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Rumi

Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī, Mevlânâ/Mawlānā, Mevlevî/Mawlawī, more popularly as Rumi, was a 13th-century Persian poet, Islamic scholar and Sufi mystic from Greater Khorasan. Rumi's influence transcends national borders and ethnic divisions: Iranians, Turks, Pashtuns, other Central Asian Muslims, the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent have appreciated his spiritual legacy for the past seven centuries, his poems have been translated into many of the world's languages and transposed into various formats. Rumi has been described as the "most popular poet" and the "best selling poet" in the United States. Rumi's works are written in Persian, but he used Turkish and Greek in his verse, his Masnavi, composed in Konya, is considered one of the greatest poems of the Persian language. His works are read today in their original language across Greater Iran and the Persian-speaking world. Translations of his works are popular, most notably in Turkey, the United States, South Asia.

His poetry has influenced not only Persian literature, but the literary traditions of the Ottoman Turkish, Chagatai and Pashto languages. He is most called Rumi in English, his full name is Jalāl ad-Dīn Muḥammad Balkhī or Jalāl ad-Dīn Muḥammad Rūmī. Jalal ad-Din is an Arabic name meaning "Glory of the Faith". Balkhī and Rūmī are his nisbas, meaning "from Balkh" and "from Rûm". According to the authoritative Rumi biographer Franklin Lewis of the University of Chicago, "he Anatolian peninsula which had belonged to the Byzantine, or eastern Roman empire, had only recently been conquered by Muslims and when it came to be controlled by Turkish Muslim rulers, it was still known to Arabs and Turks as the geographical area of Rum; as such, there are a number of historical personages born in or associated with Anatolia known as Rumi, a word borrowed from Arabic meaning'Roman,' in which context Roman refers to subjects of the Byzantine Empire or to people living in or things associated with Anatolia."He is known by the sobriquet Mawlānā/Molānā in Iran and popularly known as Mevlânâ in Turkey.

Mawlānā is a term of Arabic origin, meaning "our master". The term مولوی Mawlawī/Mowlavi and Mevlevi of Arabic origin, meaning "my master", is frequently used for him. Rumi was born to native Persian-speaking parents from the Balkh, in present-day Afghanistan, he was born either in Wakhsh, a village on the Vakhsh River in present-day Tajikistan, or in the city of Balkh, in present-day Afghanistan. Greater Balkh was at that time a major centre of Persian culture and Sufism had developed there for several centuries; the most important influences upon Rumi, besides his father, were Sanai. Rumi expresses his appreciation: "Attar was the spirit, Sanai his eyes twain, And in time thereafter, Came we in their train" and mentions in another poem: "Attar has traversed the seven cities of Love, We are still at the turn of one street", his father was connected to the spiritual lineage of Najm al-Din Kubra. Rumi lived most of his life under the Persianate Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, where he produced his works and died in 1273 AD.

He was buried in Konya, his shrine became a place of pilgrimage. Upon his death, his followers and his son Sultan Walad founded the Mevlevi Order known as the Order of the Whirling Dervishes, famous for the Sufi dance known as the Sama ceremony, he was laid to rest beside his father, over his remains a shrine was erected. A hagiographical account of him is described in Shams ud-Din Ahmad Aflāki's Manāqib ul-Ārifīn; this biography needs to be treated with care as it contains both facts about Rumi. For example, Professor Franklin Lewis of the University of Chicago, author of the most complete biography on Rumi, has separate sections for the hagiographical biography of Rumi and the actual biography about him. Rumi's father was Bahā ud-Dīn Walad, a theologian, jurist and a mystic from Balkh, known by the followers of Rumi as Sultan al-Ulama or "Sultan of the Scholars"; the popular hagiographical assertions that have claimed the family's descent from the Caliph Abu Bakr does not hold on closer examination and is rejected by modern scholars.

The claim of maternal descent from the Khwarazmshah for Rumi or his father is seen as a non-historical hagiographical tradition designed to connect the family with royalty, but this claim is rejected for chronological and historical reasons. The most complete genealogy offered for the family stretches back to six or seven generations to famous Hanafi jurists. We do not learn the name of Baha al-Din's mother in the sources, only that he referred to her as "Māmi", that she was a simple woman who lived to the 1200s; the mother of Rumi was Mu'mina Khātūn. The profession of the family for several generations was that of Islamic preachers of the liberal Hanafi rite, this family tradition was continued by Rumi and Sultan Walad; when the Mongols invaded Central Asia sometime between 1215 and 1220, Baha ud-Din Walad, with his whole family and a group of disciples, set out westwards. According to hagiographical account which is

Security level

In cryptography, security is measured in terms of strength and stability as the users can understand it more rather than achieves. Security level is expressed in "bits", where n-bit security means that the attacker would have to perform 2n operations to break it, but other methods have been proposed that more model the costs for an attacker; this allows for convenient comparison between algorithms and is useful when combining multiple primitives in a hybrid cryptosystem, so there is no clear weakest link. For example, AES-128 is designed to offer a 128-bit security level, considered equivalent to 3072-bit RSA. In this context, security claim or target security level is the security level that a primitive was designed to achieve, although "security level" is sometimes used in those contexts; when attacks are found that have lower cost than the security claim, the primitive is considered broken. Symmetric algorithms have a defined security claim. For symmetric ciphers, it is equal to the key size of the cipher — equivalent to the complexity of a brute-force attack.

Cryptographic hash functions with output size of n bits have a collision resistance security level n/2 and preimage resistance level n. This is. For example, SHA-256 offers 128-bit collision resistance and 256-bit preimage resistance. However, there are some exceptions to this; the Phelix and Helix are 256-bit ciphers offering a 128-bit security level. The SHAKE variants of SHA-3 are different: for a 256-bit output size, SHAKE-128 provides 128-bit security level for both collision and preimage resistance; the design of most asymmetric algorithms relies on neat mathematical problems that are efficient to compute in one direction, but inefficient to reverse by the attacker. However, attacks against current public-key systems are always faster than brute-force search of the key space, their security level isn't set at design time, but represents a computational hardness assumption, adjusted to match the best known attack. Various recommendations have been published that estimate the security level of asymmetric algorithms, which differ due to different methodologies.

For the RSA cryptosystem at 128-bit security level, NIST and ENISA recommend using 3072-bit keys and IETF 3253 bits. Elliptic curve cryptography requires shorter keys, so the recommendations are 256-383, 256 and 242 bits. Computational hardness assumption 40-bit encryption Cipher security summary Hash function security summary

Ben Franklin (The Office)

"Ben Franklin" is the fifteenth episode of the third season of the American comedy television series The Office, the show's forty-third episode overall. Written by Mindy Kaling, who acts in the show as Kelly Kapoor, directed by Randall Einhorn, the episode first aired in the United States on February 1, 2007, on NBC. "Ben Franklin" received 5.0/13 in the ages 18–49 demographic of the Nielsen ratings, was watched by an estimated audience of 10.1 million viewers, the episode received mixed reviews among critics. In the episode, the employees from the office prepare for Phyllis Lapin's wedding. Michael Scott, acting under advice from Todd Packer, instructs Dwight Schrute to hire a stripper for the men and delegates Jim Halpert to hire one for the women. While Dwight hires a stripper, Jim ends up hiring a Ben Franklin impersonator instead; the office plays host to a bridal shower for Phyllis Lapin while Bob Vance's bachelor party is held in the warehouse. Though Michael Scott is aware that the company's sexual harassment policy forbids strippers in the workplace, Todd Packer convinces him that it is okay to hire a stripper for the bachelor party if he gets a male stripper for the bridal shower.

After Jim Halpert admitted to Karen Filippelli in the previous episode that he still has feelings for Pam Beesly, interactions between the three become tense. Michael delegates the hiring of the strippers to Dwight Jim. While Dwight locates a stripper named Elizabeth for Bob Vance's party, Jim orders an educational Benjamin Franklin impersonator as a joke. Pam and Karen have fun heckling the impersonator. Jim tells Dwight. Dwight says he's "99% sure" this is not so but asks questions to the impersonator that he believes only the real Ben Franklin would know; the well-practiced impersonator answers each question without hesitation, much to Dwight's anger and disbelief. In the break room, Karen confronts Pam about Jim and Pam's kiss and asks if she is still interested in Jim. Made nervous by the questioning, Pam uses misleading wording, babbles uncontrollably, at the end of the conversation blurts out "I'm sorry." Karen finds her behavior baffling but not suspicious. At the bachelor party, Bob Vance refuses a lap dance, so Michael volunteers.

During the lap dance, Michael becomes concerned that this is cheating on Jan Levinson and brings the show to an abrupt close. Dwight decides to get the three hours of work they paid the stripper for by having her answer calls. After consulting with "Ben Franklin" and the stripper, Michael decides to tell Jan about the lap dance. However, Jan is less upset by his unfaithfulness to her than by his violation of company policy. Relieved, Michael makes lovey dovey talk to Jan as she suggests firing him over the incident; the Benjamin Franklin impersonator flirts with Pam at her desk. Jim teasingly asks if things are getting serious; this makes Pam embarrassed by her lack of a boyfriend, she asks Ryan Howard to set her up with some of his friends from business school. "Ben Franklin" was the second episode of the series directed by Randall Einhorn. Einhorn had directed "Initiation", as well as the summer spin-off webisodes "The Accountants". "Ben Franklin" was written by Mindy Kaling, who acts on the show as customer service representative Kelly Kapoor.

The episode was the sixth of the series written by Kaling. Jackie Debatin, who appeared in "Ben Franklin" as Elizabeth, is used to playing strippers and hookers. Debatin had been a stripper on Friends, a stripper on That'70s Show, a stripper on Two and a Half Men, a madam on Veronica Mars, a call girl on Boston Legal. In an interview, Debatin said playing Elizabeth was "probably the best experience I have had in TV work", because the cast and crew were "down to earth, grateful to be there". Although actor Andrew Daly, who played Gordon the Ben Franklin impersonator, had known John Krasinski, Angela Kinsey, B. J. Novak and Kate Flannery, he said that The Office cast and crew "could not have been more welcoming to me." Daly liked it when the actors "depart from the script and improvised a little." "Ben Franklin" received 5.0/13 in the ages 18–49 demographic of the Nielsen ratings. This means that five percent of all households with an 18- to 49-year-old living in it watched the episode, 13 percent had their television tuned to the channel at any point.

The episode was watched by an estimated audience of 10.1 million viewers. "Ben Franklin" is one of only a handful of other episodes of The Office to reach over 10 million viewers, the others being the show's pilot episode, "The Injury," "Traveling Salesmen," "The Return," and "Stress Relief," of which the latter reached over 20 million viewers. "Ben Franklin" received mixed, but good, reviews from critics. IGN's Brian Zoromski wrote that "The Office was in excellent form this week." Zoromski went on to credit the "great progression" in the Jim-Pam-Karen love triangle and Michael being "his inept self" as parts of the episode that made it "one of the best Office episodes this season". Michael Sciannamea of TV Squad was less enthusiastic about the episode, writing that although it was "solid", "not much happened here other than the Jim-Karen-Pam triangle." Abby West, of Entertainment Weekly, praised the love triangle, saying "The Pam/Karen confrontation was as uncomfortable as I could hope for.

It's so gratifying to see Pam's armor cracking." West praised