Ancient Egyptian deities
Ancient Egyptian deities are the gods and goddesses worshipped in ancient Egypt. The beliefs and rituals surrounding these gods formed the core of ancient Egyptian religion, the gods complex characteristics were expressed in myths and in intricate relationships between deities, family ties, loose groups and hierarchies, and combinations of separate gods into one. Deities diverse appearances in art—as animals, humans and combinations of different forms—also alluded, through symbolism, to their essential features. In different eras, various gods were said to hold the highest position in society, including the solar deity Ra, the mysterious god Amun. The highest deity was usually credited with the creation of the world, some scholars have argued, based in part on Egyptian writings, that the Egyptians came to recognize a single divine power that lay behind all things and was present in all the other deities. Gods were assumed to be present throughout the world, capable of influencing natural events, people interacted with them in temples and unofficial shrines, for personal reasons as well as for larger goals of state rites.
Egyptians prayed for help, used rituals to compel deities to act. Humans relations with their gods were a part of Egyptian society. The beings in ancient Egyptian tradition who might be labeled as deities are difficult to count, Egyptian texts list the names of many deities whose nature is unknown and make vague, indirect references to other gods who are not even named. The Egyptologist James P. Allen estimates that more than 1,400 deities are named in Egyptian texts, the Egyptian languages terms for these beings were nṯr, and its feminine form nṯrt, goddess. Scholars have tried to discern the nature of the gods by proposing etymologies for these words, but none of these suggestions has gained acceptance. The hieroglyphs that were used as ideograms and determinatives in writing these words show some of the traits that the Egyptians connected with divinity, the most common of these signs is a flag flying from a pole. Similar objects were placed at the entrances of temples, representing the presence of a deity, other such hieroglyphs include a falcon, reminiscent of several early gods who were depicted as falcons, and a seated male or female deity.
The feminine form could be written with an egg as determinative, connecting goddesses with creation and birth, or with a cobra, the Egyptians distinguished nṯrw, from rmṯ, but the meanings of the Egyptian and the English terms do not match perfectly. The term nṯr may have applied to any being that was in some way outside the sphere of everyday life, Egyptian religious art depicts places and concepts in human form. These personified ideas range from deities that were important in myth and ritual to obscure beings, only mentioned once or twice, confronting these blurred distinctions between gods and other beings, scholars have proposed various definitions of a deity. One widely accepted definition, suggested by Jan Assmann, says that a deity has a cult, is involved in some aspect of the universe, according to a different definition, by Dimitri Meeks, nṯr applied to any being that was the focus of ritual. From this perspective, gods included the king, who was called a god after his coronation rites, and deceased souls, the preeminence of the great gods was maintained by the ritual devotion that was performed for them across Egypt
Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L. A. is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California. With a census-estimated 2015 population of 3,971,883, it is the second-most populous city in the United States, Los Angeles is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the United States. The citys inhabitants are referred to as Angelenos, historically home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California. The city was founded on September 4,1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence, in 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4,1850, the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city.
The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California, nicknamed the City of Angels, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, and sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles has an economy in culture, fashion, sports, education, medicine. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index, the city is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields, and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States. The Los Angeles combined statistical area has a gross metropolitan product of $831 billion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Greater Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. The city has hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1932 and 1984 and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics and thus become the second city after London to have hosted the Games three times. The Los Angeles area hosted the 1994 FIFA mens World Cup final match as well as the 1999 FIFA womens World Cup final match, the mens event was watched on television by over 700 million people worldwide.
The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva, a Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning poison oak place. Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2,1769, in 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. The Queen of the Angels is an honorific of the Virgin Mary, two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto with a mixture of African and European ancestry. The settlement remained a small town for decades, but by 1820. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, during Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta Californias regional capital
Modern dance is a broad genre of western concert or theatrical dance, primarily arising out of Germany and the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Modern dance is considered to have emerged as a rejection of. Socioeconomic and cultural factors contributed to its development. In the late 19th century, dance artists such as Isadora Duncan, Maud Allan, moving into the 1960s, new ideas about dance began to emerge, as a response to earlier dance forms and to social changes. Eventually, postmodern dance artists would reject the formalism of modern dance, and include such as performance art, contact improvisation, release technique. American modern dance can be divided into three periods or eras, Modern dance has evolved with each subsequent generation of participating artists. Artistic content has morphed and shifted from one choreographer to another, artists such as Graham and Horton developed techniques in the Central Modern Period that are still taught worldwide, and numerous other types of modern dance exist today.
In America, increasing industrialization, the rise of a class, and the decline of Victorian social strictures led to, among other changes. It was in this atmosphere that a new dance was emerging as much from a rejection of social structures as from a dissatisfaction with ballet, womens colleges began offering aesthetic dance courses by the end of the 1880s. Emil Rath, who wrote at length about this emerging artform at the stated and rhythmic bodily movement are twin sisters of art. 1877, Isadora Duncan was a predecessor of modern dance with her stress on the center or torso, bare feet, loose hair, free-flowing costumes, and incorporation of humor into emotional expression. She was inspired by classical Greek arts, folk dances, social dances, natural forces, and new American athleticism such as skipping, jumping and she thought that ballet was ugly and meaningless gymnastics. Although she returned to the United States at various points in her life and she returned to Europe and died in Nice in 1927.
1891, Loie Fuller began experimenting with the effect that gas lighting had on her silk costumes, Fuller developed a form of natural movement and improvisation techniques that were used in conjunction with her revolutionary lighting equipment and translucent silk costumes. She patented her apparatus and methods of lighting that included the use of coloured gels and burning chemicals for luminescence. 1905, Ruth St. Denis, influenced by the actress Sarah Bernhardt and Japanese dancer Sada Yacco, developed her translations of Indian culture and her performances quickly became popular and she toured extensively while researching Oriental culture and arts. Other pioneers included Kurt Jooss and Harald Kreutzberg, an accomplished choreographer, she was a founding artist of the first American Dance Festival in Bennington. Holm choreographed extensively in the fields of dance and musical theater
Rue Saint-Denis (Paris)
Rue Saint-Denis is one of the oldest streets in Paris. Its route was first laid out in the 1st century by the Romans, from the Middle Ages to the present day, the street has become notorious as a place of prostitution. Its name derives from it being the route to Saint-Denis. The street extends as far as the 1st arrondissement and Rue de Rivoli to the south and as far as the 2nd arrondissement and it runs parallel to the boulevard de Sébastopol. During the French Revolution, it was known as the rue de Franciade, the street was one of the centres of the June Rebellion of 1832, immortalised in Victor Hugos novel Les Misérables, and which is referred to in the book as the Epic of the Rue Saint-Denis. The neighborhood around the rue Saint-Denis is now all made up of sex shops. The street contains some shops and restaurants, as well as the church of Saint-Leu-Saint-Gilles, a bank. The Frog and Rosbif Brew Pub is located here, one of only a small number of cask conditioned beer producers in France. N°92, Église Saint-Leu-Saint-Gilles n°142, House built in 1732 by Jacques-Richard Cochois for Claude Aubry, attached to it is the fontaine Greneta, rebuilt at the same time as the house, but whose original dates back to at least 1502.
N°s 224-226, Maison des Dames de Saint-Chaumont, established in 1685 in a hôtel de Saint-Chaumond, the nuns had constructed 1734-1735 by Jacques Hardouin-Mansart de Sagonne a lodge which has been conserved, a building of exceptional quality decorated by Nicolas Pineau. It is the survivor of the many pious or charitable establishments built along rue Saint-Denis. Its simple entrance is next to boulevard de Sébastopol and a garden extends between the building and the street, in the corner of rue de Tracy could be found the covents chapel, built in 1782 by Pierre Convers in the ancient style but now lost. At the end of rue Saint-Denis, at the intersection of the grands Boulevards, Rue Saint-Denis is extended from there out into what was medieval Pariss faubourg by the Rue du Faubourg-Saint-Denis Raid November 18th,2015
Martha Graham was an American modern dancer and choreographer. Her influence on dance has been compared with the influence of Picasso on modern visual arts, the influence of Stravinsky on music, and she danced and choreographed for over seventy years. Graham was the first dancer to perform at the White House, travel abroad as an ambassador, and receive the highest civilian award of the US. In her lifetime she received honors ranging from the Key to the City of Paris to Japans Imperial Order of the Precious Crown and she said, in the 1994 documentary The Dancer Revealed, I have spent all my life with dance and being a dancer. Its permitting life to use you in an intense way. Her style, the Graham technique, fundamentally reshaped American dance and is taught worldwide. Graham was born in Allegheny City – to become part of Pittsburgh and her father George Graham practiced as what in the Victorian era was known as an alienist, a practitioner of an early form of psychiatry. Dr. Graham was a third-generation American of Irish descent and her mother Jane Beers was a second-generation American of Irish, Scots-Irish, and English descent and was a sixth-generation descendant of Myles Standish.
While her parents provided an environment in her youth, it was not one that encouraged dancing. The Graham family moved to Santa Barbara, California when Martha was fourteen years old, in 1911, she attended the first dance performance of her life, watching Ruth St. Denis perform at the Mason Opera House in Los Angeles. In the mid-1910s, Martha Graham began her studies at the newly created Denishawn School of Dancing and Related Arts, founded by Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn, at which she would stay until 1923. In 1925, Graham was employed at the Eastman School of Music where Rouben Mamoulian was head of the School of Drama, among other performances, together Mamoulian and Graham produced a short two-color film called The Flute of Krishna, featuring Eastman students. Mamoulian left Eastman shortly thereafter and Graham chose to leave also, in 1926, the Martha Graham Center of Contemporary Dance was established. On April 18 of the same year Graham debuted her first independent concert and this performance took place at the 48th Street Theatre in Manhattan.
She would say of the concert, Everything I did was influenced by Denishawn, on November 28,1926 Martha Graham and others in her company gave a dance recital at the Klaw Theatre in New York City. One of Grahams students was heiress Bethsabée de Rothschild with whom she became close friends, when Rothschild moved to Israel and established the Batsheva Dance Company in 1965, Graham became the companys first director. Grahams technique pioneered a principle known as Contraction and Release in modern dance, in 1936, Graham created Chronicle which brought serious issues to the stage in a dramatic manner. That same year, she declined Hitlers invitation to perform at the International Arts Festival,1938 became a big year for Graham, the Roosevelts invited Graham to dance at the White House, making her the first dancer to perform there
Ted Shawn, originally Edwin Myers Shawn, was one of the first notable male pioneers of American modern dance. Along with creating Denishawn with former wife Ruth St. Denis he is responsible for the creation of the well known all-male company Ted Shawn. With his innovative ideas of masculine movement, he is one of the most influential choreographers and dancers of his day. He is the founder and creator of Jacobs Pillow Dance Festival in Massachusetts, Ted Shawn was born in Kansas City, Missouri on October 21,1891. Originally intending to become a minister of religion, he attended the University of Denver, while attending the University, he caught diphtheria at the age of 19 causing him temporary paralysis from the waist down. It was during his therapy for the disease that Shawn was first introduced to dance by way of studying with Hazel Wallack in 1910. In 1912, Shawn relocated to Los Angeles where he became part of a ballroom dance troupe. It wasnt until moving to New York in 1914 that Shawn realized his potential as an artist upon meeting Ruth St.
Denis. The two were married within 2 months on August 13th,1914, St. Denis served not only as partner but an extremely valuable creative outlet to Shawn. Both artists believed strongly in the potential for dance as an art form becoming integrated into every day life, in addition to spawning the careers of Weidman and Graham, the Denishawn school housed Doris Humphrey as a student. Together and Ruth St. Denis established an eclectic grouping of dance including ballet. To add to St. Denis mainly eastern influence, Shawn brought the spirit of North African, due to marital problems of Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn and financial difficulties, Denishawn concluded in the early 1930s. Consequently, Shawn went on to form a dance company. Shawns mission in creating this company was to fight for acceptance of the American male dancer, the all-male company was based out of a farm that Shawn purchased near his hometown Lee, Massachusetts. On July 14,1933, Ted Shawn and His Men Dancers had their performance at Shawns farm.
Through these creative works Shawn showcased athletic and masculine movement that soon would gain popularity, the company performed in the United States and Canada, touring more than 750 cities, in addition to international success in London and Havana. Ted Shawn and His Men Dancers concluded at Jacobs Pillow on August 31,1940 with a homecoming performance, one of the leading stars of the company, Barton Mumaw would emerge onto the dance industry and be considered the American Nijinsky. While with Shawn, Mumaw began a relationship with a John Christian, Shawn formed a partnership with John Christian, with whom he stayed from 1949 until his death in 1972
Mysticism is popularly known as becoming one with God or the Absolute, but may refer to any kind of ecstasy or altered state of consciousness which is given a religious or spiritual meaning. It may refer to the attainment of insight in ultimate or hidden truths, the term mysticism has Ancient Greek origins with various historically determined meanings. Derived from the Greek word μυω, meaning to conceal, mysticism referred to the liturgical, spiritual. During the early period, the definition of mysticism grew to include a broad range of beliefs. In modern times, mysticism has acquired a limited definition, with applications, as meaning the aim at the union with the Absolute. This limited definition has been applied to a range of religious traditions and practices. Since the 1960s scholars have debated the merits of perennial and constructionist approaches in the research of mystical experiences. The perennial position is now largely dismissed by scholars, most scholars using a contextual approach, Mysticism is derived from the Greek μυω, meaning I conceal, and its derivative μυστικός, meaning an initiate.
The verb μυώ has received a different meaning in the Greek language. The primary meanings it has are induct and initiate, secondary meanings include introduce, make someone aware of something, familiarize, give first experience of something. The related form of the verb appears in the New Testament. As explained in Strongs Concordance, it properly means shutting the eyes and its figurative meaning is to be initiated into the mystery revelation. The meaning derives from the rites of the pagan mysteries. Also appearing in the New Testament is the related noun μυστήριον, the term means anything hidden, a mystery or secret, of which initiation is necessary. According to Thayers Greek Lexicon, the term μυστήριον in classical Greek meant a hidden thing, a particular meaning it took in Classical antiquity was a religious secret or religious secrets, confided only to the initiated and not to be communicated by them to ordinary mortals. In the Septuagint and the New Testament the meaning it took was that of a purpose or counsel.
It is sometimes used for the hidden wills of humans, but is often used for the hidden will of God. Elsewhere in the Bible it takes the meaning of the mystic or hidden sense of things and it is used for the secrets behind sayings, names, or behind images seen in visions and dreams
Adelphi University is a private, nonsectarian university located in Garden City, in Nassau County, New York, United States. Adelphi has centers in Manhattan, Hudson Valley, and Suffolk County and it is the oldest institution of higher education in suburban Long Island. For the tenth year, Adelphi University has been named a Best Buy in higher education by the Fiske Guide to Colleges, the university was named a 2010 Best College in the Northeastern Region by The Princeton Review. The institution was awarded the 2010 Carnegie Classification for Community Engagement by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, U. S. News & World Report ranked Adelphi University #153 among national universities. Adelphi University began with the Adelphi Academy, founded in Brooklyn, New York, the academy was a private preparatory school located at 412 Adelphi Street, in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, but moved to Clinton Hill. One of the teachers at the Adelphi Academy was Harlan Fiske Stone, in 1893, Dr.
Charles Herbert Levermore was appointed as the head of Adelphi Academy. The college received its charter through the efforts of Timothy Woodruff, former Lieutenant Governor of New York, Adelphi was one of the first coeducational institutions to receive a charter from the State of New York. At the time of its foundation, the college numbered only 57 students and 16 instructors, the Adelphi Academy continued to exist as a separate but nonetheless connected entity to the college. The new college was located in a building behind the Adelphi Academy, on the corner of St. Jamess Place and Clifton Place, the building that originally housed Adelphi is now used by Pratt Institute for their School of Architecture. In 1912, Adelphi became a womens college, in 1922, the school raised over one million dollars to expand the overcrowded facilities in Brooklyn. In 1925, Adelphi College severed its ties with the Adelphi Academy, in 1929, the college moved from its founding location in Brooklyn to the current location of its main campus in Garden City, New York.
The original academy continues to function as a P–12 school in Brooklyn, the original three buildings of the Garden City campus, Levermore Hall, Blodgett Hall and Woodruff Hall, were designed by McKim and White. In 1938, the Dance Program was founded by the world-famous dancer Ruth St. Denis, in 1943, the School of Nursing was established in response to the need for nurses due to American involvement in World War II. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt presided over the opening of two federally funded residence halls on campus, in a speech entitled The Challenge of Nursing for Young Women Today. In 1946, after World War II ended, Adelphi reverted to a coeducational college, New sports teams were created following the readmission of men to the school. In 1952, the first program for clinical psychology was established at the school, in 1963, the New York State Board of Regents granted the college university status, and the name was changed to Adelphi University. In 1964, the School of Business was founded, in 1966, the Institute for Advanced Psychological Studies was founded.
In 1973, the University established ABLE for the education of adults, now known as University College, it was one of the earliest programs created for nontraditional students
Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. For 2015, the Census Bureaus Population Estimates Program calculated a population of 281,944, Newark is the second largest city in the New York metropolitan area, located approximately 8 miles west of lower Manhattan. Settled in 1666 by Puritans from New Haven Colony, Newark is one of the oldest European cities in the United States and its location at the mouth of the Passaic River, has made the citys waterfront an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, Port Newark-Elizabeth is the container shipping terminal of the busiest seaport on the American East Coast. In addition, Newark Liberty International Airport was the first municipal airport in the United States. Several leading companies have their headquarters in Newark, including Prudential, PSEG, Panasonic Corporation of North America, Audible. com, IDT Corporation, the U. S. District Court for the District of New Jersey sits in the city as well.
Local cultural venues include the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark Symphony Hall, The Prudential Center and the Newark Museum. Newark is divided into five wards, the East, South and Central wards. Newarks Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nations largest collection of cherry blossom trees, Newark was settled in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony. It was conceived as an assembly of the faithful, though this did not last for long as new settlers came with different ideas. On October 31,1693 it was organized as a New Jersey township based on the Newark Tract, Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27,1713. It was incorporated on February 21,1798 by the New Jersey Legislatures Township Act of 1798, during its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township, Caldwell Township, Orange Township, Bloomfield Township and Clinton Township. Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11,1836, replacing Newark Township, the previously independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1,1905.
In 1926, South Orange Township changed its name to Maplewood, as a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known as Ivy Hill was re-annexed to Newarks Vailsburg. During the American Revolutionary War British troops made several raids into the town, the city has experienced revitalization since the 1990s. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had an area of 26.107 square miles. It has the third-smallest land area among the 100 most populous cities in the U. S. behind neighboring Jersey City and Hialeah, the citys altitude ranges from 0 in the east to approximately 230 feet above sea level in the western section of the city. Newark is essentially a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, Newarks high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods
Krishna is a major Hindu deity. He is one of the most widely revered and popular Indian divinities, worshipped as the incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu. Krishnas birthday is celebrated every year by Hindus on Janmashtami according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar, Krishna is known by numerous names, such as Govinda, Madhusudhana and Makhan chor in affection. The anecdotes and narratives of Krishnas life are generally titled as Krishna Leela and he is a central character in the Bhagavata Purana, the Bhagavad Gita, and is mentioned in many Hindu philosophical and mythological texts. They portray him in various perspectives, a god-child, a prankster, a lover, a divine hero. The synonyms of Krishna have been traced to 1st millennium BCE literature, worship of Krishna as Svayam Bhagavan, sometimes referred to as Krishnaism, arose in the Middle Ages in the context of the Bhakti movement. Krishna-related literature has inspired performance arts such as Bharatnatyam, Kuchipudi, Odissi. Since the 1960s, the worship of Krishna has spread to the Western world, the name originates from the Sanskrit word Kṛṣṇa, which is primarily an adjective meaning black, dark or dark blue.
The waning moon is called Krishna Paksha, relating to the adjective meaning darkening, the name is interpreted sometimes as all attractive. As a name of Vishnu, Krishna is listed as the 57th name in the Vishnu Sahasranama, based on his name, Krishna is often depicted in idols as black or blue-skinned. Krishna is known by other names and titles. Among the most common names are Mohan enchanter, Govinda meaning chief herdsman, some of the distinct names may be regionally important—for instance, Jagannatha, a popular incarnation of Puri, Odisha in eastern India. Krishna is represented in the Indian traditions in many ways, with common features. His iconography typically depicts him as black or dark reflecting his name, however ancient and medieval reliefs and stone-based arts depict him in the natural color of the material he is made from, both in India and in southeast Asia. In some texts, his skin is described as the color of Jambul. Krishna is often depicted wearing a peacock feather wreathe or crown, in this form, he usually stands with one leg bent in front of the other in the Tribhanga posture.
He is sometimes accompanied by cows or a calf, symbolism for the divine herdsman Govinda, alternatively, he is shown as an amorous man with the gopis, often making music or playing pranks. In other icons, he is a part of the scene on the battlefield of the epic Mahabharata