The Russian Civil War was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire after the two Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favouring political monarchism and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and anti-democratic variants. In addition, rival militant socialists and non-ideological Green armies fought against both the Bolsheviks and the Whites. Eight foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the former Allied military forces from the World War and the pro-German armies; the Red Army defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia in Ukraine and the army led by Admiral Alexander Kolchak to the east in Siberia in 1919. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Wrangel were beaten in Crimea and evacuated in late 1920.
Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two more years, minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into 1923. The war ended in 1923, in the sense that Bolshevik communist control of the newly formed Soviet Union was now assured, although armed national resistance in Central Asia was not crushed until 1934. There were an estimated 7,000,000–12,000,000 casualties during the war civilians. Many pro-independence movements emerged after the break-up of the Russian Empire and fought in the war. Several parts of the former Russian Empire—Finland, Latvia and Poland—were established as sovereign states, with their own civil wars and wars of independence; the rest of the former Russian Empire was consolidated into the Soviet Union shortly afterwards. The Russian Empire fought in World War I from 1914 alongside France and the United Kingdom against Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire; the February Revolution of 1917 resulted in abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.
As a result, the Russian Provisional Government was established, soviets, elected councils of workers and peasants, were organized throughout the country, leading to a situation of dual power. Russia was proclaimed a republic in September of the same year; the Provisional Government, led by Socialist Revolutionary Party politician Alexander Kerensky, was unable to solve the most pressing issues of the country, most to end the war with the Central Powers. A failed military coup by General Lavr Kornilov in September 1917 led to a surge in support for the Bolshevik party, who gained majorities in the soviets, which until had been controlled by the Socialist Revolutionaries. Promising an end to the war and "all power to the Soviets," the Bolsheviks ended dual power by suppressing the Provisional Government in late October, on the eve of the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in what would be the second Revolution of 1917. Despite the Bolsheviks' seizure of power, they lost to the Socialist Revolutionary Party in the 1917 Russian Constituent Assembly election, the Constituent Assembly was dissolved by the Bolsheviks.
The Bolsheviks soon lost the support of other far-left allies such as the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries due to their acceptance of the terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk presented by Germany. From mid-1917 onwards, the Russian Army, the successor-organisation of the old Imperial Russian Army, started to disintegrate. In January 1918, after significant Bolshevik reverses in combat, the future People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, Leon Trotsky headed the reorganization of the Red Guards into a Workers' and Peasants' Red Army in order to create a more effective fighting force; the Bolsheviks appointed political commissars to each unit of the Red Army to maintain morale and to ensure loyalty. In June 1918, when it had become apparent that a revolutionary army composed of workers would not suffice, Trotsky instituted mandatory conscription of the rural peasantry into the Red Army; the Bolsheviks overcame opposition of rural Russians to Red-Army conscription units by taking hostages and shooting them when necessary in order to force compliance the same practices used by the White Army officers.
The Red Army utilized former Tsarist officers as "military specialists". At the start of the civil war, former Tsarist officers comprised three-quarters of the Red Army officer-corps. By its end, 83% of all Red Army divisional and corps commanders were ex-Tsarist soldiers; the forced conscription drive had mixed results creating a large army with numerical superiority over the Whites but becoming composed of members indifferent towards Marxist-Leninist ideology. While resistance to the Red Guard began on the day after the Bolshevik uprising, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the instinct of one party rule became a catalyst for the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia, pushing them into action against the new Soviet government. A loose confederation of anti-Bolshevik forces aligned against the Communist government, including landowners, conservatives, middle-class citizens, pro-monarchists, army generals, non-Bolshevik socialists who still had grievances and democratic reformists voluntarily united only in their opposi
Marco Grimm is a former German football player. He spent four seasons in the Bundesliga with Bayern Munich and VfB Stuttgart, as well as five seasons in the 2. Bundesliga with Karlsruher SC and Eintracht Braunschweig, he played for one season in Austria, with Grazer AK. Grimm began his career with VfB Gaggenau, before joining Bayern Munich in 1993, as a reserve team player, he made his debut for the first-team in April 1995, as a substitute for Thomas Helmer in the UEFA Champions League semi-final against Ajax. His one Bundesliga appearance for the club came ten days – again replacing Helmer in a match against Eintracht Frankfurt which Bayern won 5–2, but was awarded to Frankfurt as Grimm was one of four reserve players used by Bayern, more than the maximum of three. In 1995, Grimm joined VfB Stuttgart, where he made 21 Bundesliga appearances in his first season as a substitute, he made eleven league appearances the following year, plus four on the way to a DFB-Pokal win, although he didn't play in the final.
He didn't play at all during the 1997–98 season, in July 1998 signed for Austrian side Grazer AK, managed by former Bayern Munich coach Klaus Augenthaler. Grimm had a successful season in Austria, as GAK finished third in the league, before he returned to Germany in 1999, to sign for Karlsruher SC of the 2. Bundesliga. Karlsruhe were relegated in Grimm's first season, but he helped them win the Regionalliga Süd title and return to the second tier at the first attempt, where he played for a further two seasons before leaving the club in 2003. Grimm signed for Eintracht Braunschweig of the Regionalliga Nord, helping them win the title in his second season, he stayed with the club for two years in the 2. Bundesliga, the latter of which saw the club relegated in last place. In July 2009, he signed for 1. FC Kaiserslautern II, where he played for two seasons before becoming the team's assistant manager. UEFA Cup Winners' Cup finalist: 1997–98 DFB-Pokal winner: 1996–97 Marco Grimm at fussballdaten.de
Anthony Keith "Tiger" Jones is a former American football wide receiver who played eight seasons in the Arena Football League. He played college football at Louisville, he was a member of the Washington Redskins, was in Training Camp with the Philadelphia Eagles. Jones signed with the Philadelphia Eagles on July 22, 2012, he was released in August 2012. Jones was named to his 2nd First Team All-Arena team as a member of the Philadelphia Soul in 2013. On February 16, 2015, Jones was assigned to the Jacksonville Sharks. On October 19, 2015, Jones was once again assigned to the Sharks, he retired in January 2017. Philadelphia Eagles bio Philadelphia Soul bio Louisville Cardinals bio