The iPhone 6S and iPhone 6S Plus are smartphones that were designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is the ninth generation of the iPhone, they were announced on September 9, 2015 at the Bill Graham Civic Auditorium in San Francisco by Apple CEO Tim Cook, with pre-orders beginning September 12 and official release on September 25, 2015. The iPhone 6S and 6S Plus were succeeded by the iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus on September 7, 2016 and were discontinued with the announcement of the iPhone XS, iPhone XS Max, iPhone XR on September 12, 2018; the iPhone 6S has a similar design to the iPhone 6 but includes updated hardware, including a strengthened chassis and upgraded system-on-chip, a 12-megapixel camera, improved fingerprint recognition sensor, LTE Advanced support, "Hey Siri" capabilities without needing to be plugged in. The iPhone 6S introduces a new hardware feature known as "3D Touch", which enables pressure-sensitive touch inputs; the iPhone 6S had a positive reception. While performance and camera quality were praised by most reviewers, the addition of 3D Touch was liked by one critic for the potential of new interface interactions, but disliked by another critic for not providing users with an expected intuitive response before using the feature.
The battery life was criticized, one reviewer asserted that the phone's camera was not better than the rest of the industry. The iPhone 6S set a new first-weekend sales record, selling 13 million models, up from 10 million for the iPhone 6 in the previous year. However, Apple saw its first-ever quarterly year-over-year decline in iPhone sales in the months after the launch, credited to a saturated smartphone market in Apple's biggest countries and a lack of iPhone purchases in developing countries. Before the official unveiling, several aspects of the iPhone 6S were rumored, including the base model having 16 gigabytes of storage, the pressure-sensitive display technology known as 3D Touch, a new rose gold color option.iPhone 6S and iPhone 6S Plus were unveiled on September 9, 2015, during a press event at the Bill Graham Civic Auditorium in San Francisco. Pre-orders began September 12, with the official release on September 25. On September 7, 2016, Apple announced the iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus as successors to the iPhone 6S and 6S Plus, although they continued to be sold at a reduced price point as entry-level options in the iPhone lineup.
On March 31, 2017, the iPhone 6S and 6S Plus were released in Indonesia alongside the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, following Apple's research and development investment in the country. The iPhone 6S, iPhone 6S Plus, iPhone SE were the last iPhone models to feature a standard 3.5 mm stereo headphone jack, were discontinued on September 12, 2018, with the release of the iPhone XS and iPhone XS Max. The iPhone 6S is nearly identical in design to the iPhone 6. In response to the "bendgate" design flaws of the previous model, changes were made to improve the durability of the chassis: the 6S was constructed from a stronger, 7000 series aluminum alloy, "key points" in the rear casing were strengthened, touchscreen integrated circuits were re-located to the display assembly. Alongside the existing gold and space gray options, a new rose gold color option was introduced; the iPhone 6S is powered by the Apple A9 system-on-chip, which the company stated is up to 70% faster than Apple A8, has up to 90% better graphics performance.
The iPhone 6S has 2 GB of RAM, more than any previous iPhone, supports LTE Advanced. The Touch ID sensor on the 6S was updated, with the new version having improved fingerprint scanning performance over the previous version. While the capacities of their batteries are smaller, Apple rates the iPhone 6S and 6S Plus as having the same average battery life as their respective predecessors; the A9 system-on-chip was dual-sourced from Samsung. Although it was speculated that the Samsung version had worse battery performance than the TSMC version, multiple independent tests have shown there is no appreciable difference between the two chips. Although the device was not promoted as such, the iPhone 6S has a degree of water resistance because of a change to its internal design, which places a silicone seal around components of the logic board to prevent them from being shorted by accidental exposure to water, their displays are the same sizes as those of the iPhone 6, coming in 4.7-inch 750p and 5.5-inch 1080p sizes.
The iPhone 6S features a technology known as 3D Touch. 3D Touch is combined with a Taptic Engine vibrator to provide associated haptic feedback. Although similar, this is distinct from the Force Touch technology used on the Apple Watch and the trackpad of the Retina MacBook, as it is more sensitive and can recognize more levels of touch pressure than Force Touch. Due to the hardware needed to implement 3D Touch, the iPhone 6S is heavier than its predecessor; the iPhone 6S features a 12-megapixel rear-facing camera, an upgrade from the 8-megapixel unit on previous models, as well as a 5-megapixel front-facing camera. It can record 4K video, as well as 1080p video at 60 and now 120 frames per second; the camera was well received by many critics of the phone. When the camera takes a 4K video recording, it can use the storage on the phone rapidly; the 16 gigabyte version of the phone was only capable of holding 40 min of 4K video. The iPhone 6S and 6S Plus were offered in models with 16, 64, 128 GB of internal storage.
Following the release of iPhone
Dell is an American multinational computer technology company based in Round Rock, United States, that develops, sells and supports computers and related products and services. Named after its founder, Michael Dell, the company is one of the largest technological corporations in the world, employing more than 145,000 people in the U. S. and around the world. Dell sells personal computers, data storage devices, network switches, computer peripherals, HDTVs, printers, MP3 players, electronics built by other manufacturers; the company is well known for its innovations in supply chain management and electronic commerce its direct-sales model and its "build-to-order" or "configure to order" approach to manufacturing—delivering individual PCs configured to customer specifications. Dell was a pure hardware vendor for much of its existence, but with the acquisition in 2009 of Perot Systems, Dell entered the market for IT services; the company has since made additional acquisitions in storage and networking systems, with the aim of expanding their portfolio from offering computers only to delivering complete solutions for enterprise customers.
Dell was listed at number 51 in the Fortune 500 list, until 2014. After going private in 2013, the newly confidential nature of its financial information prevents the company from being ranked by Fortune. In 2015, it was the third largest PC vendor in the world after Lenovo and HP. Dell is the largest shipper of PC monitors worldwide. Dell is the sixth largest company in Texas by total revenue, according to Fortune magazine, it is the second largest non-oil company in Texas – behind AT&T – and the largest company in the Greater Austin area. It was a publicly traded company, as well as a component of the NASDAQ-100 and S&P 500, until it was taken private in a leveraged buyout which closed on October 30, 2013. In 2015, Dell acquired the enterprise technology firm EMC Corporation. Dell traces its origins to 1984, when Michael Dell created Dell Computer Corporation, which at the time did business as PC's Limited, while a student of the University of Texas at Austin; the dorm-room headquartered company sold IBM PC-compatible computers built from stock components.
Dell dropped out of school to focus full-time on his fledgling business, after getting $1,000 in expansion-capital from his family. In 1985, the company produced the first computer of its own design, the Turbo PC, which sold for $795. PC's Limited advertised its systems in national computer magazines for sale directly to consumers and custom assembled each ordered unit according to a selection of options; the company grossed more than $73 million in its first year of operation. In 1986, Michael Dell brought in Lee Walker, a 51-year-old venture capitalist, as president and chief operating officer, to serve as Dell's mentor and implement Dell's ideas for growing the company. Walker was instrumental in recruiting members to the board of directors when the company went public in 1988. Walker retired in 1990 due to health, Michael Dell hired Morton Meyerson, former CEO and president of Electronic Data Systems to transform the company from a fast-growing medium-sized firm into a billion-dollar enterprise.
The company dropped the PC's Limited name in 1987 to become Dell Computer Corporation and began expanding globally. In June 1988, Dell's market capitalization grew from $30 million to $80 million from its June 22 initial public offering of 3.5 million shares at $8.50 a share. In 1992, Fortune magazine included Dell Computer Corporation in its list of the world's 500 largest companies, making Michael Dell the youngest CEO of a Fortune 500 company ever. In 1993, to complement its own direct sales channel Dell planned to sell PCs at big-box retail outlets such as Wal-Mart, which would have brought in an additional $125 million in annual revenue. Bain consultant Kevin Rollins persuaded Michael Dell to pull out of these deals, believing they would be money losers in the long run. Margins at retail were thin at best and Dell left the reseller channel in 1994. Rollins would soon join Dell full-time and become the company President and CEO. Dell did not emphasize the consumer market, due to the higher costs and unacceptably low-profit margins in selling to individuals and households.
While the industry's average selling price to individuals was going down, Dell's was going up, as second- and third-time computer buyers who wanted powerful computers with multiple features and did not need much technical support were choosing Dell. Dell found an opportunity among PC-savvy individuals who liked the convenience of buying direct, customizing their PC to their means, having it delivered in days. In early 1997, Dell created an internal sales and marketing group dedicated to serving the home market and introduced a product line designed for individual users. From 1997 to 2004, Dell enjoyed steady growth and it gained market share from competitors during industry slumps. During the same period, rival PC vendors such as Compaq, Gateway, IBM, Packard Bell, AST Research struggled and left the market or were bought out. Dell surpassed Compaq to become the largest PC manufacturer in 1999. Operating costs made up only 10 percent of Dell's $35 billion in revenue in 2002, compared with 21 percent of revenue at Hewlett-Packard, 25 percent at Gateway, 46 percent at Cisco.
In 2002, when Compaq merged with Hewlett Packard, the newly combined Hewlett Packard took the top spot but struggled and Dell soon regained its lead. Dell grew the fastest in the early 2000s. Dell attained an
Lenovo System x
System x is a line of x86 servers produced by IBM, Lenovo. They were a sub-brand of IBM's System brand, alongside IBM Power Systems, IBM System z and IBM System Storage). In addition, IBM System x was the main component of the IBM System Cluster 1350 solution. In January 2014, IBM announced the sale of its x86 server business to Lenovo for $2.3 billion, in a sale completed October 1, 2014. Starting out as IBM PC Server, rebranded Netfinity eServer xSeries and now System x, these servers are distinguished by being based on off-the-shelf x86 CPUs. IBM servers based on AMD Opteron CPUs did not share the xSeries brand. However, current AMD Opteron-based servers fall under the System x brand. IBM PC Server 300 IBM PC Server 310 IBM PC Server 315 IBM PC Server 320 IBM PC Server 325 IBM PC Server 330 IBM PC Server 500 IBM PC Server 520 IBM PC Server 704 IBM PC Server 720 300 range for high-volume, entry level servers 500 range for midrange 700 range for high-end. Not to be confused with a different IBM product with a similar name, NetFinity.
IBM Netfinity 1000 IBM Netfinity 3000, 3500 IBM Netfinity 4000R, 4500R IBM Netfinity 5000, 5100, 5500, 5500-M10, 5500-M20, 5600 IBM Netfinity 6000R IBM Netfinity 7000, 7000-M10, 7100, 7600 IBM Netfinity 8500R The numbering scheme started off similar to that of the IBM PC Servers, but additional ranges were added, like the entry-level 1000 model on. Models ending with an R, are rack-mount; some Netfinity servers used IBM's C2T cabling scheme for Keyboard/Video/Mouse. IBM eServer xSeries 100, 130, 135, 150 IBM eServer xSeries 200, 205, 206, 206m, 220, 225, 226, 230, 232, 235, 236, 240, 250, 255, 260 IBM eServer xSeries 300, 305, 306, 306m, 330, 335, 336, 340, 342, 345, 346, 350, 360, 365, 366, 370, 380, 382 IBM eServer xSeries 440, 445, 450, 455, 460 100 series are entry-level tower servers 200 series are tower servers 300 series are rack-mount servers 400 series are rack-mount scalable servers Many xSeries servers used IBM's C2T cabling scheme for Keyboard/Video/Mouse. IBM eServer 325, 326, 326m IBM eServer BladeCenter, BladeCenter T, BladeCenter H, BladeCenter HT For marketing reasons the AMD processor based e325, e326 and e326m and the BladeCenter which supports non-Intel processor products were not branded xSeries, but were instead placed directly under the eServer brand.
The xSeries brand was limited to only Intel-based server products. From a numbering perspective the AMD servers did fit into the xSeries range, under the similar x335 and x336 Intel processor products; these numbers were not re-used in the xSeries range to prevent confusion. IBM System x3105, x3100, x3100 M3, x3100 M4, x3100 M5 IBM System x3200, x3200 M2, x3200 M3, x3250, x3250 M2, x3250 M3, x3250 M4, x3250 M5, x3250 M6 IBM System x3300 M3, x3300 M4 IBM System x3350 IBM System x3400, x3400 M2, x3400 M3, x3450, x3455 IBM System x3500, x3500 M2, x3500 M3, x3500 M4 IBM System x3530 M3, x3530 M4 IBM System x3550, x3550 M2, x3550 M3, x3550 M4, x3550 M5 IBM System x3620 M3 IBM System x3630 M3, x3630 M4 IBM System x3650, x3650T, x3655, x3650 M2, x3650 M3, x3650 M4, x3650 M4 HD, x3650 M4 BD, 3650 M5 IBM System x3690 X5 IBM System x3750 M4 IBM System x3755, x3755 M3 IBM System x3800, x3850, x3850 M2, x3850 X5, x3850 X6 IBM System x3950, x3950 M2, x3950 X5, x3950 X6 Lenovo System x3100 M5 Lenovo System x3250 M5, x3250 M6 Lenovo System x3500 M5 Lenovo System x3550 M4, x3550 M5 Lenovo System x3650 M4, x3650 M5 Lenovo System x3850 X6 Lenovo System x3950 X6 Lenovo NextScale Lenovo FlexSystemLenovo had its own ThinkServer family of Intel servers.
This family is technically less advanced than System x. At the time of this writing, System x is being discontinued and replaced by the Lenovo ThinkSystem family of Intel servers. 2nd digit increments to show capability 3rd digit is a 0 for tower models, 5 for rack-mount 4th digit is a 0 for Intel processors, 5 for AMD Opteron. Models with a T at the end are meant for Telco purposes. System x iDataPlex was used including SuperMUC and Stampede. Other smaller installations included SciNet Consortium's General Purpose Cluster List of IBM products
Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random-Access Memory abbreviated as DDR SDRAM, is a double data rate synchronous dynamic random-access memory class of memory integrated circuits used in computers. DDR SDRAM retroactively called DDR1 SDRAM, has been superseded by DDR2 SDRAM, DDR3 SDRAM and DDR4 SDRAM. None of its successors are forward or backward compatible with DDR1 SDRAM, meaning DDR2, DDR3, DDR4 memory modules will not work in DDR1-equipped motherboards, vice versa. Compared to single data rate SDRAM, the DDR SDRAM interface makes higher transfer rates possible by more strict control of the timing of the electrical data and clock signals. Implementations have to use schemes such as phase-locked loops and self-calibration to reach the required timing accuracy; the interface uses double pumping to double data bus bandwidth without a corresponding increase in clock frequency. One advantage of keeping the clock frequency down is that it reduces the signal integrity requirements on the circuit board connecting the memory to the controller.
The name "double data rate" refers to the fact that a DDR SDRAM with a certain clock frequency achieves nearly twice the bandwidth of a SDR SDRAM running at the same clock frequency, due to this double pumping. With data being transferred 64 bits at a time, DDR SDRAM gives a transfer rate of × 2 × 64 / 8. Thus, with a bus frequency of 100 MHz, DDR SDRAM gives a maximum transfer rate of 1600 MB/s. "Beginning in 1996 and concluding in June 2000, JEDEC developed the DDR SDRAM specification." JEDEC has set standards for data rates of DDR SDRAM, divided into two parts. The first specification is for memory chips, the second is for memory modules. Note: All above listed are specified by JEDEC as JESD79F. All RAM data rates in-between or above these listed specifications are not standardized by JEDEC—often they are manufacturer optimizations using tighter-tolerance or overvolted chips; the package sizes in which DDR SDRAM is manufactured are standardized by JEDEC. There is no architectural difference between DDR SDRAM designed for different clock frequencies, for example, PC-1600, designed to run at 100 MHz, PC-2100, designed to run at 133 MHz.
The number designates the data rate at which the chip is guaranteed to perform, hence DDR SDRAM is guaranteed to run at lower and can run at higher clock rates than those for which it was made. DDR SDRAM modules for desktop computers, dual in-line memory modules, have 184 pins, can be differentiated from SDRAM DIMMs by the number of notches. DDR SDRAM for notebook computers, SO-DIMMs, have 200 pins, the same number of pins as DDR2 SO-DIMMs; these two specifications are notched similarly and care must be taken during insertion if unsure of a correct match. Most DDR SDRAM operates at a voltage of 2.5 V, compared to 3.3 V for SDRAM. This can reduce power consumption. Chips and modules with DDR-400/PC-3200 standard have a nominal voltage of 2.6 V. JEDEC Standard No. 21–C defines three possible operating voltages for 184 pin DDR, as identified by the key notch position relative to its centreline. Page 4.5.10-7 defines 2.5V, 1.8V, TBD, while page 4.20.5–40 nominates 3.3V for the right notch position.
The orientation of the module for determining the key notch position is with 52 contact positions to the left and 40 contact positions to the right. Increasing operating voltage can increase maximum speed, at the cost of higher power dissipation and heating, at the risk of malfunctioning or damage. Many new chipsets use these memory types in multi-channel configurations. DRAM density Size of the chip is measured in megabits. Most motherboards recognize only 1 GB modules. If 128M×4 1 GB modules are used, they most will not work; the JEDEC standard allows 128M×4 only for slower buffered/registered modules designed for some servers, but some generic manufacturers do not comply. Organization The notation like 64M×4 means that the memory matrix has 64 million 4-bit storage locations. There are ×4, ×8, ×16 DDR chips; the ×4 chips allow the use of advanced error correction features like Chipkill, memory scrubbing and Intel SDDC in server environments, while the ×8 and ×16 chips are somewhat less expensive.
X8 chips are used in desktops/notebooks but are making entry into the server market. There are 4 banks and only one row can be active in each bank. Ranks To increase memory capacity and bandwidth, chips are combined on a module. For instance, the 64-bit data bus for DIMM requires eight 8-bit chips, addressed in parallel. Multiple chips with the common address lines are called a memory rank; the term was introduced to avoid confusion with banks. A memory module may bear more than one rank; the term sides would be confusing because it incorrectly suggests the physical placement of chips on the module. All ranks are connected to the same memory bus; the Chip Select signal is used to issue commands to specific rank. Adding modules to the single memory bus creates additional electrical load on its drivers. To mitigate the resulting bus signaling rate drop and overcome the memory bottleneck, new chipsets employ the multi-channel architecture. Capacity Number of DRAM devices The number of chips is a multiple of 8 for non-ECC modules and a multiple of 9 for ECC modules.
Chips can oc
Icheon is a city in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. It should not be confused with the much larger Incheon Metropolitan City. Neighboring districts include Yeoju City, Gwangju City, Yongin City, Anseong City within Gyeonggi Province, as well as Eumseong County in North Chungcheong Province. Together with Yeoju, Icheon is known as a center of South Korean ceramic manufacturing and is a UNESCO City of Crafts and Folk Art. Other famous local products include peaches and rice. Local institutions of higher learning include Korea Tourism College and Chungkang College of Cultural Industries; the Yeongdong Expressway and Jungbu Naeryuk Expressway pass through Icheon. In 2016, the city will connect into the Seoul Metropolitan Subway via Yeoju Line's Icheon Station. Icheon is home to the world's second largest memory chip maker. Dongnam-gu is divided into 2 towns, 8 townships, 4 neighbourhoods. City bird: Magpie City flower: Azaleas City tree: Pine The Icheon Ceramics Village features 300-plus ceramics-making firms in the area of Sugwang-ri, Sindun-myeon, Saeum-dong, a popular visitor attraction.
They produce porcelains in some 40 traditional firewood kilns. This pottery is recognized both abroad for its quality; the Saeum-dong and Sindun-myeon areas include a ceramics village with many ceramics stores. Potters have researched traditional methods and revived the manufacture of ceramics in the style of Goryeo celadon and Joseon white porcelain here; the village is the center of the effort to preserve these traditions. Jingdezhen, People's Republic of China Seto, Japan Gangdong, Seoul Gangnam, Seoul Limoges, Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France Taipei, Taiwan Seo Hui: The historic figure of Goryeo dynasty who made a huge decision with Khitan people, forcefully occupying northern areas of Korean peninsula. Korean pottery Geography of South Korea List of cities in South Korea Official website Icheon: Official Seoul City Tourism City Council website
A DVD player is a device that plays DVD discs produced under both the DVD-Video and DVD-Audio technical standards, two different and incompatible standards. Some DVD players will play audio CDs. DVD players are connected to a television to watch the DVD content, which could be a movie, a recorded TV show, or other content; the first DVD player was created by Sony Corporation in Japan in collaboration with Pacific Digital Company from the United States in 1997. Some manufacturers announced that DVD players would be available as early as the middle of 1996; these predictions were too optimistic. Delivery was held up for "political" reasons of copy protection demanded by movie studios, but was delayed by lack of movie titles; the first players appeared in Japan on November 1, 1996, followed by the United States on March 26, 1997 with distribution limited to only seven major cities for the first six months. Players trickled into other regions around the world. Prices for the first players in 1997 started at $600 and could top out at prices over $1000.
By the end of 2000, players were available for under $100 at discount retailers. In 2003 players became available for under $50. Six years after the initial launch, close to one thousand models of DVD players were available from over a hundred consumer electronics manufacturers. Fujitsu released the first DVD-ROM-equipped computer on November 6th in GB. Toshiba released a DVD-ROM-equipped computer and a DVD-ROM drive in Japan in early 1997. DVD-ROM drives from Toshiba, Panasonic and Sony began appearing in sample quantities as early as January 1997, but none were available before May; the first PC upgrade kits became available from Creative Labs, Hi-Val, Diamond Multimedia in April and May 1997. In 2014, every major PC manufacturer has models that include DVD-ROM drives; the first DVD-Audio players were released in Japan by Pioneer in late 1999, but they did not play copy-protected discs. Matsushita first released full-fledged players in July 2000 for $700 to $1,200. DVD-Audio players are now made by Aiwa, Denon, JVC, Madrigal, Nakamichi, Toshiba and others.
Sony released the first SACD players in May 1999 for $5,000. Pioneer's first DVD-Audio players released in late 1999 played SACD. SACD players are now made by Accuphase, Denon, Marantz, Philips and others. A DVD player has to complete these tasks: Read a DVD disc in ISO – UDF version 1.02 format Optionally decrypt the data with either CSS and/or Macrovision Read and obey the DVD's Regional lockout codes and display a warning if the player is not authorized to play the DVD Decode the MPEG-2 video stream with a maximum of 10 Mbit/s or 8 Mbit/s Decode sound in MP2, PCM or AC-3 format and output on stereo connector, optical or electric digital connector Output a video signal, either an analog one on the composite, S-Video, SCART, or component video connectors, or a digital one on the DVI or HDMI connectors. DVD players cannot play Blu-ray discs due to using different wavelength laser's Blu ray use a Blue Violet laser instead of a Red laser. However, all Blu-ray players are "backwards compatible" and they will play DVD's and some are compatible with CD and other disc formats.
Additionally, most DVD players allow users to play audio CDs and Video CDs. A few include a home cinema decoder; some newer devices play videos in the MPEG-4 ASP video compression format popular in the Internet. Most hardware DVD players must be connected to a television. Portable DVD players are used for long road trips and travel, they have a plug for the 12 volt power jack in cars. Some models have two screens, so that two people in the back seat can both watch the movie. Other portable DVD players have a single screen that opens up like a laptop computer screen. Due to multiple audio output devices, there are many outputs on a DVD player, such as an RCA jack, component outputs, an HDMI output. Consumers may become confused with how to connect a player to a TV or amplifier. Most systems include an optional digital audio connector for this task, paired with a similar input on the amplifier; the physical connection is RCA connectors or TOSLINK, which transmits a S/PDIF stream carrying either uncompressed digital audio or the original compressed audio data to be decoded by the audio equipment.
Video is another issue which continues to present most problems. Current players output analog video only, both composite video on an RCA jack as well as S-Video in the standard connector. However, neither connector was intended to be used for progressive video, so yet another set of connectors has started to appear, to carry a form of component video, which keeps the three components of the video, one luminance signal and two color difference signal, as stored on the DVD itself, on separate wires; the connectors are further confused by using a number of different physical connectors on different player models, RCA or BNC, as well as using VGA cables in a non-standard way. Worse, there are two sets of component outputs, one carrying interlaced v
Taiwan the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy, not a member of the United Nations; the island of Taiwan was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the 17th century, when Dutch colonialists opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, ceded to Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan; the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communists and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialisation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system; as a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until it was replaced by the PRC in 1971. The PRC has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC; as of 2019, Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. In Taiwan, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income advanced economy, with a skilled and educated workforce. It has the 22nd-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy, it is urbanised, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with most of the population concentrated on the western coast. The state is ranked in terms of civil and political liberties, health care and human development. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period; the name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa. The name Formosa "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Teijoan, etc.
This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar and nearby area. The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, seen in various forms in Chinese historical records; the area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland became known as "Taiwan". In his Daoyi Zhilüe, Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; the name appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China".
Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was referred to as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from "Communist China", it was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts ROC government publications, the name is written as "