Søren Peter Lauritz Sørensen was a Danish chemist, famous for the introduction of the concept of pH, a scale for measuring acidity and alkalinity. S. P. L. Sørensen was born in Havrebjerg, Denmark in 1868; the son of a farmer, he began his studies at the University of Copenhagen at the age of 18. He wanted to make a career in medicine, but under the influence of chemist S. M. Jørgensen decided to change to chemistry. While studying for his doctorate he worked as assistant in chemistry at the laboratory of the Danish Polytechnic Institute, assisted in a geological survey of Denmark, worked as a consultant for the Royal Naval Dockyard, he was married twice. His second wife was Margrethe Høyrup Sørensen. From 1901 to 1938 he was head of Copenhagen. While working at the Carlsberg Laboratory he studied the effect of ion concentration on proteins, because the concentration of hydrogen ions was important, he introduced the pH-scale as a simple way of expressing it in 1909; the article in which he introduced the scale described two methods for measuring acidity which Sørensen and his students had refined.
The first method was based on electrodes, whereas the second involved comparing the colours of samples and a preselected set of indicators
Jean-François Raffaëlli was a French realist painter and printmaker who exhibited with the Impressionists. He was active as an actor and writer. Born in Paris, he was of Tuscan descent through his paternal grandparents, he showed an interest in music and theatre before becoming a painter in 1870. One of his landscape paintings was accepted for exhibition at the Salon in that same year. In October 1871 he began three months of study under Jean-Léon Gérôme at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Raffaëlli produced costume pictures until 1876, when he began to depict the people of his time—particularly peasants and ragpickers seen in the suburbs of Paris—in a realistic style, his new work was championed by influential critics such as J.-K. Huysmans, as well as by Edgar Degas; the ragpicker became for Raffaëlli a symbol of the alienation of the individual in modern society. Art historian Barbara S. Fields has written of Raffaëlli's interest in the positivist philosophy of Hippolyte-Adolphe Taine, which: led him to articulate a theory of realism that he christened caractérisme.
He hoped to set himself apart from those unthinking, so-called realist artists whose art provided the viewer with only a literal depiction of nature. His careful observation of man in his milieu paralleled the anti-aesthetic, anti-romantic approach of the literary Naturalists, such as Zola and Huysmans. Degas invited Raffaëlli to participate in the Impressionist exhibitions of 1880 and 1881, an action that bitterly divided the group. Monet, resentful of Degas's insistence on expanding the Impressionist exhibitions by including several realists, chose not to exhibit, complaining, "The little chapel has become a commonplace school which opens its doors to the first dauber to come along." An example of Raffaëlli's work from this period is Les buveurs d'absinthe. Titled Les déclassés, the painting was praised at the 1881 exhibit. After winning the Légion d'honneur in 1889, Raffaëlli shifted his attention from the suburbs of Paris to city itself, the street scenes that resulted were well received by the public and the critics.
He made a number of sculptures. In the years of his life, he concentrated on color printmaking. Raffaëlli died in Paris on February 11, 1924. Gordon, Robert. Degas. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-1142-6 Turner, J.. From Monet to Cézanne: Late 19th-century French Artists. Grove Art. New York: St Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-22971-2 Young, Marnin. "Heroic Indolence: Realism and The Politics of Time in Raffaelli's Absinthe Drinkers," The Art Bulletin 90, no. 2: 235-259. Media related to Jean-François Raffaëlli at Wikimedia Commons Works by or about Jean-François Raffaëlli at Internet Archive Jean-François Raffaëlli papers, at the Getty Research Institute
Pierre Sadek was a Lebanese caricaturist, considered a pioneer of political cartooning and a great defender of freedom of expression. Born in Zahlé, he graduated from the Lebanese Academy of Fine Arts and worked for several newspapers, including Al Amal, Al Anwar, An-Nahar, Ad-Diyar, Assayad magazine where his caricatures of Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser led to his dismissal, he collaborated with a number of international media, such as Time, France Soir and Washington Post. In 1972 he received two Said Akl Awards. In 1986, he was the first caricaturist in Lebanon to do his drawings on TV as part of the main evening newscast, he is the author of four books. In 2012 he had to deal with a violent campaign against him because he had published a caricature of Hassan Nasrallah, head of the Shiite group Hezbollah, in the daily newspaper Al Joumhouria. In December the same year, President Michel Suleiman named him Commander of the National Order of the Cedar, he had been named Knight of the same order by President Suleiman Frangieh and Officer by both President Elias Hrawi and former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri.
He died at 75 at St. George Hospital in Ashrafieh after a long struggle with cancer on 24 April 2013. Sadek was politically right-wing. Politicians he supported included, Raymond Edde, Camille Chamoun, Bachir Gemayel and Rafik Hariri, among others, he was against and critical of factions such as the Pan-Arab Nasserites, the PLO and the Syrian leadership, as well as their Lebanese allies during the civil war. He criticized the Lebanese authorities, who allied with the Syrian regime to rule Lebanon under what has become to be known as the “guardianship system.” During recent years, Sadek focused on Hezbollah, insisting on drawing caricatures of Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah, despite being threatened on Facebook over it. His favorite subject in his last years was Hezbollah’s ally, Gen. Michel Aoun. Sadek never tired of depicting Aoun as an angry orange, in reference to the logo of Aoun’s Free Patriotic Movement. Official website
The 1874 Open Championship was the 14th Open Championship, held 10 April at Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland. Mungo Park won the Championship, by two strokes from runner-up Tom Jr.. This was the first Open Championship played at Musselburgh. Play started at about 12 noon in dull and showery weather but in the day the weather improved; the course the greens, "were rather heavy". Many of the spectators followed Sr. who were paired together. Morris came to grief in several bunkers. Park scored 40 in the first round to Morris's 42. However, as the day progressed, Morris improved; the best player in the first two rounds was Mungo Park with scores of 37 and 38. At this stage he led by 4 from G. McCachnie, 5 from George Paxton with Tom Morris, Jr. and Willie Park a full 8 shots behind. Mungo Park had a third round 43 with G. McCachnie, George Paxton, Jamie Anderson and Tom Morris, Jr. each four behind at that stage. Bob Martin was a further shot behind after a third round 38. Mungo Park scored 41 in his final round and although Morris again played a useful round he still finished two behind.
McCachnie fell away with a closing 47. "During the last round the utmost excitement prevailed, as each couple came in a knot of spectators gathered round them to ascertain what luck had attended them." Source:Friday, 10 April 1874 14th Open - Musselburgh Links 1874 1874 Open Championship
Piotr Kuleta is a Polish sprint canoeist. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, he competed in the men's C-1 1000 m, he did not qualify for the Olympics, but was called up when Pawel Baraszkiewicz was injured. His uncle Tomasz Kuleta encouraged him to try canoeing, Adam Smyk, a neighbour, a canoe coach, encouraged him to join a canoeing club. In 2015, he was named athlete of the year for the Opolszczyzna region. In that year, he won a bronze medal in the C-2 1000 m at the World Championships alongside Marcin Grzybowski. In 2017, he was part of the Polish men's C-4 1000 m team that won the silver medal at the World Championships with Wiktor Glazunow, Tomasz Barniak and Marcin Grzybowski; that year, the team won the European title in the event
Maryland Route 638 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Maryland. Known as Parkersburg Road, the state highway runs 2.34 miles from MD 743 in Eckhart Mines north to MD 36 near Mount Savage in northwestern Allegany County. MD 638 was constructed in the late 1930s. MD 638 begins at an oblique intersection with unsigned MD 743 in Eckhart Mines; the state highway crosses Porter Run on a narrow bridge before meeting U. S. Route 40 Alternate. MD 638 ascends the side of Federal Hill. At Porter Cemetery Hill, the state highway turns northwest and descends into the valley of Jennings Run. MD 638 passes through two sharp S-curves on either side of a 15-foot-wide bridge over the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad; the state highway reaches its northern terminus at MD 36 between Mount Savage and Zihlman near the hamlets of Morantown and Slabtown. MD 638 was constructed in its modern form in 1938; the entire route is in Allegany County. Maryland Roads portal