of interest, stimulated using surface current. Chronaxie values increase resulting from hyperventilation can be ascribed to a change in skin impedance, the physiological factors responsible for this change being under the influence of the autonomic nervous system; this example of the preponderating influence which the condition of the skin and the underlying tissues may exert compels caution in judging the results of chronaxie measurements by percutaneous stimulation.

A fresh and normal sartorius placed straight in a Ringer solution and stimulated through the solution without any direct contact with the electrodes is subject to give two distinct strength-duration curves, one of them being spread over several hundredths of a second. The chronaxie values for mammalian ventricles at body temperature range from 0.5 ms to 2.0 to 4.1 ms. It has been reported that large-diameter myelinated axons have chronaxie times ranging from 50 to 100 µs and 30 to 200 µs, neuronal cell bodies and dendrites have chronaxie times ranging from 1 to 10 ms or up to 30 ms; the chronaxie times of grey matter were reported as being 380 +/- 191 ms and 200±700 ms. Interpretations of chronaxie times are further confounded by additional factors; the chronaxie times reported for soma and dendrites have been established using intracellular pulses that cannot be extrapolated to extra- cellular stimuli. Data reported in the literature use either motor response as the physiological threshold in humans or action potential generation in animals.

These are based on stimulation through a macro-electrode, which in the case of humans is a 1.5 Â 1.2-mm DBS electrode. Data derived from micro-electrode stimulation and physiological mapping of sensory thalamus are scarce; the two stimulation methods may result in different results. Few studies have attempted to correlate chronaxie times with sensory perception, although understanding the neural elements that are involved in a subjective percept, such as tingling, has important physiological imp

Theatre Ademi

Theatre "Ademi" is located in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. Theater "Ademi" was created by Kyrgyzstan playwright and director J. Kulmambetovym in 2000, with the participation of Makhabat Baygabylovoy; the repertoire is aimed at children and youths. Performances are in Russian. Theatre is visiting stage team serving kindergartens, schools of Kyrgyzstan, as well as tourists Issykulya in summer. During the years of its existence on the basis of the theater " Ademi " were made a number of major projects such as the " Fair of new plays in Central Asia" and "The Second Fair of new plays Central Asia and the first Issyk-Kul festival region cial theater s " Azem -2006" and " Fragrant concubine - the legend and the pride of the Uighur people," "Slavery - shame the 21st century " etc. For more than ten years of operation, Theater "Ademi" completed more than ten theater productions that have become popular stage works of children's audience Kyrgyzstan and Russia. Red Riding Hood Gray wolf and goats Wizard and dog Do not be afraid Mokocho He went to the city The wind, the wind carried away...

My Confession On the night Iparhan Xian- Fei Damn you, Janyl - Mirza -Salome Song of the Grand Canal builders, etc. Director of the theater is Zh. Kulmambetov. In recent years, on the basis of the theater " Ademi " pursued release feature films. Over 7 years on the basis of theater removed following films: Star Myrzabek Toybaeva Kurorttogu okuya same Omor menen Mirbektin zhoruktary Zharalangan turnalar - 2 Senin tiliң - Manastyn Styles Kiz- zhigit Tokoldor topolonu, together with the studio " scour " Men saga ISHENIM, together with the studio Aigerim Kanduu sүyүү -2 Chyngyz menen Bүbүsayra Kanduu sүyүү Kyrgyz theater " Ademi " restored the play " Red... Evening Bishkek - p. 11 Janish Kulmambetov: I like to be free Polygamy in kyrgyzski: the new comedy " Stir because younger women " plays in the sand Theatre news for June 27, 2006 - Pages Moscow