Rybnik is a city in southwestern Poland, in the Silesian Voivodeship. The city first developed as a fishing centre in the Middle Ages, hence the name of the city alludes to the trade. Rybnik grew as an important centre of coal mining and the seat of the surrounding county in the 19th century. Under Poland's communist rule from 1945-1989 the city was projected to grow as a main mining centre of southern Poland; the Rybnik area with its large coal reserves and power plants is an important economic region, a notable center of music, home of the Szafrankowie Brothers State School of Music as well as a Philharmonic Orchestra. The city's population peaked in 1997 at 144,943. Rybnik has 138,696 inhabitants. 88.9% of the city's residents identified themselves as Polish in the 2002 National Census. Its density is 955.3 per km². Rybnik's demographic situation remains far better than most other Polish cities, with a rather young population: 18.2% being under the age of 18 and only 15.9% older than 65. According to the National Census of 2002 out of 142,731 Rybnik's citizens, 126,860 declared Polish nationality, 8,980 were Silesians and 382 were of German origin.
Rybnik is a powiat divided into 27 districts. Most of them are suburban areas, including: Chwałęcice, Golejów, Grabownia, Kamień, Kłokocin, Ligota – Ligocka Kuźnia, Ochojec, Popielów, Radziejów, Rybnicka Kuźnia, Rybnik – Północ, Stodoły, Zamysłów and Zebrzydowice. There are four former towns that have been merged with Rybnik: Boguszowice Stare, Chwałowice and Niewiadom. Two districts are typical Polish housing estates, with large blocks of flats and supporting buildings built in communist time; the remaining three districts, Smolna, Śródmieście and Paruszowiec-Piaski formed the pre-war town of Rybnik. Those areas are densely built-up, with old town, city hall, most of schools and shopping malls in Śródmieście and 19th century factories and houses in Paruszowiec; the city of Rybnik is the centre of a metropolitan area, the Rybnik Coal Region with a total population of 600,000. The distance to Katowice is about 50 km, to Ostrava about 30 km; the city's name derives from the Proto-Slavic word for "fish" and meant "fishpond" in the Old Polish language.
The name highlights the importance of fish farming for the city's economy in the Middle Ages, reflected in its coat of arms until this day. The city's origins can be traced back into the 9th and 10th century, when three Slavic settlements existed on Rybnik's present-day territory which merged to form one town. In the course of the medieval eastward migration of German settlers, Rybnik, as many other Polish settlements, was incorporated according to the so-called Magdeburg Law at some point before 1308. This, however, is not to be confused with a change in national affiliation; the city developed into a regional trade centre. In the 15th century, the Hussites devastated the city, before being defeated in a decisive battle on a hill nearby. From 1526, including the fiefdom of Silesia, which Rybnik was a part of, came under the authority of the Habsburg crown. At the beginning of the War of the Austrian Succession between Frederick II of Prussia and the Habsburg empress Maria Theresa of Austria, the greatest part of mainly German-speaking Silesia, including Rybnik, was annexed by Prussia in 1740, which Austria recognized in 1763.
Coal mining gained importance for Rybnik's economy as early as the 18th century. In 1871, including Rybnik, merged into the German Empire, the first modern German nation state. At this point, Poland had ceased to exist as an independent state, having been divided between Prussia and Russia in the Third Partition of Poland of 1795. With the intensification of Germanization and anti-Polish politics in the German Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century, the ethnically mixed region of Upper Silesia became affected by growing tensions between German and Polish nationalists. After the end of World War I in 1918, the Polish state was restored. Amidst an atmosphere of ethnic unrest, a referendum was organized to determine the future national affiliation of Upper Silesia. Although an overall majority had opted for Germany, the area was divided in an attempt to satisfy both parties. Although both parties considered the territory they were assigned insufficient, the division was justified insofar as in the German and Polish parts a majority had voted in favour of the respective nation.
The lowest number of pro-German votes was registered in the districts of Pszczyna. The city and the largest part of the district of Rybnik were attached to Poland; the referendum and eventual division of Upper Silesia were accompanied by three Silesian Uprisings, the first of, centered on Rybnik. Within the Second Polish Republic of the interwar period, Rybnik was part of the Silesian Voivodeship and enjoyed far-reaching political and financial autonomy. With the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the
During the 2008–09 English football season, Scunthorpe United F. C. competed in the third tier of English football. Scunthorpe competed in the FA Cup, Football League Cup and Football League Trophy; the 2008–09 season saw Scunthorpe reach Wembley twice. The Iron qualified for the Football League Trophy final, but were beaten 3–2 after extra time by Luton Town; the club qualified for the League One play-offs through an 88th-minute equaliser by club captain Cliff Byrne against promotion rivals Tranmere Rovers on the last day of the regular season. Scunthorpe beat MK Dons on penalties after a 1–1 aggregate draw in the semi-finals, before beating Millwall in the Wembley final 3–2, with two goals from Matt Sparrow and one from Martyn Woolford, to achieve promotion back to the Championship at the first time of asking
Ang Mahiwagang Baul is a Philippine television drama fantasy anthology broadcast by GMA Network. Starring Eissen Bayubay, Sandy Talag and Carme Sanchez, it premiered on July 17, 2005; the show concluded on January 2007 with a total of 75 episodes. The show features retelling popular Philippine myths and folktales, it was slated for seven episodes, was extended due to viewership ratings and feedback from the viewers. Some episodes were released on DVD by GMA Records and Home Videos in 2007 in three volumes; the series is a special program designed to appeal to children. It is a weekly anthology aimed at entertaining children through a retelling of Philippine myths and folklores and seeks to rekindle their interest in the richness of Filipino literature. All the episodes featured live-action twist adaptations of Pinoy folktales in costume by many well-known actors, teleplays by Gina Marissa Tagasa, are directed by Argel Joseph and Don Michael Perez; the show stars Sandy Talag who play siblings Epoy and Jewel.
The two children are brought by their mother Lourdes to their Lola Tacia's house. Their adventure starts. Full of unique objects and trinkets, the children are soon fascinated by the stories that surround these items, they discover a stairway inside the chest! And when they decide to follow the steps and explore its depths, this unravels a secret world of fantasy and magic where the young siblings will experience and learn about a variety of myths and legends; the world inside the magical trunk is a realm without boundaries, this is where Epoy's toy robot Rextor comes to life and becomes a trusty company to the children in their mythical adventures. After every ad venture, the kids come back with lessons learned. Main castEissen Bayubay as Epoy Sandy Talag as Jewel Carme Sanchez as lola Tacia John Feir as RextorRecurring castShamaine Centenera as Lourdes Noni Buencamino as Emil Bella Flores as lola Matilda Patricia Ysmael as Yayang Marian Rivera as Rahinda In 2006, the show won three awards in three different award-giving bodies.
The show won Best Children Show in Catholic Mass Media Award. Ang Mahiwagang Baul on IMDb
Świętoszówka is a village in Gmina Jasienica, Bielsko County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland. It has a population of 618, it lies in the Silesian Foothills in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia. The name is derived from the personal name of Świętosz, it could have been first mentioned in a document of Bishop of Wrocław issued on 23 May 1223 for Norbertine Sisters in Rybnik among villages paying them a tithe, as Suenschizi. If it was indeed the contemporary Świętoszówka, it was not mentioned afterwards until the 16th century. In 1561 it was mentioned as na Swiendossowkach. Politically the area belonged to the Duchy of Opole and Racibórz and the Castellany of Cieszyn, in 1290 formed in the process of feudal fragmentation of Poland into the Duchy of Teschen, ruled by a local branch of Silesian Piast dynasty. In 1327 the duchy became a fee of the Kingdom of Bohemia, which after 1526 became a part of the Habsburg Monarchy. After Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire a modern municipal division was introduced in the re-established Austrian Silesia.
The village as a municipality was subscribed to the political district of Bielsko and the legal district of Skoczów. According to the censuses conducted in 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910 the population of the municipality grew from 511 in 1880 to 750 in 1910 with a majority being native Polish-speakers and a small German-speaking minority, in terms of religion majority were Roman Catholics, followed by Protestants, Jews and 4 people adhering to yet another different faith; the village was traditionally inhabited by Cieszyn Vlachs, speaking Cieszyn Silesian dialect. After World War I, fall of Austria-Hungary, Polish–Czechoslovak War and the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, it became a part of Poland, it was annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war, it was restored to Poland. There is a Catholic Holy Spirit Church and a Lutheran church in the village. Polak, Jerzy. Obrazki z dziejów gminy Jasienica. Cieszyn: Muzeum Śląska Cieszyńskiego. ISBN 978-83-922005-6-7. Information at Gmina Jasienica website
The Campaign for World Government was established in 1937 by prominent feminists and peace activists Rosika Schwimmer and Lola Maverick Lloyd. It was the first World Federalist Organization in the 20th century. In 1937, disenchanted with the League of Nations and its perceived weaknesses, they announced the Campaign's mission to promote a federal world government directly representing the interests of the world's people, as opposed to the interests of states. While the specific methods promoted for achieving this goal shifted over the next several decades, the Campaign adhered to the concept of a populist global federalism throughout its existence; the Campaign's early platform was outlined in 1937 in their pamphlet "Chaos, War or a New World Order?" which called for the creation of a World Constitutional Convention. At this convention, it was hoped, a framework for a Federation of Nations would be formed, democratic elections to the federation would be scheduled. Schwimmer and Lloyd included a tentative plan for this novel federal body, including full membership for all countries, direct representation, several organs of government.
Among the plan's elements were a new international date system, the abolition of all military bodies, the peaceful transfer of people out of population-dense regions, a combined global free-trade and command economy. Over time, as Schwimmer and Lloyd recognized the increasing unlikelihood of national governments voluntarily forming a world government, their plan shifted emphasis to the peaceful popular demand for the election of such a body. Following this shift, the Campaign began to focus on national consciousness-raising and international conferences of other like-minded groups
Panjshir Front was a military association of the Afghan opposition in the Panjshir Valley during the Soviet–Afghan War under the command of field commander Ahmad Shah Massoud. The Panjshir Front played a leading role in organizing and coordinating the military and political activities of the fronts by the type of the Islamic Army – the Islamic Society of Afghanistan – in five northeastern provinces adjacent to Panjshiru: Kunduz, Takhar, Kapisa. On the basis of the Panjshir and the northeastern fronts, the so-called "Supervisory Council" was created, which resolved military-political and economic tasks in organizing the activities of the anti-government forces of the entire region; such associations began to be established in the west and south of Afghanistan, the main role in them was played by the Islamic Society of Afghanistan party. The expansion of the territory controlled by the Panjshir Front dictated the creation of military and administrative structures simultaneously. There were created: judicial committees, a committee on culture, a council for education and culture, as well as a council of ulama.
The Panjshir Front created 22 bases scattered throughout the length of the valley. In order to help the weak bases, mobile groups were created, capable of entering the battle on the Panjshir before it developed and attacking the enemy in areas beyond the valley, they were sent to help the bases. Each of the bases was located in one of the secondary gorges adjoining the valley and subdivided, in turn, into two main and one auxiliary garrisons; the composition of the mobile groups was recruited from among the various bases of the Panjshir valley. This approach increased the fighting spirit of the Panjshir people and helped to establish interaction between various bases and minimizing the contradictions that sometimes occurred between the front leadership and the command of some of the bases. In the event of a defeat of a mobile group, such an approach in the formation of its personnel contributed to a more distribution of losses between different bases, rather than their concentration in one area.
During the fighting during the nine months of 1982, 1983 – the leadership of the Panjshir Front, using the acquired combat experience, divided the members of the bases into members of strike groups and employees and economic issues. The formation of a supervisory board and the unification of the activities of the leadership of the Panjshir Front with the activities of this council, which included 50 of the most experienced Panjshir warriors and 50 rebels from other fronts, subsequently contributed to the formation of the leadership of the so-called Islamic army on their basis; each of the rebel groups consisted of 32 armed and equipped soldiers. The armament of this group consisted of two RPG-7 hand grenade launchers, one PK machine gun and AK-47 assault rifles. At the head of the group was the commander with his deputy; the main group, in turn, was divided into three smaller ones, ten each, one of whom was its commander. This group was able to be in reserve; the leadership of the Panjshir Front since the beginning of the armed struggle was focused on expanding the territory of military operations against the OKVA.
To achieve this result was possible: the distribution of weapons, financial assistance, combat training – directing to neighboring fronts, to enhance combat experience and skills. The main political task of the Panjshir Front was to represent a symbol of Afghan resistance. Panjshir Gorge is an narrow valley, surrounded, on both sides enclosed by high mountains. On both sides to it adjoins set of small gorges, it is located to the north-east of Kabul, the capital of the DRA and borders on the provinces: Parvan, Lagman, Badakhshan and Baghlan. There are two strategic points with the Panjshir: Salang, called the people's throat Kabul and the military airfield Bagram; the Panjshir Front used this intimacy in the fight against ACVA and the Government forces. In this regard, the leaders of the front came to the conclusion that one of the main tasks is to establish unity of action between territorially close fronts. With the introduction of Soviet troops into Afghanistan, in order to organize guerrilla warfare in the central and north-eastern part of the country, a single combat command, the spiritual leader Burhanuddin Rabbani and the largest field commander Ahmad Shah Massoud, the Panjshir Front was established – the advanced combat unit of the IAO party.
To fight the Government in Kabul and the Soviet troops, the IOA among the "Seven Islamic parties", more known as the Peshawar Seven Union, received significant financial and military assistance – as part of the secret operation "Cyclone" from the US CIA, as well as a number of Western European countries. However, despite extensive external financial assistance, the Panjshir Front mobilized all available domestic economic resources in the valley, took full control over the extraction of all minerals in the valley. Significant funds came to the IOA budget from the development of deposits of emeralds. In the mining areas of silver in the rock, a large number of abandoned mines formed resembling a sieve with a large number of holes. On in these mines the support and observation posts of the Panjshir people were equipped; the gorge served as a convenient transport corridor for the supply of arms and ammunition from Pakistan by packs of tra