France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Marv Albert is an American sportscaster. Honored for his work as a member of the Basketball Hall of Fame, he is referred to as "the voice of basketball". From 1967 to 2004, he was known as "the voice of the New York Knicks". Albert works for Turner Sports, serving as lead announcer for NBA games on TNT. In addition to calling both professional and college basketball, he has experience announcing other sports such as American football, ice hockey, horse racing and tennis. Albert has called the play-by-play of eight Super Bowls, NBA Finals, seven Stanley Cup Finals, he has called the Wimbledon Tennis Championships for TNT with Jim Courier and Mary Carillo. He worked as a co-host and reporter for two World Series Albert was born to a Jewish family in Brooklyn, where he went to Abraham Lincoln High School. While Albert grew up, members of his family owned a grocery store on Brighton Beach Avenue between 3rd and 4th streets known as Aufrichtig's, he attended Syracuse University's Newhouse School of Public Communications from 1960 through 1963.
In 1962, he served as the voice of the AAA Syracuse Chiefs. He graduated from New York University in 1965. Marv did his first Knicks game on January 1963 on WCBS Radio, he filled in for his mentor, Marty Glickman, away in Europe. The game was against the Celtics at the Boston Garden. For 37 years beginning in 1967, Albert was the voice of the New York Knicks on radio and television before being let go by James L. Dolan, the chairman of the MSG Network and Cablevision, after Albert criticized the Knicks' poor play on-air in 2004, it was said that Marv's high salary was a factor. His son Kenny Albert has been a part-time play-by-play announcer for the Knicks since 2009, whenever the older Albert's successor Mike Breen is unavailable. For a brief period before he resumed his normal broadcasting duties following his sexual assault arrest, Albert anchored MSG's former nightly sports news report, MSG SportsDesk. Marv Albert was the lead play-by-play broadcaster for the NBA on NBC for most of its run from 1990 to 2002, calling every NBA Finals during that timeframe except for 1998, 1999, 2000.
During this time, Bob Costas had taken over the lead job and called the Finals after Marv's arrest for sexual assault had brought him national disgrace. Marv resumed his previous position for the 2000–2001 season and called Game 4 of the 2002 NBA Finals, the final NBA telecast on NBC. During his time on NBC, Albert continued as lead play-by-play man for the New York Knicks on local MSG Network telecasts and began calling national games for TNT in 1999 as well; when he regained the lead broadcaster position on NBC, he continued to call play-by-play for both networks until the end of NBC's coverage in 2002. Albert continues to be the lead play-by-play announcer for National Basketball Association games on TNT, a position he assumed in 1999. Indeed, TNT has become his primary commitment since his longtime employer NBC lost the NBA broadcasting rights in 2002, may have played a role in his departure from the Knicks' broadcast booth; the Knicks wanted Albert to accept a salary commensurate with his reduced Knicks schedule, but weren't happy about Albert making what Knicks management felt were overly critical comments about their team in spite of their losing record.
In basketball, his most famous call is his simple "Yes!" for a basket, rendered in many variations of volume and length depending on the situation. On April 17, 2002, shortly after calling a game between the Indiana Pacers and Philadelphia 76ers on TNT, both Albert and color analyst Mike Fratello were injured in a limo accident in Trenton, New Jersey. Albert sustained facial lacerations, a concussion, a sprained ankle; the 2002 NBA Playoffs were set to begin two days with Albert scheduled to call multiple games that week. Bob Costas filled in those games and Albert returned to call Game 1 of the Western Conference Semifinals between the Dallas Mavericks and Sacramento Kings. In 2018, Sports Broadcast Journal speculated that Albert might be the first network play-by-play broadcaster to continue into his 80s, Will Marv Albert be the first network play-by-play announcer to call games into his 80s In 2005, Albert became the lead play-by-play man for the New Jersey Nets franchise and started calling their games on the YES Network teaming with Brooklyn native and NBA veteran, Mark Jackson.
With that, the Nets employed all three Albert brothers during the franchise's history. Beginning with the 2008–09 season, Albert was paired with his TNT broadcast colleague Mike Fratello on the YES Network. However, with the Nets' struggles in the 2009–10 season, Nets management relegated Albert to secondary play-by-play, to avoid a similar incident while Albert was with the Knicks. Since Ian Eagle has taken over the broadcasts. In 2011, Albert left the YES Network to join CBS Sports for NCAA tournament coverage. Albert hosts a basketball-focused interview show on NBA TV, which airs on YES. Since 2003, Albert has been providing the play-by-play voice on the NBA Live video-game series on EA Sports, a role he fulfilled until NBA Live 10. From 2011 to 2015, Albert announced NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship tournament g
I. M. Pei
Ieoh Ming Pei, FAIA, RIBA known as I. M. Pei, is a Chinese American architect. Born in Guangzhou and raised in Hong Kong and Shanghai, Pei drew inspiration at an early age from the gardens at Soochow. In 1935, he moved to the United States and enrolled in the University of Pennsylvania's architecture school, but transferred to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he was unhappy with the focus at both schools on Beaux-Arts architecture, spent his free time researching emerging architects Le Corbusier. After graduating, he joined the Harvard Graduate School of Design and became a friend of the Bauhaus architects Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer. In 1948, Pei was recruited by New York City real estate magnate William Zeckendorf, for whom he worked for seven years before establishing his own independent design firm I. M. Pei & Associates in 1955, which became I. M. Pei & Partners in 1966 and in 1989 became Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. Pei retired from full-time practice in 1990. Since he has taken on work as an architectural consultant from his sons' architectural firm Pei Partnership Architects.
Pei's first major recognition came with the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Colorado. His new stature led to his selection as chief architect for the John F. Kennedy Library in Massachusetts, he went on to design the East Building of the National Gallery of Art. He returned to China for the first time in 1975 to design a hotel at Fragrant Hills, designed Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, a skyscraper in Hong Kong for the Bank of China fifteen years later. In the early 1980s, Pei was the focus of controversy when he designed a glass-and-steel pyramid for the Musée du Louvre in Paris, he returned to the world of the arts by designing the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center in Dallas, the Miho Museum in Japan, the Suzhou Museum in Suzhou, Museum of Islamic Art in Qatar, the Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art, abbreviated to Mudam, in Luxembourg. Pei has won a wide variety of prizes and awards in the field of architecture, including the AIA Gold Medal in 1979, the first Praemium Imperiale for Architecture in 1989, the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum in 2003.
In 1983, he won. Pei's ancestry traces back to the Ming Dynasty. Finding wealth in the sale of medicinal herbs, the family stressed the importance of helping the less fortunate. Ieoh Ming Pei was born on 26 April 1917 to Tsuyee and Lien Kwun, the family moved to Hong Kong one year later; the family included five children. As a boy, Pei was close to his mother, a devout Buddhist, recognized for her skills as a flautist, she invited him to join her on meditation retreats. His relationship with his father was less intimate, their interactions were respectful but distant. Pei's ancestors' success meant that the family lived in the upper echelons of society, but Pei said his father was "not cultivated in the ways of the arts"; the younger Pei, drawn more to music and other cultural forms than to his father's domain of banking, explored art on his own. "I have cultivated myself," he said later. At the age of ten, Pei moved with his family to Shanghai. Pei attended Saint Johns Middle School, run by Protestant missionaries.
Academic discipline was rigorous. Pei enjoyed playing billiards and watching Hollywood movies those of Buster Keaton and Charlie Chaplin, he learned rudimentary English skills by reading the Bible and novels by Charles Dickens. Shanghai's many international elements gave it the name "Paris of the East"; the city's global architectural flavors had a profound influence on Pei, from the Bund waterfront area to the Park Hotel, built in 1934. He was impressed by the many gardens of Suzhou, where he spent the summers with extended family and visited a nearby ancestral shrine; the Shizilin Garden, built in the 14th century by a Buddhist monk, was influential. Its unusual rock formations, stone bridges, waterfalls remained etched in Pei's memory for decades, he spoke of his fondness for the garden's blending of natural and human-built structures. Soon after the move to Shanghai, Pei's mother developed cancer; as a pain reliever, she was prescribed opium, assigned the task of preparing her pipe to Pei. She died shortly after his thirteenth birthday, he was profoundly upset.
The children were sent to live with extended family. Pei said: "My father began living his own separate life pretty soon after that." His father married a woman named Aileen, who moved to New York in her life. As Pei, neared the end of his secondary education, he decided to study at a university, he decided to enroll at the University of Pennsylvania. Pei's choice had two roots. While studying in Shanghai, he had examined the catalogs for various institutions of higher learning around the world; the architectural program at the University of Pennsylvania stood out to him. The other major factor was Hollywood. Pei was fascinated by the representations of college life in the films of Bing Crosby, which differed tremendously from the academic atmosphere in China. "College life in the U. S. seemed to me to be fun and games", he said in 2000. "Since I was too young to be serious, I wanted to be part of it... You could get a feeling for it in Bing Crosby's movies. College life in America seemed
Foursquare City Guide
Foursquare City Guide known as Foursquare, is a local search-and-discovery mobile app which provides search results for its users. The app provides personalized recommendations of places to go near a user's current location based on users' previous browsing history and check-in history; the service was created in late 2008 by Dennis Crowley and Naveen Selvadurai and launched in 2009. Crowley had founded the similar project Dodgeball as his graduate thesis project in the Interactive Telecommunications Program at New York University. Google shut it down in 2009, replacing it with Google Latitude. Dodgeball user interactions were based on SMS technology, rather than an application. Foursquare was the second iteration of that same idea, that people can use mobile devices to interact with their environment. Foursquare was Dodgeball reimagined to take advantage of new smartphones like the iPhone, which had built-in GPS to better detect a user's location; until late July 2014, Foursquare featured a social networking layer that enabled a user to share their location with friends, via the "check in" - a user would manually tell the application when they were at a particular location using a mobile website, text messaging, or a device-specific application by selecting from a list of venues the application locates nearby.
In May 2014, the company launched Swarm, a companion app to Foursquare City Guide, that reimagined the social networking and location sharing aspects of the service as a separate application. On August 7, 2014, the company launched Foursquare 8.0, the new version of the service which removed the check-in and location sharing to focus on local search. As of 2016, Foursquare had 50 million monthly active users; as of 2011, male and female users are represented and 50 percent of users are outside the US. Foursquare lets users search for restaurants, nightlife spots and other places of interest in their surrounding area, it is possible to search other areas by entering the name of a remote location. The app displays personalized recommendations based on the time of day, displaying breakfast places in the morning, dinner places in the evening etc. Recommendations are personalized based on factors that include a user's check-in history, their "Tastes" and their venue ratings. Foursquare eschews the traditional concept of letting users leave long-form reviews, instead encourages the writing of "Tips" - short messages about a location that let other users know what is good there.
Tips are limited to 200 characters in length, but can include a URL to link to an external site with more information, can include a photo. As a reward for leaving quality tips, a user can earn "expertise" in a particular location or category. Foursquare has a defined list of "tastes" in particular food items, styles of cuisine or environmental aspects, which users may add to their profiles to let the app know what they like; the app uses natural language processing to match a user's tastes with the tips at nearby venues that mention them. Foursquare uses Pilgrim, to detect a user's location; when users opt in to always-on location sharing, Pilgrim is able to understand a user's current location by comparing historical check-in data with the user‘s current GPS signal, cell tower triangulation, cellular signal strength and surrounding wifi signals. The app uses the location service to track a user's location in the background, enabling push notifications of things the user might find interesting in their vicinity.
It uses this ability to learn about the kinds of places a user likes, based on when and how they visit different venues. It uses this data to improve a user's recommendations and gauge the popularity of a venue. In addition to leaving Tips, Foursquare lets users rate venues by answering questions; the questions help Foursquare understand how people feel about a place, including whether or not a user likes the place, how trendy it is, its cleanliness, its noise level. It uses these questions to fill in missing venue information such as asking whether the venue takes credit cards, or whether it has outdoor seating. Foursquare gives each venue a numeric score between 0.1 and 10 to indicate its general popularity when compared to other venues. Scores are calculated automatically factoring in check-in data, explicit user ratings, tip sentiment, foot traffic behavior and other signals. Users can add venues to a personal "to do" list and curated lists to track neighborhood hot-spots or things to do while traveling.
The service provides ten levels of Superuser. Superuser status is awarded to users after they apply and perform a special test where users should meet quality and quantity criteria. Only Superusers have the ability to edit venue information. Superusers can attain different levels. In the past, Foursquare has allowed companies to create pages of tips and users to "follow" the company and receive tips from them when they check-in at certain locations. On July 25, 2012, Foursquare revealed Promoted Updates, an app update expected to create a new revenue generation stream for the company; the new program allowed companies to issue messages to Foursquare users about deals or available products. Foursquares underlying technology is used by apps such and Uber and Twitter for location information and that data is available to foursquare Earlier versions of Foursquare supported check-ins and location sharing, but as of Foursquare 8.0, these were moved to the service's sibling app, Foursquare Swarm. Foursquare 8.0 never shares a user's location with their followers.
In previous versions of Foursquare, if a user had checked into
William S. Paley
William Samuel Paley was the chief executive who built the Columbia Broadcasting System from a small radio network into one of the foremost radio and television network operations in the United States. Paley was born in Chicago, the son of Goldie and Samuel Paley, his family was Jewish, his father was an immigrant from Ukraine who ran a cigar company. As the company became successful, Paley became a millionaire, moved his family to Philadelphia in the early 1920s. William Paley matriculated at Western Military Academy in Alton and received his college degree from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania in expectation that he would take an active role running the family cigar business. While at the University of Pennsylvania, Paley joined the Theta Chapter of Zeta Beta Tau Fraternity. In 1927, Samuel Paley, Leon Levy, some business partners bought a struggling Philadelphia-based radio network of 16 stations called the Columbia Phonographic Broadcasting System. Samuel Paley's intention was to use his acquisition as an advertising medium for promoting the family's cigar business, which included the La Palina brand.
Within a year, under William's leadership, cigar sales had more than doubled, and, in 1928, the Paley family secured majority ownership of the network from their partners. Within a decade, William S. Paley had expanded the network to 114 affiliate stations. Paley grasped the earnings potential of radio and recognized that good programming was the key to selling advertising time and, in turn, bringing in profits to the network and to affiliate owners. Before Paley, most businessmen viewed stations as stand-alone local outlets or, in other words, as the broadcast equivalent of local newspapers. Individual stations bought programming from the network and, were considered the network's clients. Paley changed broadcasting's business model not only by developing successful and lucrative broadcast programming but by viewing the advertisers as the most significant element of the broadcasting equation. Paley provided network programming to affiliate stations at a nominal cost, thereby ensuring the widest possible distribution for both the programming and the advertising.
The advertisers became the network's primary clients and, because of the wider distribution brought by the growing network, Paley was able to charge more for the ad time. Affiliates were required to carry programming offered by the network for part of the broadcast day, receiving a portion of the network's fees from advertising revenue. At other times in the broadcast day, affiliates were free to offer local programming and sell advertising time locally. Paley's recognition of how to harness the potential reach of broadcasting was the key to his growing CBS from a tiny chain of stations into what was one of the world's dominant communication empires. During his prime, Paley was described as having an uncanny sense for popular taste and exploiting that insight to build the CBS network; as war clouds darkened over Europe in the late 1930s, Paley recognized Americans' desire for news coverage of the coming war and built the CBS news division into a dominant force just as he had built the network's entertainment division.
During World War II, Paley served as director of radio operations of the Psychological Warfare branch in the Office of War Information at Allied Force Headquarters in London, where he held the rank of colonel. While based in England during the war, Paley came to know and befriend Edward R. Murrow, CBS's head of European news who expanded the news division's foreign coverage with a team of war correspondents known as the Murrow Boys. In 1946, Paley promoted Frank Stanton to president of CBS. CBS rode the post-World War II boom to surpass NBC, which had dominated radio. CBS has owned the Columbia Record Company and its associated CBS Laboratories since 1939. In 1948, Columbia Records introduced the 33-1/3-rpm long-playing vinyl disc to compete with RCA Victor's 45-rpm vinyl disc. CBS Laboratories and Peter Goldmark developed a method for color television. After lobbying by RCA President David Sarnoff and Paley in Washington, D. C. the Federal Communications Commission approved the CBS system, but reversed the decision based on the CBS system's incompatibility with black and white receivers.
The new, compatible RCA color system was selected as the standard, CBS sold the patents to its system to foreign broadcasters as PAL SECAM. CBS broadcast few color programs during this period, they did, however and license some RCA equipment and technology, taking the RCA markings off of the equipment, relying on Philips-Norelco for color equipment beginning in 1964, when color television sets became widespread. PAL or Phase Alternating Line, an analogue TV-encoding system, is today a television-broadcasting standard used in large parts of the world. "Bill Paley erected two towers of power: one for entertainment and one for news," 60 Minutes creator Don Hewitt claimed in his autobiography, Tell Me a Story. "And he decreed that there would be no bridge between them.... In short, Paley was the guy who put Frank Sinatra and Edward R. Murrow on the radio and 60 Minutes on television." Paley was not fond of one of the network's biggest stars. Arthur Godfrey had been working locally in DC and New York City hosting morning shows.
Paley did not consider him worthy of CBS. When Paley went into the Army and took up his assignment in London, Frank Stanton assumed his duties, he decided to try Godfrey on the network. By th
Tully Center for Free Speech
The Tully Center for Free Speech located at the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University in Syracuse, New York was started in 2006 with a bequest from Joan A. Tully, a 1969 graduate of the SI Newhouse School of Public Communications, Daily Orange alumni, a engaged advocate of free speech, free expression, freedom of information and a strong Fourth Estate; the Tully Center's primary mission is to advocate for free expression. The Tully Center brings in speakers throughout the year who lecture in classes and at events at the S. I. Newhouse School and across the Syracuse University community. In September 2013, The Tully Center hosted free speech advocate Mary Beth Tinker and student press law attorney Mike Hiestand as part of the Tinker Tour nationwide project. In March 2013, Larry Flynt presented a talk as the Tully Center Distinguished Speaker to celebrate 25 years since the precedent-setting Hustler v. Falwell Supreme Court case. Other past speakers have included Daniel Ellsberg, New York Times reporter Brian Stelter, Amy Goodman of Democracy Now!, Floyd Abrams, Irving Feiner, Alan Alda.
In April 2015, the Tully Center hosted a panel on journalism. The speakers, including Kristin Borjesson, Louis Clark and Thomas Tamm discussed the important role whistleblowers and the press play in promoting accountability and the challenges they face. Mary Beth Tinker came back to the Tully Center in October 2015 during Banned Book Week to talk about free speech rights and celebrate the First Amendment. In November, 2015, the Tully Center hosted Tech Pioneer Chet Kanojia, who discussed the shutdown of Aereo after the company was sued for copyright violations; the Tully Center conducts research on a number of topics relevant to free speech and media law through its Free Speech Zone blog and an annual Syracuse Law Review dedicated to media law issues. In addition to these speakers the Tully Center presents the annual Tully Center for Free Speech Award to a journalist who has survived a significant free speech threat. Candidates are nominated by an international panel of lawyers; the Award recipient is selected by an Award Committee of students.
Past winners include Aboubakr Jamaï of Morocco. In October 2013, the Award went to Idrak Abbasov of Azerbaijan. Alan Rusbridger received the award in October 2014 in recognition of his career and work with Edward Snowden. In March 2016, Kathy Gannon was announced as the 2015 Tully Award winner. Gannon was recognized for her dedicated career as a journalist with the Associated Press. In October 2016, Jason Rezaian was awarded for his work as a correspondent with the Washington Post in Tehran, where he was jailed for 544 days due to his position; the Director of the Tully Center is Roy S. Gutterman, an associate professor of communications law and journalism at the S. I. Newhouse School. Professor Gutterman draws as a journalist, he has spoken on the First Amendment, free speech, media law at universities and conferences around the United States and delivered lectures at National Chengchi University in Taipei City, Taiwan. His book, L. Rev: the Law Review Experience in American Legal Education is in law school libraries around the world.
The research assistant for the Tully Center is Robert Gaudio, a Public Diplomacy dual-master's student at the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications and the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs. Previous research assistants include: Robert Gaudio Rosalina Jowers Angela Ruffles K. Suzanne Hatcher Tara Desantis Jennifer Osias Elena Sorokina Alicia Wright Kenneth Merrill Liz Woolery Alex Blute Nikki Allem Colleen Keltz
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar