SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Runnymede

Runnymede is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames in the English county of Surrey, just over 20 miles west of central London. It is notable for its association with the sealing of Magna Carta, as a consequence is, with its adjoining hillside, the site of memorials. Runnymede Borough is named after Runnymede being at its northernmost point; the name Runnymede refers to land in public and National Trust ownership in the Thames flood plain south-west of the river between Old Windsor and Egham. The area includes the Long Mede and Runnymede, which together with Coopers Hill Slopes is managed by the National Trust. There is a narrower strip of land, east of the road and west of the river, known as the Yard Mede. On the west bank of the river, at the southern end of the area shown on the above map, are: a recreational area with a large car park; the landscape of Runnymede is characterised as "Thames Basin Lowland", urban fringe. It is a undulating vale of small fields interspersed by woods, ponds and heath.

The National Trust area is a Site of Nature Conservation Interest which contains a Site of Special Scientific Interest. Both sites are overseen by Runnymede Borough Council; the National Trust holding includes: 188 acres donated in 1929 set behind a narrow riverside park with occasional benches on the southern river bank, with car and coach parking. Long Mede is a meadow north of the ancient "mede" of Runnymede towards Old Windsor and has been used for centuries to provide good-quality hay from the alluvial pasture. Runnymede itself lies towards Egham, it is that Runnymede proper was the site of the sealing of Magna Carta, although the Magna Carta Memorial stands on Long Mede, the event is popularly associated with Magna Carta Island, on the opposite bank of the Thames. Near the Island, on the north-east flood plain, in parkland on the eastern bank of the river, are Ankerwycke and the ruins of the 12th century Priory of St Mary's; the Thames has changed course here and these areas may once have been an integral part of Runnymede.

Both were acquired by the National Trust in 1998. Runnymede's historical significance has been influenced by its proximity to the Roman Road river crossing at nearby Staines-upon-Thames; the name Runnymede may be derived from the Anglo-Saxon runieg and mede, describing a place in the meadows used to hold regular meetings. The Witan, Witenagemot or Council of the Anglo-Saxon Kings of the 7th to 11th centuries was held from time to time at Runnymede during the reign of Alfred the Great; the Council met in the open air. This political organ was transformed in succeeding years, influencing the creation of England's 13th century parliament; the water-meadow at Runnymede is the most location at which, in 1215, King John sealed Magna Carta. The charter indicates Runnymede by name as "Ronimed. Inter Windlesoram et Stanes". Magna Carta affected common and constitutional law as well as political representation affecting the development of parliament. Runnymede's association with ideals of democracy, limitation of power and freedom under law has attracted placement there of monuments and commemorative symbols.

The last fatal duel in England took place in 1852, on Priest Hill, a continuation of Cooper's Hill by Windsor Great Park. The National Trust land was donated in 1929 by her two sons; the American-born widow of Urban Hanlon Broughton, she was permitted by letter from George V to join her son's new peerage in tribute to her husband and this gift and be styled Lady Fairhaven. The gift was given in memory of Urban Broughton. At the time the New Bedford Standard-Times commented "It must be a source of gratification to all Americans, to us here and in Fairhaven, that the presentation of this historic spot as public ground has been brought about by an American woman, an appropriate enough circumstance considering that the great charter underlies the USA's conception of government and human rights." Between 2012 and 2015 Cooper's Hill was occupied by a radical community living in self-build houses, huts and tents, in the self-proclaimed "Runnymede Eco Village". Around 40 people, including a few young families, lived in a dispersed settlement throughout the 4 acres of woodland.

They used reclaimed material to build living structures, solar power to generate electricity, wood burners for heat, cultivated some vegetables and kept chickens and geese. Water was obtained from springs on the site, the village was hidden from view from outside the woodland; the members called themselves "Diggers" after the 17th-century movement of that name. There were two unsuccessful attempts; the settlers were still in occupation during the Magna Carta 800th anniversary celebrations on 15 June, but their presence did not affect proceedings, the eviction was completed at a date. After the death of Urban Broughton in 1929, Sir Edwin Lutyens was commissioned to design a set of twin memorials consisting of large kiosks and posts or "piers" with stone blocks crowned with laurel wreaths and formalised urns at the Egham end and with lodges and piers at the Windsor end. Lutyens designed a low wide arch bridge to carry the main road over the Thames to the north, integrating the road

Prussian G 10

The Prussian G 10 was a German goods train, steam locomotive, whose design was based on a combination of the running and valve gear from the Prussian T 16 and the boiler from the Prussian P 8. In developing the G 10, the T 16 running gear with side play on the first and fifth axles was modified; the T 16 was subsequently built with this modified configuration and called the Prussian T 16.1. The G 10 was intended for heavy goods train duties on main lines, but as a result of its low axle load it could be employed more flexibly than its powerful cousin, the Prussian G 8.1. The G 10 was even used in passenger train service. Between 1910 and 1924 no less than 2,615 Class G 10s were delivered to the Prussian state railways and the Deutsche Reichsbahn, 35 to the Imperial Railways in Alsace-Lorraine and 27 to the Saar Railway. Another 350 were sent to railway companies in Turkey, Romania and Lithuania; the Deutsche Reichsbahn took over all the Prussian engines and continued to build the G 10 until 1924.

After the First World War, 222 G 10s went to foreign railways. According to the first provisional renumbering plan of 1923,several locomotives were delivered as Class 33s, but from the end of 1923 the newly delivered locos were given their final numbers; the G 10 was allocated numbers 57 1001-2725 and 57 2892-3524. Amongst them was number 57 1124, a G 10 from Alsace-Lorraine. In 1935 the G 10s from the Saar Railways were given numbers 57 2727-2763, of which 57 2737-2763 were the Saar Railway copies built from 1921-1925. In the Second World War more locomotives were taken over from Poland as 57 2764-2772 and 57 2784-2804 and from Luxembourg as 57 2773-2783. After the war a former G 10 from Alsace-Lorraine found itself in the GDR and was classified as 57 3551, it was joined by another G 10 of unknown origin, no. 57 4245. Nine G 10 locomotives were ceded to Italy as war reparation after World War I, were taken over by the Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane as Class 473. In 1950, the Deutsche Bundesbahn had about 649 ex-Prussian G 10s in its fleet, the Deutsche Reichsbahn had 112 and the Saar Railways had 81.

The Bundesbahn reclassified its G 10s as Class 057 in 1968, but had retired them by 1970, the last one out of service being 057 070-5 on 22 September 1970. The Reichsbahn completed their retirement of G 10s by 1972. From 1916 the Austrian Empire's military railway had 20 G 10s which were designated as Class 680 and were intended for duties on the broad gauge Russian Railways. Several of them were given Reichsbahn numbers 57 2766-2768 and 57 2789-2792 during the Second World War. After the war, some 165 engines of Class 57.10-35 remained on Austrian territory. Of these 96 continued in service as the ÖBB Class 657; the Austrian Federal Railway retired them all by 1968. Number 657.2770, an engine obtained by the Austrian Society for Railway History from Romania, has been preserved in working order and is used for special services. The vehicles were equipped with various tenders, including Prussian pr 3 T 16.5, pr 3 T 20, pr 2'2' T 21.5 and pr 2'2' T 31.5 tenders as well as the Bavarian bay 3 T 20.

Which had been taken over from Bavarian G 4/5 G 4/5 H locomotives. Prussian state railways List of Prussian locomotives and railcars

Catherine Everett (painter)

Catherine Everett, is a Canadian abstract painter. Catherine Everett was raised in Montreal, she received her Bachelor's degree in visual arts from Concordia University in 1980 and in 1988 she went on to receive her Master's of Fine Arts from the same university. Catherine Everett works in sculpture and drawing, her work is described as a material exploration and the visual depiction of an interior and mysterious world. Her work is compared to that of Jean-Paul Riopelle and Anselm Kiefer. Everett describes her work as, "the desire to give substance to things in the world that are not visible – the internal, the emotional, the spiritual –a way of attempting to assign to these concerns a more specific place in a world that seems to have too much weight, density". From 1985 to 1996 Everett showed with the Montreal gallery Rene Blouin and since 2004 she shows with the Montreal gallery Han Art. Everett received attention early in her career and was described by one reviewer as, "one of the most rigorous and talented local artists of her generation".

Her work has shown with other prominent Montreal artists like Betty Goodwin, Peter Krausz and Guido Molinari. Everett's work has shown in Ottawa, Prince Edward Island and Quebec City. Musee d'art de Joliette Museo de Arte Contemporaneo de Monterrey Robert McLaughlin Gallery Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec