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S band

The S band is a designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers for a part of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum covering frequencies from 2 to 4 gigahertz. Thus it crosses the conventional boundary between the SHF bands at 3.0 GHz. The S band is used by airport surveillance radar for air traffic control, weather radar, surface ship radar, some communications satellites those used by NASA to communicate with the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station; the 10 cm radar short-band ranges from 1.55 to 5.2 GHz. The S band contains the 2.4–2.483 GHz ISM band used for low power unlicensed microwave devices such as cordless phones, wireless headphones, wireless networking, garage door openers, keyless vehicle locks, baby monitors as well as for medical diathermy machines and microwave ovens. India's regional satellite navigation network broadcasts on 2.483778 to 2.500278 GHz. In the U. S. the FCC approved satellite-based Digital Audio Radio Service broadcasting in the S band from 2.31 to 2.36 GHz used by Sirius XM Radio.

More it has approved for portions of the S band between 2.0 and 2.2 GHz the creation of Mobile Satellite Service networks in connection with Ancillary Terrestrial Components. There are presently a number of companies attempting to deploy such networks, including ICO Satellite Management and TerreStar; the 2.6 GHz range is used for China Multimedia Mobile Broadcasting, a satellite radio and mobile TV standard which, as with proprietary systems in the U. S. is incompatible with the open standards used in the rest of the world. In May 2009, Inmarsat and Solaris Mobile were awarded each a 2×15 MHz portion of the S band by the European Commission; the two companies are allowed two years to start providing pan-European MSS services for 18 years. Allocated frequencies are 1.98 to 2.01 GHz for Earth to space communications, from 2.17 to 2.2 GHz for space to Earth communications. Eutelsat W2A satellite launched in April, 2009 and located at 10° East is the unique satellite in Europe operating on S band frequencies.

In some countries, S band is used for Direct-to-Home satellite television. The frequency allocated for this service is 2.5 to 2.7 GHz. IndoStar-1 was the world's first commercial communications satellite to use S-band frequencies for broadcast, which efficiently penetrate the atmosphere and provide high-quality transmissions to small-diameter 80 cm antennas in regions that experience heavy rainfall such as Indonesia. Similar performance is not economically feasible with comparable Ku- or C-band DTH satellite systems since more power is required in these bands to penetrate the moist atmosphere. Wireless network equipment compatible with IEEE 802.11b and 802.11g standards use the 2.4 GHz section of the S band. Some digital cordless telephones operate in this band too. Microwave ovens operate at 2450 MHz. IEEE 802.16a and 802.16e standards use a part of the frequency range of S band. The exact frequency range allocated for this type of use varies between countries. In North America, 2.4–2.483 GHz is an ISM band used for unlicensed spectrum devices such as cordless phones, wireless headphones, video senders, among other consumer electronics uses, including Bluetooth which operates between 2.402 GHz and 2.480 GHz.

Amateur radio and amateur satellite operators have 13 cm and 9 cm. Amateur television repeaters operate in these bands. Airport surveillance radars operate in the 2700–2900 MHz range. Particle accelerators may be powered by S-band RF sources; the frequencies are standardized at 2.998 GHz or 2.856 GHz. The National NEXRAD Radar network operates with S-band frequencies. Before implementation of this system, C-band frequencies were used for weather surveillance. In the United States, the 3.55 to 3.7 GHz band is becoming shared spectrum under rules adopted by the Federal Communications Commission in April 2015 as a result of the National Broadband Plan. The biggest user of CBRS spectrum is the United States Navy. Cable companies are planning to use the band for wireless broadband in rural areas, with Charter Communications beginning tests of the service in January 2018. Used as a transmit intermediate frequency in satellite communications as a replacement for L band where a single/shared coaxial connection is used between the modem/IDU and antenna/ODU for both the transmit and receive signals.

This is to prevent interference between the transmit and receive signals which would otherwise not occur on a dual coaxial setup where the transmit and receive signals are separate and both can use the whole L-band frequency range. In a single coaxial connection using S-Band to "frequency shift" the transmit signal away from L band, a multiplier such as 10, is applied to form the SHF frequency. For example, the modem would transmit at 2.815 GHz IF to the ODU and the ODU up-converts this signal to 28.15 GHz SHF towards the satellite. S band is used in optical communications to refer to the wavelength range 1460 nm to 1530 nm. Electromagnetic interference at 2.4 GHz ISM band Unified S-band, an S-band communication system used in the Apollo program of manned spaceflight. TerreStar Networks zarya.info - S-band satellite telemetry and housekeeping frequencies utexas.edu - Pioneer 10 & 11 Abstract

Manel Abeysekera

Irangani Manel Abeysekera is a Sri Lankan diplomat. Having served as Sri Lankan Ambassador in Germany and Thailand, she is known as Sri Lanka's first woman career diplomat, she was born to E. W. Kannangara, a prominent civil servant who had served as the Clerk of the State Council. Educated at Methodist College, she read history at Somerville College, Oxford. After joining the Overseas Service she studied modern languages at Cambridge. Abeysekera is an Honorary Fellow of Somerville College. After graduating from Oxford in 1957, she returned to Ceylon and applied to the newly formed Ceylon Overseas Service through the Ceylon Civil Service, having become only female in the batch of eight selected candidates. Having been appointed to the service as the first female recruit, she became the first female diplomat in Sri Lanka. Having completed her modern languages training at Cambridge, she was made permanent in her appointment and took up the post of Third Secretary at the Ceylon's High Commission in London.

Thereafter she was posted to Thailand as Charge d’ Affaires from 1970-1974. Returning to Sri Lanka in 1974 she took up the post of Chief of Protocol at the Ministry of External Affairs and Defence, where she played a major role in organizing the Non-Aligned Summit in 1976. During her tuner she wrote the Foreign Ministry Manual of Protocol Procedure, she went on to serve as Sri Lankan Ambassador to Thailand, there after Director General - Press and Publicity Division of the Foreign Ministry and became Sri Lankan Ambassador to Germany, having accreditation to Austria and Switzerland. She retired from the Foreign Service in 1993. At present, she works as a Consultant, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and is based at the Lakshman Kadirgamar Institute of International Relations and Strategic Studies and is as a Consultant on Gender and Development She married Hector Abeysekera a UN diplomat

Joseph Niou

Joseph Niou was a marine engineer and politician of the French Revolution, serving as the director of shipbuilding. He was apprenticed as an engineer/builder on 17 May 1766. After the Revolution, he was a member of the Lodge of Rochefort, sided with the Révolution and was elected mayor in 1790, he was elected a deputy of the Legislative Assembly in 1791 and reelected a deputy in the National Convention for the department of Charente-Inférieure en 1792 and voted for the execution of King Louis XVI. He was sent as Représentant en mission to the French Mediterranean Fleet, serving at the ports of Lorient and Bayonne to reinforce the defences, in the Department de Nord and the Pas-de-Calais to enforce the Law of Suspects. In 1794, he was ordered to reorganise the powder mills at Grenelle in Paris, was placed in control of the arming of the Navy. After the Thermidorian Reaction, he was named Représentant to the Mediterranean Fleet, he was present at Toulon during a rebellion, with the fleet at the Battle of the Hyères Islands where a ship was lost.

Following the establishment of the French Directory. Niou was elected to the Council of Ancients until prairial an VI, he was named director of naval construction at Lorient. After the establishment of the French Consulate in 1799 he was named to the prize court. On 13 September 1798, Niou was a commissioner for the prisoners of war, traveled to London to sign an agreement for a prisoner exchange; as a regicide of Louis XVI he fled France in 1816 following the Bourbon Restoration, living in exile in Belgium for three years until he was permitted to return. Joseph Niou was the brother of Provost Marshal of Rochefort, he was married on 13 October 1772 at La Rochelle to Madeleine-Louise Moyne, born in Saint-Domingue, the daughter of André-Paul Moyne, a lawyer. He had two sons who served in the Grande armée, both were killed in action. Louis-Gaston Niou, born at Rochefort on 18 January 1775, was a captain in the 19e régiment de chasseurs à cheval, killed at Trier, aged 19, while serving as an aide de camp to General George Joseph Dufour, during action against Austrian cavalry.

From his marriage to Denise Demareuil, he had a son, Joseph-Louis-Gaston Niou, who died in Paris during 1806. This article is based on a translation of an article from the French Wikipedia

List of prime ministers of Kuwait

The Prime Minister of Kuwait is the head of government of Kuwait. As the third most powerful official in the country, following the Emir of Kuwait and Speaker of the National Assembly, the prime minister leads the executive branch of the Government of Kuwait. Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah, the Emir of Kuwait during the period of Kuwait's independence, appointed himself the first Prime Minister of Kuwait on 17 January 1962, after the Constituent Assembly was elected to draft the Constitution. List of the Prime Ministers of Kuwait: * resumed office ** in exile in Ta'if, Saudi Arabia between 2 August 1990 and 15 March 1991 due to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait Kuwait National Guard Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ministry of Defense Ministry of Interior Politics of Kuwait

Dogmatic school

The Dogmatic school of medicine was a school of medicine in ancient Greece and Rome. They were the oldest of the medical sects of antiquity, they derived their name from dogma, a philosophical tenet or opinion, because they professed to follow the opinions of Hippocrates, hence they were sometimes called Hippocratici. Thessalus, the son, Polybus, the son-in-law of Hippocrates, were the founders of this sect, c. 400 BC, which enjoyed great reputation, held undisputed sway over the whole medical profession, until the establishment of the Alexandrian school known as the Empiric school. After the rise of Empiric school, for some centuries, every physician counted himself under either one or the other of the two parties; the most distinguished among this school were Diocles of Carystus, Praxagoras of Cos, Plistonicus. The doctrines of this school are described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus in the introduction to his De Medicina; the Dogmatic school held that it was necessary to be acquainted with the hidden causes of diseases, as well as the more evident causes, to know how the natural actions and different functions of the human body take place, which assumes a knowledge of the interior parts.

They gave the name of hidden causes to those things which concern the elements or principles of which our bodies are composed, the occasion of good or ill health. It is impossible, they said, for people to know how to set about curing an illness unless they know what it comes from. If this be granted, it must appear that, of all physicians, he will succeed the best in the cure of diseased who understands best their first origin and cause; the Dogmatic school did not deny the necessity of experiments. They added, that it is probable that the first people who applied themselves to medicine, did not recommend to their patients the first thing that came into their thoughts, but that they deliberated about it, that experiment and use let them know if they had reasoned justly or not, it mattered little, they said, that people declared that the greater number of remedies had been the subject of experiment from the first, provided they confessed that these experiments were the results of the reasoning of those who tried the remedies.

They went on to say, that we see new sorts of diseases break out, for which neither experiment nor custom has yet found out any cure. Such are the reasons; as for the evident causes, which are such as can be discovered by anybody, where one has only to know if the illness proceeds from heat or from cold, from having eaten too little or too much, etc. they said it was necessary to inform one's self of all of that, make on it the suitable reflections. They said in regard to the natural actions, that it was necessary to know wherefore and in what manner we receive the air into our lungs, why we afterward expire it. Lastly, they maintained that as the principal pains and diseases proceed from the internal parts, it is impossible for people to administer any remedy unless they are acquainted with these parts, they therefore thought that it was necessary to dissect dead bodies, for it was not possible to treat sick organs if one did not understand the nature of healthy organs. Methodic school – School of medicine in ancient Greece and Rome Empiric school – A school of medicine in ancient Greece and Rome William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, pages 371-3 Aulus Cornelius Celsus, On Medicine, Prooemium

Đorđe Dunđerski

Đorđe Dunđerski was a Yugoslav tennis player. He was the first to play for the Yugoslavian team at the International Lawn Tennis Challenge, the Davis Cup in 1927, he was the first and only Yugoslavian tennis Olympian until the reinstatement of tennis to the Olympic programme in 1988. Apart from that he was a three-time Swiss champion. Đorđe Dunđerski, better known by the nickname Goga, belonged to the prestigious Serbian family of Dunđerski, the roots of which go far back to Herzegovina from where his ancestors moved to Srbobran in the 17th century, fleeing from the Ottoman occupation. The most prominent members of the Dunđerski family lived in Vojvodina before the First World War, up to the Second World War occupied important positions in small businesses. Dunđerski was born in 1902 in Srbobran to father Jaša and mother Vera, the latter being the daughter of a lawyer in Novi Sad a town to which they had moved in 1907; the young Dungyersky spoke French better than his mother tongue. For high school, he attended the Dugonics András Piarista Gimnázium in Szeged to learn Latin and Hungarian.

To avoid conflicts in the First World War, the family escaped to Geneva where he graduated in 1922. It was in Switzerland where he began becoming a high school champion; the family returned to Novi Sad after the war. Dungyersky embarked on law studies at the University of Zagreb, but left during the second semester to focus on tennis. Dunđerski's first breakthrough achievement was winning the Geneve International Championships. After that he became the best non-national player in Switzerland and held the Swiss International Championships title consecutively between 1924 and 1927. During this period he played for the national team of Switzerland, he played in his home country and was a member of the HAŠK, the Croatian Academic Sports Club. He participated in the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris where he lost to John Gilbert in the first round. In doubles, he and Iván Balás lost to Jacques Brugnon/Henri Cochet. In 1925, he was a finalist at the Campel doubles tournament partnering Jean Wuarin but came short against Jean Borotra and his Swiss partner, a man named Kyburz.

In 1926, he was a runner-up at the Nice L. T. C. Tournament, only losing to Umberto de Morpurgo in straight sets, he participated in the first official Davis Cup match in 1927, teaming up with Balás from Bečkerek to represent the Kingdom of Yugoslavia Davis Cup team in Zagreb against India. After retiring from tennis, Dunđerski became a tennis instructor in Geneva, acted as sparring partner to many famous diplomats including Arthur Balfour. In 1939 he returned to Novi Sad but was never able to enter elite society because he was considered a foreigner and an extravagant person, although he had inherited a large estate from his father and thus had the status of a landowner. After World War II he was stripped of all of his assets in Srbobran by the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, he could not get a job. He was only permitted occasional access to tennis clubs in exchange for his part-time assistance to the Tennis Association when it needed to tap on his ability to speak and read in five languages as an international liaison.

Dunđerski married in 1951 but divorced in 1969. He supported himself by selling parts of his estate, he was permitted to keep two apartments and lived in them until he sold them, whereupon he became homeless. He moved from town to town, his social security expired and he died in a poorhouse in Futog in 1983. Dunđerski Palace Fantast Castle Đorđe Dunđerski at the International Tennis Federation Đorđe Dunđerski at the Davis Cup