The Jaguar XJ-S is a luxury grand tourer manufactured and marketed by British automobile manufacturer Jaguar from 1975 to 1996, in coupé, fixed-profile and full convertible body styles. There were three distinct iterations, with a final production total of 115,413 units over 20 years and seven months. Developed using the platform of the current XJ saloon, the XJ-S was noted for its prominent rear flying buttresses; the styling was by Jaguar's pioneering aerodynamicist Malcolm Sayer — one of the first designers to apply advanced aero principles to cars. Sayer died. In its final iteration produced from 1991 to 1996, was manufactured under Jaguar's new owner Ford, who introduced numerous modifications — and eliminated the hyphen in the name, marketing Jaguar's longest running model as the XJS; the XJ-S was introduced on 10 September 1975. The development, directed by William Heynes had begun in the late 1960s by the code name of project XJ27, with an initial shape penned by Malcolm Sayer, but after his death in 1970 it was completed by the in-house Jaguar design team, headed by Doug Thorpe.
Power came from the Jaguar V12 engine with a choice of a manual or an automatic transmission, but the manual was soon dropped as they were left over from V12 E Type production. V12 powered production automobiles were unusual at the time; the specifications of the XJ-S compared well with both Italian cars. The first series of XJ-S cars had a BorgWarner Model 12 transmission with a cast-iron case and a bolt-on bell-housing. In 1977, General Motor's Turbo-Hydramatic 400 transmissions were fitted; the TH400 transmission was an all-aluminium alloy case with an integrated non-detachable bell-housing. The XJ-S was supplied with Dunlop SP Super E205/70VR15 tyres on 6K alloy wheels. Jaguar launched the XJ-S in the wake of a fuel crisis, when the market for a 5.3-litre V12 grand tourer was small. The buttresses behind the windows were criticised at the time as German authorities feared these would restrict rearward vision, refused to give the XJ-S, the designed Lancia Montecarlo, type approval — necessitating German XJ-S buyers to obtain road approval for each individual car on registration.
Italian styling house Pininfarina introduced a 1978 concept car based on the XJ-S, called the Jaguar XJSpider. From July 1981, the XJ-S was renamed the XJ-S HE and received the new High-Efficiency V12 engine for much better fuel economy. With the Fire Ball combustion chamber designed by Swiss Engineer Michael May, power output was increased as a by-product to 220 kW or 196 kW in North America. At the same time, the XJ-S HE received changes to its interior. In 1982, the new V12 XJ-S HE won second at the RAC Tourist Trophy race at Silverstone. In 1983, the new 3.6-litre Jaguar AJ6 straight-six engine was introduced along with a new convertible model called the XJ-SC. The coupé's rather small rear seats were removed in order to make space for the removable soft top, making it a 2-seat car; the XJ-SC was not a full convertible but was a fixed profile variant with a non-removable centre targa-type structure and fixed cant rails above the doors and fixed rear quarter windows. The six-cylinder cars can be identified by a raised bonnet center section.
Between 1983 and 1987, the six-cylinder-engined cars were only available with a five-speed manual transmission, with a four-speed automatic offered from 1987 onwards. The earlier, manual models were not imported by Jaguar into the United States, which had to wait until the facelift manual 4-litre XJS coupé and convertible became available. A V12 powered XJ-SC was introduced in 1985; the two-seat XJ-SC targa-type model, never a great success in the marketplace, was replaced by a two-seat full convertible in 1988 which proved to be a great hit. From 1986, a full convertible version was available through some dealers, modified by Hess & Eisenhardt in the USA; the Hess & Eisenhardt coachbuilding firm was located in Ohio, USA, built about 893 of these cars under contract from Jaguar before the official Jaguar-built XJS full convertible became available in 1988. The Hess & Eisenhardt convertible differed from the Jaguar-built XJS concertible as its unpadded top folded down deeper into the body structure of the car resulting in a cleaner rear profile when the roof was lowered.
To accommodate this design element, the Hess & Eisenhardt convertibles have two separate fuel tanks, positioned to allow for the roof to retract. The process of converting the stock Jaguar XJS coupé into the H&E Convertible included the post-production removal of the roof, cutting the body in several sections, the addition of steel reinforcements behind the driver's seat, 9.1 kg weights placed just behind the headlights to eliminate harmonic resonance caused by the significant modifications to the car. H&E XJS convertibles are identified by the lower folding top, as well as two small badges located just behind the front wheels; the Jaguar full convertible had a heavier padded top that did not fold as lower as the H&E convertible, but retained nearly all of the original components of the coupé. The number
SS Jaguar 100
The SS Jaguar 100 is a British 2-seat sports car built between 1936 and 1941 by SS Cars Ltd of Coventry, England. The manufacturer's name'SS Cars' used from 1934 maintained a link to the previous owner, Swallow Sidecar, founded in 1922 by Walmsley and Lyons to build motorcycle sidecars. In March 1945 the S. S. Cars shareholders agreed to change the name to Jaguar Cars Limited. In common with many products of the thirties the adoption of an animal name was deemed appropriate and the model name "Jaguar" was given to a new SS saloon car in 1935, to all new SS models. The'100' was for the theoretical 100 mph maximum speed of the vehicle; the chassis had a wheelbase of 8 feet 8 inches, was a shortened version of the one designed for the 2.5-litre saloon, a car produced in much greater numbers, first seen in the SS 90 of 1935. When leaving the factory it fitted 5.50 or 5.25 × 18 inch tyres on 18 inch wire wheels. Suspension was on half-elliptical springs all round with rigid axles; the engine was a development of the old 2.5-litre Standard pushrod unit converted from side valve to overhead valve with a new cylinder head designed by William Heynes and Harry Weslake.
The power output was increased from 70 bhp to 100 bhp. Twin SU carburettors were bolted directly to the cylinder head. In 1938 the engine was further enlarged to the power increased to 125 bhp; the four-speed gearbox had synchromesh on the top 3 ratios. Brakes were by Girling; the complete car weighed just over 23 cwt. On test by the Autocar magazine in 1937 the 2.5-litre car was found, with the windscreen lowered, to have a maximum speed of 95 mph and a 0–60 mph time of 13.5 seconds. With the 3.5-litre the top speed reached the magic 100 mph with a best of 101 mph over the quarter mile and the 0–60 mph coming down to 10.4 seconds. In 1937 the 2.5-litre car cost £395 and in 1938 the 3.5-litre £445. The fixed head coupé, of which only one was made, was listed at £595. A few examples were supplied as chassis-only to external coachbuilders. Considered one of the most aesthetically pleasing sporting cars of the 1930s the SS100 is very rare, with only 198 2.5-litre and 116 3.5-litre models made. While most stayed on the home market, 49 were exported.
Cars in good condition will now fetch in excess of £300,000. A near concours example was auctioned by Bonhams at the 2007 Goodwood Festival of Speed for £199,500. Due to its rarity, auction prices for the SS100 have since risen strongly. More a beautifully restored former Pebble Beach concours winning 1937 S. S. Jaguar 100 3½ Litre Roadster - was sold by Gooding & Co. at their August 2010 Pebble Beach auction. It fetched a noteworthy £666,270, it was on an SS100 that the famous Jaguar'leaper', the marque's signature feline hood ornament, was first displayed. In mid 1936 the first version of the Jaguar mascot was reputedly described by Sir William Lyons, founder of the company, as "looking like a cat shot off a fence". A publicity photograph of the new Model 100 "Jaguar" parked outside the offices of SS Cars Ltd in early 1937 shows a revised Jaguar'leaper' mounted on the radiator cap, it is this more stylised'leaper' that became the trade mark for Jaguar Cars, Ltd. remaining in use to this day. The unnamed owner of the Belgravia vintage car dealer in James Leasor's'Aristo Autos' novels,'They Don't Make Them Like That Any More','Never Had a Spanner on Her' and'Host of Extras', drives an SS100, the car features prominently in the books.
The late Alan Clark MP owned an SS Jaguar 100, during his time in Margaret Thatcher's government was to be seen piloting his SS100 away from the House of Commons after late Parliamentary sittings. Of the 49 exported models, one notable example, CNP 947, was driven and raced by pioneering American television host Dave Garroway, his white 3 1/2 Litre car still bears the alligator hide trim on its instrument panel, seat surfaces and steering wheel from his ownership. Jaguar Motorcars provided Garroway the first XK 3.8 litre engine sold a race prepared unit which remains with the car. At Gooding's January 2017 auction in Scottsdale, the Garroway SS100, with both the XK engine and a correct 3 1/2 litre Standard engine, sold for £493,000. A number of Jaguar SS100 replicas and recreations of varying material quality and execution have been manufactured since the 1960s. Significant makers include the Birchfield Motor Company, the Steadman Motor Company, Suffolk Sportscars and the Finch Motor Company.
In recent years these replicas bring in excess of £50,000. In 1982, the first Birchfield Sports was produced. A company called Shapecraft in Northampton, UK developed the concept further as a production-run vehicle using Jaguar XJ6 mechanicals, with the looks of the SS Jaguar. Due to the complexity of the design, the advanced degree of engineering knowledge needed to deal with the Jaguar parts, the car was not successful as a kit car. For this reason, only 18 were produced in the UK. After production ceased in the UK, a Shapecraft employee emigrated to Australia taking with him the Birchfield drawings and the last production car to use as a pattern. By 2004, at least two cars had been completed in Australia and two more were in production; the Steadman TS100 manufactured during the late 1980s and early 1990s by Ottercraft Ltd in Hayle, United Kingdom, is described as a'reproduction' of the SS100. The actual build numbers for this car are unknown, but it is thought that a maximum of twenty-eight of these vehicles were assembled, were
Touring car and tourer are both terms for open cars. "Touring car" is a style of open car built in the United States. The style was popular from the early 1900s to the 1920s; the cars used for touring car racing in various series since the 1960s are unrelated to these early touring cars, despite sharing the same name. "Tourer" is used in British English for any open car. The term "all-weather tourer" was used to describe convertibles. A popular version of the tourer was the torpedo, with the hood/bonnet line at the car's waistline giving the car a straight line from front to back. "Touring car" was applied in the U. S. to open cars that seat four or more people and has direct entrance to the tonneau, although it has been described as seating five or more people. Touring cars may have two or four doors, the drivetrain layouts of early touring cars was either front engined or mid-engined; when the top was folded down, it formed a bulky mass known as the "fan" behind the back seat: "fan covers" were made to protect the top and its wooden ribs while in the down position.
Some touring cars were available with side curtains to protect occupants from wind and weather by snapping or zipping them into place. The touring car body style was popular in the early 20th century, being a larger alternative to the two-seat runabout and the roadster. By the mid-1910s, the touring car body had evolved into several types, including the four-door touring car, equipped with a convertible top. Most of Model T's produced by Ford between 1908 and 1927 were four and three-door models touring cars, accounting for 6,519,643 cars sold out of the 15,000,000 estimated Model T's built; this accounted for 44% of all Model T's sold over the model's eighteen-plus year life span, making it the most popular body style. The popularity of the touring car began to wane in the 1920s when cars with enclosed passenger compartments became more affordable, began to out-sell the open cars. Tourer is used for open cars; the belt lines of 1930s tourers were lowered at the front doors to suggest a more sporting character.
All-weather tourer are cars with wind-up side-windows. The torpedo was a style of 5-seat tourers built from 1908 until the mid-1930s; the design consists of a hood/bonnet line raised to be level with the car's waistline, resulting in a straight beltline from front to back. Barchetta – an Italian style of roadster or spyder developed for racing cars after World War II Phaeton body – similar to a touring car, but lighter and more sporting Runabout – a light, open two-seat car, similar to a roadster but with emphasis on economy instead of performance
Jaguar XJ is a series of full-size luxury cars produced under the Jaguar marque by British motor car manufacturer Jaguar Cars since 1968 across four basic platform generations with various updated derivatives of each. Since 1970 they have been Jaguar's flagship; the original model was the last Jaguar saloon to have had the input of Sir William Lyons, the company's founder, the model has been featured in countless media and high-profile appearances. The current Jaguar XJ was launched in 2009, it is one of the cars used by the British royal family and an armoured version is used for transporting the UK Prime Minister. The original first-generation XJ ran for a total of 24 years, with two major facelifts in 1973 and 1979. Retrospectively these are known as "Series" XJs among the Jaguar enthusiast community; the XJ6, using 2.8-litre and 4.2-litre straight-six cylinder versions of Jaguar's renowned XK engine, replaced most of Jaguar's saloons – which, in the 1960s, had expanded to four separate ranges.
Apart from the engines, other main assemblies carried over from previous models were the widest version of Jaguar's IRS unit from the Mark X and the subframe mounted independent front suspension first seen in the 1955 2.4-litre with new anti-dive geometry. An upmarket version was marketed under the Daimler brand as the Daimler Sovereign, continuing the name from the Daimler version of the Jaguar 420; the car was introduced in September 1968. Power-assisted steering and leather upholstery were standard on the 2.8 L De Luxe and 4.2 L models and air conditioning was offered as an optional extra on the 4.2 L. Daimler versions were launched in October 1969, in a series of television advertisements featuring Sir William. In these spots, he referred to the car as "the finest Jaguar ever". An unusual feature, inherited from the Mark X and S-Type saloons, was the provision of twin fuel tanks, positioned on each side of the boot / trunk, filled using two separately lockable filler caps: one on the top of each wing above the rear wheel arches.
Preliminary reviews of the car were favourable, noting good ride quality. In March 1970 it was announced that the Borg-Warner Model 8 automatic transmission, which the XJ6 had featured since 1968, would be replaced on the 4.2-litre-engined XJ6 with a Borg-Warner Model 12 unit. The new transmission now had three different forward positions accessed via the selector lever, which enabled performance oriented drivers to hold lower ratios at higher revs to achieve better acceleration. "Greatly improved shift quality" was claimed for the new system. Around this time minor changes were made as well, such as moving the rear reflectors from beside to below the rear lights. In 1972 the option of a long-wheelbase version, providing a 4" increase in leg room for passengers in the back, became available; the XJ12 version was announced in July 1972, featuring simplified grille treatment, powered by a 5.3 L V12 engine. The car as presented at that time was the world's only mass-produced 12-cylinder four-door car, with a top speed "around 140 mph" as the "fastest full four-seater available in the world today".
Although it had been the manufacturer's intention from launch that the XJ would take the twelve-cylinder engine, its installation was nonetheless a tight fit, providing adequate cooling had evidently been a challenge for the engineers designing the installation. Bonnet/hood louvres such as those fitted on the introduced twelve-cylinder E Type were rejected, but the XJ12 featured a complex "cross-flow" radiator divided into two separated horizontal sections and supported with coolant feeder tanks at each end: the engine fan was geared to rotate at 1¼ times the speed of the engine rpm, subject to a limiter which cut in at a speed of 1,700 rpm; the fuel system incorporated a relief valve that returned fuel to the tank when pressure in the leads to the carburetters exceeded 1.5 psi to reduce the risk of vapour locks occurring at the engine's high operating temperature, while the car's battery, benefited from its own thermostatically controlled cooling fan. 3,235 of these first generation XJ12s were built.
A badge-engineered version, the Daimler Double-Six, was introduced in 1972, reviving the Daimler model name of 1926–1938. Referred to as the "Series II", the XJ line was facelifted in autumn 1973 for the 1974 model year; the 4.2 L I-6 XJ6 and the 5.3 L V12 XJ12 were continued with an addition of a 3.4 L version of the XK engine available from 1975. The Series II was offered with two wheelbases, but at the 1974 London Motor Show Jaguar announced the withdrawal of the standard wheelbase version: subsequent saloons/sedans all featured the extra 4 inches of passenger cabin length hitherto featured only on the long-wheelbase model. By this time the first customer deliveries of the two-door coupe, which retained the shorter standard-wheelbase were only months away. Visually, Series II cars are differentiated from their predecessors by raised front bumpers to meet US crash safety regulations, which necessitated a smaller grille, complemented by a discreet additional inlet directly below the bumper.
The interior received a substantial update, including simplified heating and a/c systems to address criticisms of the complex and not effective Series I system. In April 1975, the North American Series II got a revised set of front bumpers
SS Cars was a British manufacturer of sports saloon cars from 1934 until wartime 1940, from March 1935 of a limited number of open 2-seater sports cars. From September 1935 their new models displayed a new name SS Jaguar. By its business, founded in 1922, was run by and owned by William Lyons. Lyons had been partner with 1922 co-founder William Walmsley until Walmsley sold his shareholding in January 1935; the company that owned the business, S. S. Cars Limited, bought the shares of Swallow Coachbuilding Limited as of 31 July 1934 and the Swallow company was liquidated before S. S. issued shares to the public in January 1935. This was the time. S. S. Cars Limited changed its name to Jaguar Cars Limited 23 March 1945. There is doubt about the source of the SS name. Sir John Black of Standard-Triumph when asked said. William Lyons when asked was noncommittal, but he was at the time in the company of suppliers of chassis for his run of the mill production bodies, he concurred. The Swallow Sidecar Company, trading name for the company Walmsley & Lyons co-founded by William Lyons and William Walmsley, progressively developed into a coachbuilder from its 1922 start, first making stylish sidecars for motorcycles.
In May 1927, Swallow advertised that it would make 2-seater bodies on Austin and Morris chassis and running gear supplied through any authorised dealer. Their first full page advertisement appeared in the Autocar magazine in October 1927 to fit with the Olympia Motor Show; the next year Swallow relocated to the heart of the British motor industry. In the winter of 1928-1929 they moved bit by bit from Cocker Street Blackpool to a disused munitions factory on a rutted track, the future Swallow Road, off Holbrook Lane, Coventry, they returned to Blackpool each year for the Works Day Out. In 1929 John Black of Standard Motor Company and William Lyons teamed up to realise their long standing dream to produce a one of a kind sports car; this "First SS" was a sleek boat-tail open 2-seater. Its flowing design and streamlining pointed to an obvious attempt at making a fast car with the intention of venturing into racing; this car is believed to have been shipped to Australia in the late 1940s. While the initial link with John Black's Standard was developed, bodies continued to be built on Austin, Standard and lastly Wolseley Hornet chassis.
At Motor Show time in October 1931, Swallow launched a car of its own, the SS 1, displayed a prototype, all while the aforementioned little Wolseley Hornet Special continued alongside. "This car has its little knot of admirers around it every minute of the day, from the point of view of general interest it is the most serious rival to the Rover Scarab. It is made by the Swallow Coachbuilding people on a chassis specially built for them by Standard, featuring a six-cylinder side-valve engine of 15hp, but it is the body, the big attraction. Its long low lines with no running boards and the head only a matter of four feet above the ground create an impression of speed and gracefulness, quite worthy of comparison with the Lagondas and Delages, it is with a distinct shock that one notices the price is only £310. The radiator is quite different from the ordinary Standard type being specially designed to conform with the body lines and fitted with a chromium plated fluted front, it is set off with a futuristic emblem and the filler cap is tucked out of sight under the bonnet.
The Rudge-Whitworth wire wheels are racing type, the wheel base being 9 ft 4 in and the track 4 ft 1 in The coachbuilt body has a sliding roof of new design with leather-grained head and large travelling trunk at the rear. The cycle type wings are domed the side valances being deep so that the necessity for running boards is obviated The interior of the car is beautifully finished, the cabinet work being done in atrractive polished sycamore grained to resemble the back of a fiddle; the upholstery is in furniture hide The particular model shown is finished in apple green and black and is a beauty in every sense of the term." Under the guidance of the chairman, William Lyons, the company survived the depression years of the 1930s by making a series of beautifully styled cars offering exceptional value for money although some enthusiasts criticised them at the time for being "more show than go". The engines and chassis supplied by the Standard Motor Company were fitted with Swallow bodies styled under Lyons supervision.
The first of the SS range of cars available to the public was the 1932 SS 1 with 2-litre or 2½-litre side-valve, six-cylinder engine and the SS 2 with a four-cylinder 1-litre side-valve engine. Available as coupé or tourer a saloon was added in 1934, when the chassis was modified to be 2 inches wider; the first of the open two-seater sports cars came in March 1935 with the SS 90, so called because of its claimed 90 mph top speed. This car used the 2½-litre side-valve, six-cylinder engine in a short-chassis "cut and shut" SS 1 brought down to an SS 2's wheelbase, only 23 were made. Harry Weslake was set to work on engine development. Bill Heynes came to be chief engineer from Hillman — before that Humber. Weslake's new cylinder head was manufactured for SS by Standard; the Weslake head and twin RAG carburetters were fitted to the last year's production of SS 1 and SS 2 cars. To counteract the "more show than go" criticism of their SS90 Lyons had engaged William Heynes as chief engineer and Harry Weslake for engine tuning.
Weslake was asked to redesign the 2½-litre 70 bhp side-valve engine to achieve 90 bhp. His answer was an overhead-valve design that produced 102 bhp and it was this engine that launched th
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun
Jaguar Mark VIII
The Jaguar Mark VIII is a luxury four-door sports sedan introduced by the Jaguar company of Coventry at the 1956 London Motor Show. The car shared its 10-foot wheelbase with its predecessor, the Jaguar Mark VII, which outwardly it resembled. However, the interior fittings were more luxurious than those of the Mark VII. Distinguishing visually between the models is facilitated by changes to the front grille, the driving or fog lamps being moved from the front panel to the horizontal panel between bumper & front panel, larger rear lamps and most a curved chrome trim strip below the waistline which allowed the factory to offer a variety of two-tone paint schemes. In addition the new car had rear spats that were cut back to display more of the rear wheels and featured a one-piece curved windscreen, where the Mark VII had incorporated a two-piece front screen of flat glass; the Mark VIII inherited from its predecessor the 3442 cc straight-six engine which it shared with the Jaguar XK140 that appeared two years earlier.
In the Mark VIII, a modified cylinder head known as the'B' type was used. Although introduced subsequent to the'C' type competition head this naming made more sense than might at first appear. The'B' type head used the larger valves of the'C' type head, with the smaller intake port diameter of original XK cylinder head, introduced on the MK VII, now referred to as the'A' type; the combination of larger valves with the original intake port diameters allowed faster gas flow at low and medium speeds to promote better low and medium range torque. As the MK VIII was not to be revved as high as the C-Type racers and the XK 140's equipped with the'C' type head the reduction in flow at high rpm's was not seen to be a disadvantage. Engines equipped with the'A' type head were advertised at 160 bhp. The'B' type head was painted a light green on the 3.4 litre engines to identify it. The modified head supported by twin SU carburetors, employing a manual four-speed transmission, meant that advertised engine output was now increased to 190 bhp: the claimed top speed in excess of 106 mph was considered impressive, given the car's bulk.
Transmission options included a Borg Warner three-speed automatic box. After a two-year production run of 6,227 units the Mark VIII was replaced by the Jaguar Mark IX. A Mark VIII, crewed by Dunning and Cash, won first place in the Automatic Transmission class in the 1958 Australian Mobilgas Economy Run, a fuel economy contest in which cars were required to cover 1,224 miles in two and a half days