Russian Provisional Government

The Russian Provisional Government was a provisional government of Russia established following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917. The intention of the provisional government was the organization of elections to the Russian Constituent Assembly and its convention; the provisional government lasted eight months, ceased to exist when the Bolsheviks gained power after the October Revolution in October 1917. According to Harold Whitmore Williams the history of eight months during which Russia was ruled by the Provisional Government was the history of the steady and systematic disorganisation of the army. For most of the life of the Provisional Government, the status of the monarchy was unresolved; this was clarified on 1 September, when the Russian Republic was proclaimed, in a decree signed by Kerensky as Minister-President and Zarudny as Minister of Justice. The Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd in 1917 by the Provisional Committee of the State Duma.

The State Duma was the more representative chamber out of the two in the Russian parliament established after the Revolution of 1905, was led first in the new post-Czarist era by Prince Georgy Lvov and by Alexander Kerensky. It replaced the Imperial institution of the Council of Ministers of Russia, members of which after the February Revolution presided in the Chief Office of Admiralty. At the same time, the last ruling Russian Emperor Nicholas II abdicated in February 1917 in favor of his youngest brother, the Grand Duke Michael who agreed that he would accept after the decision of the Russian Constituent Assembly; the Provisional Government was unable to make decisive policy decisions due to political factionalism and a breakdown of state structures. This weakness left the government open to strong challenges from the left; the Provisional Government's chief adversary on the left was the Petrograd Soviet, a Communist committee taking over and ruling Russia's most important port city, which tentatively cooperated with the government at first, but gradually gained control of the Imperial Army, local factories, the Russian Railway.

The period of competition for authority ended in late October 1917, when Bolsheviks routed the ministers of the Provisional Government in the events known as the "October Revolution", placed power in the hands of the soviets, or "workers' councils," which had given their support to the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky. The weakness of the Provisional Government is best reflected in the derisive nickname given to Kerensky: "persuader-in-chief." The authority of the Tsar's government began disintegrating on 1 November 1916, when Pavel Milyukov attacked the Boris Stürmer government in the Duma. Stürmer was succeeded by Alexander Trepov and Nikolai Golitsyn, both Prime Ministers for only a few weeks. During the February Revolution two rival institutions, the imperial State Duma and the Petrograd Soviet, both located in the Tauride Palace, competed for power. Tsar Nicholas II abdicated on 2 March, Milyukov announced the committee's decision to offer the Regency to his brother, Grand Duke Michael, as the next tsar.

Grand Duke Michael did not want to take the poisoned chalice and deferred acceptance of imperial power the next day. The Provisional Government was designed to set up elections to the Assembly while maintaining essential government services, but its power was limited by the Petrograd Soviet's growing authority. Public announcement of the formation of the Provisional Government was made, it was published in Izvestia the day after its formation. The announcement stated the declaration of government Full and immediate amnesty on all issues political and religious, including: terrorist acts, military uprisings, agrarian crimes etc. Freedom of word, unions and strikes with spread of political freedoms to military servicemen within the restrictions allowed by military-technical conditions. Abolition of all hereditary and national class restrictions. Immediate preparations for the convocation on basis of universal, equal and direct vote for the Constituent Assembly which will determine the form of government and the constitution.

Replacement of the police with a public militsiya and its elected chairmanship subordinated to the local authorities. Elections to the authorities of local self-government on basis of universal, direct and secret vote. Non-disarmament and non-withdrawal out of Petrograd the military units participating in the revolution movement. Under preservation of strict discipline in ranks and performing a military service - elimination of all restrictions for soldiers in the use of public rights granted to all other citizens, it said, "The provisional government feels obliged to add that it is not intended to take advantage of military circumstances for any delay in implementing the above reforms and measures." Initial composition of the Provisional Government: On 18 April 1917 minister of Foreign Affairs Pavel Milyukov sent a note to the Allied governments, promising to continue the war to'its glorious conclusion'. On 20–21 April 1917 massive demonstrations of workers and soldiers erupted against the continuation of war.

Demonstrations demanded resignation of Milyukov. They were soon met by the counter-demonstrations organised in his support. General Lavr Kornilov, commander of the Petrograd military district, wished to suppress the disorders, but premier Georgy Lvov refused to resort to violence; the Provisional Governm


Spirometra is a genus of pseudophyllid cestodes that reproduce in canines and felines, but can cause pathology in humans if infected. As an adult, this tapeworm lives in the small intestine of its definitive host and produces eggs that pass with the animal's feces; when the eggs reach water, the eggs hatch into coracidia. The copepods are eaten by a second intermediate host to continue the life cycle. Humans can become infected if they accidentally eat frog legs or fish with the plerocercoid stage encysted in the muscle. In humans, an infection of Spirometra is termed sparganosis. Spirometra infections were first described by Patrick Manson from China in 1882, the first human case was reported by Charles Wardell Stiles from Florida in 1908. Among this family of flatworms, there are a few species. One of these species is Spirometra erinaceieuropaei, the main cause of infections in Europe and Asia, but sometimes in North and South America; the species, the leading cause of infections in the Americas is Spirometra mansonoides.

Some other species of Spirometra that have been diagnosed as causing infections are Spirometra felis, Spirometra decipiens, Spirometra urichi. The species Spirometra felis was found in domestic cats, as well as Spirometra decipiens; this same species, was discovered when scientists fed dogs larvae from frogs. Spirometra decipiens has been identified in cats and leopards. Spirometra urichi was identified through an infection of an ocelot in Trinidad; the adult worm of Spirometra species live in the small intestine of the definitive host—a dog, raccoon, or other mammal—for up to 9 years, where they produce many eggs. When the host defecates, the eggs hatch when they reach fresh water; the eggs are eaten by copepods, which are considered the first intermediate hosts. In the copepods, the eggs develop into procercoid larvae that live in the body cavity of the copepod until the life cycle can continue; the second intermediate hosts include fish, reptiles, or amphibians that consume the copepods while drinking water.

The larvae penetrate the intestinal tract of the second intermediate host, where they develop into the plerocercoid larvae and migrate and encyst into the subcutaneous tissues and muscles. After this step in the life cycle, the second intermediate host can get eaten by a larger fish or animal, but the plerocercoid larvae will not develop to a further developmental stage and will just re-encysts into the subcutaneous tissues and muscles of this new host. If this additional second intermediate host does not get eaten by a parentenic host the second intermediate host will get eaten by a definitive host predator a cat, the cycle begins again. Humans are accidental hosts in the cycle, becoming infected with the plerocercoid larvae by ingestion of the first or second intermediate hosts; the larvae migrate to the subcutaneous tissues in humans. The pathology of a Spirometra infection depends on the ending location of the migrating sparganum; the adult stage causes little to no pathology in the host.

In parentenic hosts, plerocercoids migrate to subcutaneous tissues from the small intestine, causing pain and inflammation. Sparganosis appears as growing migratory subcutaneous nodules in the tissues of infected intermediate and paratenic hosts; the parasite can be found anywhere in the body including central nervous system. Few humans have died from this kind of infection, called sparganosis. For more information about the symptoms and pathology associated with sparganosis, see the disease page of sparganosis. To diagnose a Spirometra infection in humans, a serodiagnosis ELISA can be used to target anti-sparganum IgG antibodies within the blood; this diagnostic method is useful around 10-12 days post infection and is 100% effective at detecting the anti-sparganum antibodies in the 14-22 days post infection. Serodiagnosis of sparganosis is a useful early detection method. Another method of diagnosing sparganosis is a biopsy of a subcutaneous sample. An early detection sera detects the cysteine protease of some species of Spirometra excretory-secretory proteins.

This option proves to be the best choice for early diagnostic methods in regards to early antigen identification. Some imaging methods such as CT or MRI scans can be used to identify spargana larvae in other areas of the body, like the brain; when diagnosing an infection in animals, proglottids from the worm itself may have broken off and ended up in the feces along with eggs. The proglottids can be microscopically identified as being in the Order of Pseudophyllidea because they have medial genital pores, but the actual genus of the worm could not be identified from proglottids alone; the specificity of the worm genus or species would require differentiation based upon the uterus and egg morphology. The best way to treat this condition in humans is with surgery, as most drug treatments are unsuccessful at getting rid of the larval stages. In animals, infections with Spirometra species can be treated with praziquantel at 7.5 mg/kg, PO, for 2 consecutive days. Spirometra species infections in cats can be treated with a single dose of praziquantel at 30 mg/kg, SC, IM, or PO.

Mebendazole at 11 mg/kg, PO, has been successful. Taking an infected animal to a vet is the best option for ridding a pet of any developmental stage. Infection of humans may be prevented by avoiding eating under-cooked frog or fish, avoiding drinking infected water

Archaeology of Oman

The present-day Sultanate of Oman lies in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula. There are different definitions for Oman: while traditional Oman includes the present-day United Arab Emirates, its prehistoric remains differ in some respects from the more defined Oman proper, which corresponds with the present-day central provinces of the Sultanate. In the north, the Oman Peninsula is more specific, juts into the Strait of Hormuz; the archaeology of southern Oman Ẓafār develops separately from that of northern Oman. Different ages are reflected in typological assemblages, Old Stone Age, New Stone Age, Copper Age, Bronze Age, Early Iron Age, Late Iron Age, Samad Period, so-called late pre-Islamic culture and the Age of Islam. What is referred to as a period is inferred from a recurring assemblages of artefacts; some specialists equate periods with cultures. The names of the ages are difficult to fix in terms of absolute years. Aside from this the development is regional; the archaeological assemblages of the South Province Dhofar differ from those of the central part of the country.

A key barometer of industrial activity is the amount of copper production, as known from smelting refuse and metallic artefacts. Archaeologically speaking, differences increase between the area of the present-day U. A. E. and the Sultanate toward the end of the Early Iron Age, conditioned locally by the different geographical situations. The amount of moisture dictates the amount and place of agriculture and population that are sustainable. A variety of subsistence strategies exploit the available resources. Since archaeological field work began in the Sultanate in the early 1970s, numerous teams have worked in the Sultanate. Except for the Islamic period, what they all share is that they are known from cemeteries and grave goods; the absolute dates for the different periods are still under study and it is difficult to assign years to the Late Iron Age of central and southern Oman. Major monuments have been dated variously, spanning millennia; the meanings of major concepts such as Arab are controversial.

Old Stone Age: Looking to archaeogenetic research, the emerging picture indicates a major dispersal of homo sapiens out of Africa between 50 and 100 thousand years ago. Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Known from survey finds. Lithic findspots near Ra's al-Jins. Main sites include Saiwan-Ghunaim in the Barr al-Hikman; the first agricultural settlements. Known from a variety of sites, most of which lie on the coast, it coincides with the beginning of the Holocene and sees the advent of a food producing economy as opposed to a hunting and gathering based one. The picture of the Neolithic of south-eastern Arabia has become detailed since research began in 1977. Like other periods here, the Neolithic still lacks a reliable chronological framework.

Key sites include Ra's al-Ḥamrāʾ, Ra's al-Ḥadd, Suwayh and Ra's Dan, Maṣīrah, not to omit newly discovered ones in Ẓafār. Copper Age, 3500-2300 BC Hafit period: Known from a cemetery site on the Jebel Hafit in the United Arab Emirates. Like the following Bronze Age periods, sites with characteristic finds are distributed over the UAE and Sultanate. Burial cairns lie on top of hill crests. Copies and pottery imports from southern Mesopotamia occur; such finds have been documented on the eastern coast of the Sultanate near Ra's al-Hadd HD-6 and Ra's al-Jinz. Diagnostic pottery of Jemdet Nasr type has survived in some tombs; the smelting of oxidic copper ores begins, as at al-Batina. Such ores would leave little slag and the process did not require special conditions. At this time there is textual evidence from Sumer for international trade in copper and other commodities from Oman. Bronze Age 3300 - 1200 BC: The Umm al-Nar and Wadi Suq Periods. Examples may be found at numerous funerary sites, for example on the island Umm an-Nar and in the Wadi Suq.

Typical of this period are wheel-turned painted vessels. During the Bronze Age, metal production increased in relation to that of the preceding Hafit Period, with several specimens of plano-convex copper ingots weighing 1–2 kg found. Tower tombs, such as those at Shir, can only be dated, may date to the Hafit or Umm an-Nar Periods. During the Umm an-Nar Period, large communal, free-standing tombs contain numerous interments. Other tombs may contain one or a few interments. In the 1980s, important archaeological discoveries have been made at Ras al-Jinz, located at the easternmost point of the Arabian Peninsula, demonstrating maritime Indus Valley connections with Oman, the Middle East in general. In Ẓafār weapons came to light in a confirmed grave context datable to the 3rd millennium BC. Late Bronze Age 1500 - 1300 BC: Following the Wadi Suq Period, this period follows, it is represented by both grave and settlement finds 1300 - 300 BC: Known from different cemetery and copper producing sites the fort on the Jebel Radhania and the fort at Salut.

This period is known from some 142 archaeological sites located in the eastern part of the United Arab Emirates as well as the Central and northern parts of the Sultanate of Oman. The nomenclature for the period is more controversial than the actual chronology. One scholar in particular