A lost city is a settlement that fell into terminal decline and became extensively or uninhabited, with the consequence that the site's former significance was no longer known to the wider world. The locations of many lost cities have been forgotten, but some have been rediscovered and studied extensively by scientists. Abandoned cities or cities whose location was never in question might be referred to as ruins or ghost towns; the search for such lost cities by European explorers and adventurers in Africa, the Americas, Southeast Asia from the 15th century onwards led to the development of archaeology. Lost cities fall into two broad categories: those where all knowledge of the city's existence was forgotten before it was rediscovered, those whose memory was preserved in myth, legend, or historical records but whose location was lost or at least no longer recognized. Cities may become lost for a variety of reasons including natural disasters, economic or social upheaval, or war; the Incan capital city of Vilcabamba was destroyed and depopulated during the Spanish conquest of Peru in 1572.
The Spanish did not rebuild the city, the location went unrecorded and was forgotten until it was rediscovered through a detailed examination of period letters and documents. Troy was a city located in northwest Anatolia in, it is best known for being the focus of the Trojan War described in the Greek Epic Cycle and in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. Destroyed and rebuilt, the city declined and was abandoned in the Byzantine era. Buried by time, the city was consigned to the realm of legend until the location was first excavated in the 1860s. Other settlements are lost with few or no clues to their decline. For example, Malden Island, in the central Pacific, was deserted when first visited by Europeans in 1825, but the unsuspected presence of ruined temples and the remains of other structures found on the island indicate that a population of Polynesians had lived there for several generations some centuries earlier. Prolonged drought seems the most explanation for their demise and the remote nature of the island meant few visitors.
With the development of archaeology and the application of modern techniques, many lost cities have been rediscovered. Machu Picchu is a pre-Columbian Inca site situated on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru. Referred to as the "Lost City of the Incas", it is the most familiar icon of the Inca World. Machu Picchu was built at the height of the Inca Empire, it was abandoned just over 100 years in 1572, as a belated result of the Spanish Conquest. It is possible that most of its inhabitants died from smallpox introduced by travelers before the Spanish conquistadors arrived in the area. In 1911, Melchor Arteaga led the explorer Hiram Bingham to Machu Picchu, forgotten by everybody except the small number of people living in the immediate valley. Helike was an ancient Greek city that sank at night in the winter of 373 BCE; the city was located in two kilometres from the Corinthian Gulf. The city was thought to be legend until 2001. In 1988, the Greek archaeologist Dora Katsonopoulou launched the Helike Project to locate the site of the lost city.
In 1994, in collaboration with the University of Patras, a magnetometer survey was carried out in the midplain of the delta, which revealed the outlines of a buried building. In 1995, this target was excavated, a large Roman building with standing walls was brought to light; the city was rediscovered in 2001, buried in an ancient lagoon. Some cities which are considered lost are places of legend. Ai – important city in the Hebrew Bible Arthurian Camelot Atlantis Aztlán- the ancestral homeland in Aztec mythology Ciudad de los Cesares – a legendary city in Patagonia, never found Dvārakā – An ancient city of Krishna, submerged in the sea. El Dorado Iram of the Pillars – this may refer to a lost Arabian city in the Empty Quarter, but sources identify it as a tribe or an area mentioned in the Quran Kitezh, Russia – legendary underwater city which may be seen in good weather Libertatia, Madagascar - is pirate colony founded in the 17th Century by Pirate Captain James Misson, still disputed by historians today.
Lost City of Z – a city located in the jungles of the Mato Grosso region of Brazil, said to have been seen by the British explorer Col. Percy Harrison Fawcett some time before World War I Lyonesse Otuken – legendary capital city of Gokturks in Turkic mythology Paititi – a legendary city and refuge in the rainforests where Bolivia and Peru meet The Seven Cities of Gold Shambhala – Mythical kingdom said to be located in Tibet Sodom and Gomorrah Vineta – legendary city somewhere at the Baltic coast of Germany or Poland Ys – legendary city on the western coast of FranceOther lost cities, having once been considered legendary, are now known to have existed, such as Troy and Bjarmaland. Akhetaten, Egypt – Capital during the reign of 18th Dynasty pharaoh Akhenaten. Abandoned and totally destroyed. Modern day el Amarna. Aoudaghost, Mauritania – Wealthy Berber city in medieval Ghana. Avaris – capital city of the Hyksos in the Nile Delta. Canopus, Egypt – Located on the now-dry Canopic branch of the Nile, east of Alexandria.
Carthage – Initially a Phoenician city and rebuilt by Rome. Served as the capital of the Vandal Kingdom
Nordstrand is a peninsula and former island in North Frisia on the North Sea coast of Germany. It is part of the Nordfriesland district in the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein, its area is 50 km², its population is 2,300. Nordstrand has two municipalities and smaller Elisabeth-Sophien-Koog, which are part of the Amt Nordsee-Treene. In medieval times, Nordstrand was a part of the larger island of Strand, torn into pieces in a disastrous storm tide in 1634. Over 6,000 people drowned. Before 1634, the area of the island was about 210 square miles. Other remnants of Strand are Pellworm and the Halligen islets. Nordstrand is accessible by road over a causeway which connects to the mainland and was built in 1936. In 1987, the polder Beltringharder Koog was completed, turning the former island into a peninsula; the original Nordstrand island is thought to be the ancestral homeland for the North American surname "van Nostrand". Two brothers emigrated from here to what is present day New York, USA in 1637 and 1638 after the flood.
One of the three granite panels of the Canadian van Nostrand monument, located in York Mill's Cemetery, Toronto points to Nordstrand Island. Pieter Karstense van Nortstrant was born about 1605 on the island of Norstrand. Coupled with the name of his father, Carsten or Kersten, the fact that his children were baptized in the Lutheran Church in Amsterdam, it would seem that a German, Frisian or Danish origin is probable, it is uncertain when Pieter Karstense came to Amsterdam as a child with his father, though no record of the latter has been found there. The sons of Pieter Pietersen Ostrander, were called Van Norstrande or Van Nostrande, while Van Ostrande was used in other baptisms and adopted the surname Oostrander and the spelling as it is today Ostrander. Nordstrand is the origin of a locally famous alcoholic beverage, the Pharisäer, which the islanders developed in 1872 to be able to drink alcohol in the presence of local pastor Georg Bleyer, who preached abstinence, it is made from strong hot coffee, dark rum and whipped cream.
The pastor got the only cup without rum, but one day the cups got mixed up. When he discovered the deceit he exclaimed "Ihr Pharisäer!". Hence the name. Jan Adriaanszoon Leeghwater, Dutch hydraulic engineer Integrated Landscape and Cultural Heritage Management and Development Plan for the Wadden Sea Region
Achim Reichel is a musician and songwriter from Hamburg, Germany. He is known for his 1991 single "Aloha Heja He", serving as the frontman for the 1960s beat group The Rattles, among other achievements, were selected to open for The Beatles on the Fabs' last-ever tour of Europe in 1966. In 1968, he co-founded the psychedelic pop group Wonderland, which included English ex-patriate Les Humphries who would soon start his own Les Humphries Singers. In 1971, Reichel left the group for his own progressive Krautrock solo project, A. R. & Machines, of which the first album Die grüne Reise was critically acclaimed and likened to bands such as Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream. Since 1975, Reichel has taken a keen interest in recording traditional German songs and classic poetry as modern-style music, which includes such albums as Dat Shanty Alb'm, Regenballade, Wilder Wassermann, Volxlieder. Dat Shanty Alb'm Klabautermann Regenballade Heiße Scheibe Ungeschminkt Blues In Blond Nachtexpress Eine Ewigkeit Unterwegs Fledermaus Melancholie Und Sturmflut Wahre Liebe Nachtexpress 1986: Eine Ewigkeit unterwegs 1988: Fledermaus 1989: Was Echtes Melancholie und Sturmflut Wahre Liebe Große Freiheit Oh ha!
Herz ist Trumpf – Das Beste von Achim Reichel Entspann dich Wilder Wassermann – Balladen & Mythen 100 % Leben double live album Volxlieder Michels Gold Solo mit euch – Mein Leben, meine Musik, gesungen und erzählt double live album Raureif Das Beste Die grüne Reise Echo AR3 AR IV 1973) AR5 Autovision Erholung Official website Achim Reichel discography at Discogs
Dunwich is a village and civil parish in Suffolk, England. It is in the Suffolk Coast and Heaths AONB around 92 miles north-east of London, 9 miles south of Southwold and 7 miles north of Leiston, on the North Sea coast. In the Anglo-Saxon period, Dunwich was the capital of the Kingdom of the East Angles, but the harbour and most of the town have since disappeared due to coastal erosion. At its height it was an international port similar in size to 14th century London, its decline began in 1286 when a storm surge hit the East Anglian coast followed by a great storm in 1287 and another great storm in 1287, it was shrank to the village it is today. Dunwich is connected with the lost Anglo-Saxon placename Dommoc; the population of the civil parish at the 2001 census was 84, which increased to 183 according to the 2011 Census, though the area used by the Office of National Statistics for 2011 includes part of the civil parish of Westleton. There is no parish council. Since the 15th century, Dunwich has been identified with Dommoc – the original seat of the Anglo-Saxon bishops of the Kingdom of East Anglia established by Sigeberht of East Anglia for Saint Felix in c.
629–31. Dommoc was the seat of the bishops of Dommoc until around 870, when the East Anglian kingdom was taken over by the pagan Danes. Years antiquarians would describe Dunwich as being the "former capital of East Anglia". However, many historians now prefer to locate Dommoc at Walton Castle, the site of a Saxon shore fort; the Domesday Book of 1086 describes it as possessing three churches. At this time it had an estimated population of 3000. On 1 January 1286, a storm surge destroyed buildings in it. Before that, most recorded damage to Dunwich was loss of damage to the harbour; this was followed by two further surges the next year, the South England flood of February 1287 and St. Lucia's flood in December. A fierce storm in 1328 swept away the entire village of Newton, a few miles up the coast. Another large storm in 1347 swept some 400 houses into the sea; the Grote Mandrenke around 16 January 1362 destroyed much of the remainder of the town. Most of the buildings that were present in the 13th century have disappeared, including all eight churches, Dunwich is now a small coastal "village", though retaining its status as a town.
The remains of a 13th-century Franciscan priory and the Leper Hospital of St James can still be seen. A popular local legend says that, at certain tides, church bells can still be heard from beneath the waves; the loss of "a busy port to... 14th century storms that swept whole parishes into the sea" is an urban myth. It appears that the port developed as a sheltered harbour where the Dunwich River entered the North Sea. Coastal processes including storms caused the river to shift its exit 2.5 miles north to Walberswick, at the River Blyth. The town of Dunwich lost its raison d'etre and was abandoned. Sea defences were not maintained and coastal erosion progressively invaded the town; as a legacy of its previous significance, the parliamentary constituency of Dunwich retained the right to send two members to Parliament until the Reform Act 1832 and was one of Britain's most notorious rotten boroughs. By the mid-19th century, the population had dwindled to 237 inhabitants and Dunwich was described as a "decayed and disfranchised borough".
A new church, St James, was built in 1832 after the abandonment of the last of the old churches, All Saints', without a rector since 1755. All Saints' Church fell into the sea between 1904 and 1919, the last major portion of the tower succumbing on 12 November 1919. In 2005 historian Stuart Bacon stated that recent low tides had shown that shipbuilding had occurred in the town; the "Dark Heart of Dunwich" is piece of a Suffolk folklore, the origins of which appear to lie in the 12th century. The legend tells of how Eva, a Dunwich maiden due to be married to the son of a local landowner, fell instead for a good-looking local cad, who had sex with her and deserted her, running off to sea. After waiting in vain for her lost love to return, she hurled it into the sea. However, according to the legend, she was unable to die, still haunts the area around the shifting beach; the heart itself, believed to be similar in appearance to a wooden heart, is believed to wash up and bring great misfortune onto anyone who picks it up and keeps it.
The Dunwich 2008 project funded by English Heritage and the Esmée Fairbairn Foundation was intended to collate all reliable historic mapped data on the same co-ordinate system and combine this with aerial photography and an underwater survey. New digital maps were produced by Prof. David Sear of Southampton University, marine archaeologist Stuart Bacon and the Geodata Institute; the survey used multibeam and sidescan sonar to map the seafloor across the entire area of the town. These surveys identified a series of ruins which were confirmed by divers who recovered stones with lime mortar still attached; the lime mortar matched nearly with medieval mortar in existing churches on the coast. In 2009 Wessex Archaeology working with Professor Sear, captured the highest resolution sidescan images of the town site including the ruins found in 2008. Further work in 2010 with BBC Oceans and the BBC One Show used novel acoustic imaging cameras to film the ruins through the turbid water; these showed the jumble of ruined blocks and worked stone associated with medieval church and chapel sites.
A large survey and updating of the mapped data was commissioned by English Heritage in 2011 and reported in 2012
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Südfall is a small island in the Wadden Sea off the west coast of Schleswig-Holstein, one of the ten German Hallig islands. It has a permanent population of two people, it is administratively part of Pellworm Municipality. Prior to the Grote Mandrenke flood in 1362, the area comprising the present-day island was a part of the former island of Strand in Edoms Hundred; as a result of the flood, which laid waste to much of Strand and submerged the city of Rungholt, three small islands were removed from the area of Strand: Südfall, Nübell and Nielandt. Over time, Südfall and Nübell were eroded into the sea, their inhabitants resettled on Nielandt, renaming it Südfall. In the catastrophic Burchardi flood of 1634, Strand was torn asunder by the sea and its largest settlements were destroyed, causing a great loss of life and property. Nearby Südfall, weathered the disaster, its inhabitants made a living by way of agriculture and fishing, supplemented by occasional beachcombing. The twelve families who lived on the island perished in the Great Hallig Flood on 3–4 February 1825.
The three warfts on the western side of the island were submerged, the total area of the island was halved. The single warft that remains on the island today was constructed in 1828. Ownership of the island has changed hands numerous times since then. In 1910, the Countess Diana von Reventlow-Criminil purchased the island to spend her retirement years on it. After this, the Dethleffsen family rented out the island for a 50-year term. In 1921, Andreas Busch from Nordstrand discovered remnants of canal locks in the intertidal zone around Südfall, he mapped the area and discovered numerous traces of the area's former inhabitants, such as wells, fields and graves. Based on these findings, it was determined that Rungholt was situated near present-day Südfall prior to its destruction in 1362. Since 1960, the number of times per year that the island has flooded has increased from around 30 to nearly 70. Today, Südfall is part of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. Since 1957, the environmental group Verein Jordsand has served as the island's caretaker. was granted official environmental protection in 1959, is now part of the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park, in turn part of the larger Wadden Sea UNESCO World Heritage Site.
One house, inhabited by a water-warden and his wife, several surrounding buildings are situated on the lone wharf on the island. A bird-conservation station and a watchpost/radio station of the German Maritime Search and Rescue Service are maintained on the island. With permission from the National Park Service, Südfall is reachable from Nordstrand at low tide by foot or on horseback over the intertidal zone. In the summertime, the island is visited thrice per week by a ship from Pellworm; as Südfall is in the First Protection Zone of the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park, accessing the island is otherwise prohibited. The island has one main tidal creek, which flows from the western portion of the island to a wide mouth on the eastern shore, emptying into the Wadden Sea; the salt marshes on the island have lain ungrazed for many years, leading to the rebounding of marshplants such as Armeria maritima, Artemisia maritima, Limonium vulgare, Aster tripolium. The intertidal zone around Südfall is protected from dredging to prevent the damage or destruction of cultural traces and artifacts.
Media related to Südfall at Wikimedia Commons
Pellworm is a municipality in the district of Nordfriesland,in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. The municipality is located on the island of Pellworm – one of the North Frisian Islands on the North Sea coast of Germany, its area is 37 km², its population is 1,200. In medieval times Pellworm was a part of the larger island of Strand, torn into pieces in the disastrous Burchardi flood in 1634. Other remnants of Strand are Nordstrand and the Halligen. All these belonged to the historical region of Uthlande. Pellworm is accessible by a ferry departing from the neighbouring peninsula of Nordstrand. One of the largest hybrid renewable energy plants in Europe is to be found on Pellworm, it combines photovoltaic and wind energy to provide over 700 MWh/year of electricity. Together with several smaller islands, Pellworm forms the Amt of Pellworm