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Ruthenian language

Ruthenian or Old Ruthenian was the group of varieties of East Slavic spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and in the East Slavic territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The written form is called Chancery Slavonic by Lithuanian and Western European linguists. Scholars do not agree whether Ruthenian was a separate language, or a Western dialect or set of dialects of Old East Slavic, but it is agreed that Ruthenian has a close genetic relationship with it. Old East Slavic was the colloquial language used in Kievan Rus'. Dialects of Ruthenian developed into modern Belarusian and Ukrainian languages. In modern texts, the language in question is sometimes called "Old Ukrainian" or "Old Belarusian" and; as Ruthenian was always in a kind of diglossic opposition to Church Slavonic, this vernacular language was and still is called prosta mova "simple speech". Ruthenian – by the contemporaries, but not in contemporary Russia. Simple Ruthenian or simple talk – publisher Grigoriy Khodkevich. Lithuanian – exclusive reference to it in the contemporary Russia.

By Zizaniy, Pamva Berynda. Ruthenian – modern collective name, covering both Old Belarusian and Old Ukrainian languages, predominantly used by the 20th-century Lithuanian many Polish and English researchers. West Russian, language or dialect – chiefly by the supporters of the concept of the Proto-Russian phase since the end of the 19th century, e.g. by Karskiy, Shakhmatov. Russian Wikipedia uses the term West Russian written language. Belarusian – in contemporary Russia. Kryzhanich; the denotation Belarusian when referring both to the 19th-century language and to the Medieval language had been used in works of the 19th-century Russian researchers Fyodor Buslayev, Zhitetskiy, Nedeshev and Belarusian researchers, such as Karskiy. Lithuanian-Russian – by 19th-century Russian researchers Keppen, archbishop Filaret, Karatayev. Lithuanian-Slavonic – by 19th-century Russian researcher Baranovskiy. Old Ukrainian or staroukrajinska mova. Chancery Slavonic – for the written form of Old Church Slavonic, influenced by various Ruthenian dialects and used in the chancery of Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Ruski – used by Norman Davies in Vanished Kingdoms: The History of Half-Forgotten Europe. Galicia Brogi Bercoff, Giovanna: “Plurilingualism in Eastern Slavic culture of the 17th century: The case of Simeon Polockij.” In: Slavia: Časopis pro slovanskou filologii, vol. 64. P. 3-14. Danylenko, Andrii: "'Prostaja mova','Kitab', Polissian Standard". In: Die Welt der Slaven LI, no. 1, p. 80-115. Danylenko, Andrii: "On the Name of the prostaja mova in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth", In: Studia Slavica Hung. 51/1-2,p. 97-121 Dingley, Jim. “The two versions of the Gramatyka Slovenskaja of Ivan Uževič.’ In: The Journal of Byelorussian Studies, 2.4, p. 369-384. Frick, David A. "'Foolish Rus': On Polish civilization, Ruthenian self-hatred, Kasijan Sakovyč." In: Harvard Ukrainian studies 18.3/4, p. 210-248. Martel, Antoine. La langue polonaise dans les pays ruthènes: Ukraine et Russie Blanche 1569/1667. Lille 1938. Moser, Michael: "Mittelruthenisch: Ein Überblick." In: Studia Slavica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 50, no.

1-2, p. 125-142. Mozer, Michaėl’. "Čto takoe'prostaja mova'?". In: Studia Slavica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 47.3/4, p. 221-260. Pivtorak, Hryhorij. “Do pytannja pro ukrajins’ko-bilorus’ku vzajemodiju donacional’noho periodu ”. In: Movoznavstvo 1978.3, p. 31-40. Pugh, Stefan M.: Testament to Ruthenian. A Linguistic Analysis of the Smotryc’kyj Variant. Cambridge 1996. Shevelov, George Y. “Belorussian versus Ukrainian: Delimitation of texts before A. D. 1569”. In: The Journal of Byelorussian Studies 3.2, p. 145-156. Stang, Christian: Die westrussische Kanzleisprache des Grossfürstentums Litauen. Oslo 1935. Strumins’kyj, Bohdan. “The language question in the Ukrainian lands before the nineteenth century”. In: Aspects of the Slavic language question. Ed. Riccardo Picchio, Harvey Goldblatt. New Haven 1984, vol. 2, p. 9-47. "Hrodna town books language problems in Early Modern Times" by Jury Hardziejeŭ

John White (Australian politician)

John Charles White was a Tasmanian Labor politician during the years 1986 to 1999. He is the son of Alfred White. White was first elected as a member for Denison in 1986, he held the position of Health Minister during 1989-1992. During 1992-1998 he was Shadow minister for Arts, Justice and Aboriginal Affairs. In August 1998 he resigned from his Lower house seat to contest the Upper house seat of Newdegate, he was successful and took the position in September 1998. In June 1999 White's Upper house seat of Newdegate was abolished when the size of parliament was reduced. In early 2003 White and two others formed. In August 2003 the company was awarded a Tasmanian Government contract to handle building accreditation and training. Following the 2006 state election, White came under significant public scrutiny after a confidential service level agreement, signed by White and the Minister Bryan Green, being negotiated from November 2005, was leaked to Sue Neales, chief reporter of The Mercury, criticised by the Chief Justice for her "contempt of court".

After pleading not guilty, the Chief Justice ruled that the signing of the document was the offence, did not require any'mala fides' Bad faith. White changed his plea to guilty, on legal advice of his barrister, in the Supreme Court on 20 November 2007. On 10 December 2007 he was sentenced to a two-year good behaviour bond and had no conviction recorded. Parliamentary Library profile

Sisyrinchium funereum

Sisyrinchium funereum is an uncommon species of flowering plant in the family Iridaceae known by the common names Funeral Mountain blue-eyed grass and Death Valley blue-eyed-grass. It is endemic to the Mojave Desert of the United States, where it is known only from the Funeral Mountains and Death Valley area in eastern California, the Ash Meadows area just over the border in Nevada, it grows in wet alkaline habitat, such as seeps and mineral springs. Sisyrinchium funereum is rhizomatous perennial herb takes a clumpy form, producing pale green, waxy stems up to 70 to 76 centimeters in maximum height; the flower has six tepals measuring up to 1.5 centimeters long. They are light blue to purple-blue with yellow bases; the tepal tips are squared or notched. The fruit is a beige capsule. Jepson Manual Treatment - Sisyrinchium funereum USDA Plants Profile: Sisyrinchium funereum Flora of North America.

Brampton railway station (Cumbria)

Brampton railway station is on the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway in northern England, serving the town of Brampton. The station is located near the hamlet of Milton; the station opened in 1836 and the first Station Master was Thomas Edmondson who introduced cardboard tickets and developed the ticket dating machine. Staff were removed from the station in 1967, with the main buildings demolished in stages during the 1970s and 1980s; until 1923, a short branch line, known locally as'The Dandy', horsedrawn, ran into Brampton itself, terminating at Brampton Town railway station, the present-day station was called Brampton Junction. This line closed in 1923 and most of the route is now a public footpath; the station was the junction of another railway serving the local collieries owned by the Earl of Carlisle. Known as Lord Carlisle's Railway, this ran to a junction with the Alston Branch Line at Lambley; the station is owned by Network Rail and managed by Northern, which manages the station. It is suffixed as Brampton in order to distinguish it from the station of the same name in Suffolk.

No ticketing provision is available here, so passengers must buy them on the train or prior to travel. There are waiting shelters on each platform and train running information is offered by timetable poster boards and telephone. Step-free access is available to both platforms, though the westbound platform requires a significant detour via public roads to reach from the main entrance. On Monday to Saturday day-times there is a two-hourly service in each direction with more trains during peak periods. On Sundays there are five to Newcastle. Train times and station information for Brampton railway station from National Rail

John Miller (New York politician)

John Miller was an American physician and politician from New York. He attended a private classical school in Kent, Connecticut. From 1793 on, he studied medicine, first with an uncle with Dr. Moshier in Easton, New York. In 1797, he went to Philadelphia and became a private pupil of Dr. Benjamin Rush, attended Rush's and Dr. William Shippen's lectures at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1798, he practiced in partnership with Dr. Moshier. Miller was licensed to practice medicine by the Vermont Medical Society in 1800, the law on licensing physicians not being enacted yet in the State of New York. In 1801, he removed to that part of the Town of Fabius, split off as the Town of Truxton when Cortland County was established in 1808, continued the practice of medicine there. In 1805, he married Phoebe, they had eight children, among them Charles Miller MD, he was Coroner of Cortland County from 1802 to 1805, Postmaster of Truxton from 1805 to 1825, a Justice of the Peace from 1812 to 1821, an associate judge of the Cortland County Court from 1817 to 1820.

He was a founding member of the Cortland County Medical Society in 1808, was its first Vice President. Miller was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1816–17, 1820 and 1846, he was elected as an Adams man to the Nineteenth United States Congress, holding office from March 4, 1825, to March 3, 1827. He was a delegate to the New York State Constitutional Convention of 1846. Miller was buried at the City Cemetery in Truxton. United States Congress. "John Miller". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; the New York Civil List compiled by Franklin Benjamin Hough Transactions of the American Medical Association Documents of the Senate of the State of New York Death notice of his son Charles, in NYT on January 12, 1854 John Miller at Find a Grave

Mangonel

The mangonel called the traction trebuchet, was a type of trebuchet or siege engine used in Ancient China starting from the Warring States period, across Eurasia in the 6th century AD. Unlike the earlier torsion engines and counterweight trebuchet, the mangonel operated on manpower pulling cords attached to a lever and sling to launch projectiles. Although the mangonel required more men to function, it was less complex and faster to reload than the torsion powered ballista and onager which it replaced in early Medieval Europe. Mangonel is derived from the Greek mágganon or mangonon, meaning "engine of war", it could be derived from mangon, a French hard stone found in the south of France. In Latin it is called a manganum, in French a manganeau, in English a mangonel; the mangonel is called al-manjanīq in Arabic. In China the traction trebuchet was called the pào. A common myth surrounding the mangonel is that it was a torsion siege engine such as the ballista, catapult, or onager, artillery weapons that were used in the West until the 6-8th centuries.

This myth or misconception has been propagated as as 2004. However with the exception of the springald which saw action from the 13th to 14th centuries, torsion machines had disappeared by the 6th century and were replaced by the traction trebuchet. By the 9th century, when the first Western European reference to a mangana appeared, there is no evidence at all, whether textual or artistic, of torsion engines used in warfare; the last historical texts specifying a torsion engine aside from the springald date no than the 6th century. There is no evidence whatever for the continuation of the onager in Byzantium beyond the end of the 6th century, while its absence in the ‘barbarian’ successor kingdoms can be shown, negatively, by the absence of any reference and, from the decline in the expertise needed to build and use the machine; when the mangonel appeared in Europe from the east, it was a traction-propelled stone thrower. Torsion power went out of use for some seven centuries before returning in the guise of the bolt-throwing springald, deployed not as an offensive, wallbreaking siege engine, but to defend those walls against human assailants.

Terminology and definition of the mangonel is confused. The term itself was used as a general medieval catch-all for stone throwing artillery, which meant a traction trebuchet from the 6th to 12th centuries, between the disappearance of the onager and the arrival of the counterweight trebuchet. In modern times the mangonel is confused with the onager due to the torsion mangonel myth, hence why modern military historians came up with the term "traction trebuchet" to distinguish it from the previous weapon; however traction trebuchet is a newer modern term, not found in contemporary sources, which can lead to further confusion. For some, the mangonel is not a specific type of siege weapon but a general term for any pre-cannon stone throwing artillery. Onagers have been called onager mangonels and traction trebuchets called "beam-sling mangonel machines". From a practical perspective, a mangonel has been used to describe anything from a torsion engine like the onager, to a traction trebuchet, to a counterweight trebuchet depending on the user's bias.

The mangonel is thought to have originated in ancient China. Torsion-based siege weapons such as the ballista and onager are not known to have been used in China; the first recorded use of mangonels was in ancient China. They were used by the Mohists as early as 4th century BC, descriptions of which can be found in the Mojing. In Chapter 14 of the Mojing, the mangonel is described hurling hollowed out logs filled with burning charcoal at enemy troops; the mangonel was carried westward by the Avars and appeared next in the eastern Mediterranean by the late 6th century AD, where it replaced torsion powered siege engines such as the ballista and onager due to its simpler design and faster rate of fire. The Byzantines adopted the mangonel as early as 587, the Persians in the early 7th century, the Arabs in the second half of the 7th century; the Franks and Saxons adopted the weapon in the 8th century. The catapult, the account of, translated from the Greek several times, was quadrangular, with a wide base but narrowing towards the top, using large iron rollers to which were fixed timber beams "similar to the beams of big houses", having at the back a sling, at the front thick cables, enabling the arm to be raised and lowered, which threw "enormous blocks into the air with a terrifying noise".

The traction trebuchet displaced classical, torsion-powered artillery because it was simpler and required less competence to build, while maintaining comparable range and power, it had far higher rates of firing and accuracy. Furthermore, it was safer to operate than tension weapons, whose bundles of taut sinews stored up huge amounts of energy in resting state and were prone to catastrophic failure when in use. According to Leife Inge Ree Peterson, a mangonel could have been used at Theodosiopolis in 421 but was "likely an onager", he claims that mangonels were independently invented or at least known in the Eastern Mediterranean by 500 AD based on records of different and better artillery weapons, however there is no explicit description of a traction trebuchet. Furthermore mangonels were used in Spain and Italy by the mid 6th century and in Africa by the 7th century; the Franks adopted the weapon in the 8th century. Thus, on the basis of hard evidence of unknown machinery in Joshua the Stylite and Agathias, as well as good indications of its construction in Procopiu