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Saaremaa

Saaremaa is the largest island in Estonia, measuring 2,673 km2. The main island of Saare County, it is located in the Baltic Sea, south of Hiiumaa island and west of Muhu island, belongs to the West Estonian Archipelago; the capital of the island is Kuressaare. The whole island had a recorded population in January 2017 of 31,357. In old Scandinavian sources, Saaremaa is called Eysysla and in the Icelandic Sagas Eysýsla, meaning "the district of island"; the island is called Saaremaa in Estonian, in Finnish Saarenmaa—literally "isle land" or "island land". I.e. the same as the Scandinavian name for the island. The old Scandinavian name is the origin of the island's name in Danish Øsel and Swedish, Ösel, Gutnish Oysl, in Latin, Osilia. In Latvian, the island is called Sāmsala, which means "the island of Saami". Saaremaa is believed by Estonian scholar Raul Talvik and former Estonian president Lennart Meri to have been the historic Ultima Thule. According to archaeological finds, the territory of Saaremaa has been inhabited from at least 5000 BCE.

Nordic Iron Age ship burials, dated to AD 700-750, have been found in Sõrve Peninsula. Sagas talk about numerous skirmishes between Vikings. Saaremaa was the wealthiest county of ancient Estonia and the home of notorious pirates, sometimes called the Eastern Vikings; the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia describes a fleet of sixteen ships and five hundred Osilians ravaging the area, now southern Sweden belonging to Denmark. Around 1000, Gunnar Hámundarson from Iceland took part in a Viking raid at Eysýsla. There he obtained his famous atgeir, by taking it from a man named Hallgrímur. Njáls saga tells the following: Thence they held on south to Denmark and thence east to Smálönd and had victory wherever they went, they did not come back in autumn. The next summer they held on to Rafala and fell in there with sea-rovers, fought at once, won the fight. After that they steered east to Eysýsla and lay there somewhile under a ness. There they saw a man coming down from the ness above them. Gunnar asked him his name, he said it was Tófi.

Gunnar asked again. "Thee I want to see," says the man. "Two warships lie on the other side under the ness, I will tell thee who command them: two brothers are the captains—one's name is Hallgrímur, the other's Kolskeggur. I know them to be mighty men of war. Hallgrímur has an atgeir; that thing follows it too that it is known at once when a man is to be slain with that atgeir, for something sings in it so loudly that it may be heard a long way off—such a strong nature has that atgeir in it. The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia describes a fleet of sixteen ships and five hundred pirates from Saaremaa ravaging the area, now southern Sweden belonging to Denmark. In the XIVth book of Gesta Danorum, Saxo Grammaticus describes a battle on Öland in 1170 in which the Danish king Valdemar I mobilised his entire fleet to curb the incursions of pirates from Couronia and Saaremaa; the most renowned raid by the inhabitants of Saaremaa occurred in 1187, with the attack on the Swedish town of Sigtuna. Among the casualties of this raid was the Swedish archbishop Johannes.

Archaeological excavations have not verified the traditions of destruction of the town. Normal life in Sigtuna continued until town started to lose its importance during 13th century due to navigability problems caused by post-glacial rebound. In 1227, Saaremaa was conquered by the Livonian Brothers of the Sword during the Livonian Crusade but the resistance of the local inhabitants remained strong; the crusaders founded the Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek there. When the Order was defeated by the Lithuanian army in the Battle of Saule in 1236, the Saaremaa islanders rebelled; the conflict was ended by a treaty, signed by the Osilians and the Master of the Order. In the following year, the Sword-Brothers were absorbed into the Teutonic Order; as the crusaders' hold on Saaremaa got stronger, Christianity became more established on the island, to this day Saaremaa has a unique set of medieval churches in Kaarma, Kihelkonna, Muhu, Pöide, Püha and Valjala churches. The crusader's fortress Kuressaare Castle, known in German as Schloss Arensburg, was built by the Teutonic Order for the bishops of Ösel-Wieck.

Construction began in 1380 and it is one of the most well-preserved medieval castles in Estonia and bears testimony to the late Medieval Age. During the 14th–16th centuries, earlier, local inhabitants started to expand across the Baltic Sea into surrounding areas thus establishing villages at Livonian coast. Most of Saaremaa was ruled directly by the Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek, while some parts were enfeoffed to the Livonian Order. In 1559, the bishopric and Saaremaa were sold to Denmark. From 1570 until 1645 the entire island was under Danish possession. In 1645, Saaremaa was ceded from Denmark to Sweden by the Treaty of Brömsebro. In 1721, along with the rest of Livonia, Saaremaa was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Treaty of Nystad, becoming a part of the Governorate of Livonia. In 1840 the first spa opened in Kuressaare, the town experienced renaissance and became a resort for Russians and Baltic Germans. In World

Alan E. Kazdin

Alan Edward Kazdin is a research professor of Psychology and Child Psychiatry at Yale University. He is a Sterling Professor emeritus and was the director of the Yale Parenting Center and Child Conduct Clinic. Kazdin's research has focused on the treatment of aggressive and antisocial behavior in children. In 2008, he served as the President of the American Psychological Association. Kazdin's 700 publications including 49 books that focus on interventions for children and adolescents, cognitive-behavioral treatment and child rearing, interpersonal violence, methodology and research design, his work on parenting and child rearing has been featured on CNN, NPR, PBS, BBC, he has appeared on Good Morning America, ABC News, 20/20, The Dr. Phil Show, the Today Show. In addition to his own published work, Kazdin has been editor of six journals: Behavior Therapy, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Psychological Assessment, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, Current Directions in Psychological Science, Clinical Psychological Science.

He was editor-in-chief of the eight-volume Encyclopedia of Psychology. He has edited two book series: Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry and Current Perspectives in Psychology, co-edited a book series Advances in Clinical Child Psychology

Cable television by region

The distribution of cable television around the world: Cable television is the most common transmission method in all urban areas of mainland China – television aerials are an rare sight. Cable systems in China carry all the CCTV channels in Mandarin, along with all the channels of municipal, provincial or regional networks in question; the remaining slots carry the main channels from several other province-level stations, may carry additional channels from metropolitan stations such as BTV and Shanghai Media Group. They may carry a local channel for a particular sub-provincial municipality, prefecture or county. Individual compounds add a request channel showing karaoke music videos and animations. An small number of compounds with many foreign residents and/or tourists will carry selected channels from Hong Kong and the West. Phoenix Television has the widest carriage under this rule. Mainland China had more than 44.5 million digital cable television users in 2008. Unlike many cable television operators in other countries that support two-way modes, China's cable television systems operate in a one-way mode.

Cable television was introduced to Hong Kong in 1957 when Rediffusion Television began transmissions as Hong Kong's first television station. This arrangement ended in 1973 when Rediffusion Television was granted a free-to-air terrestrial broadcast licence by the Hong Kong government. Cable television returned to Hong Kong in 1993 when Wharf Cable Television began operations as Hong Kong's first subscription-based multichannel television platform. Cable TV Hong Kong competes with the IPTV platforms HKBN bbTV and now TV as well as the pay television service TVB Network Vision. Cable television was introduced to Japan in Shibukawa, Gunma Prefecture; until the 1980s, cable television in Japan was limited to rural mountainous areas and outlying islands where the reception of terrestrial television was poor. Cable television started to proliferate in urban areas in the late 1980s, beginning with Tokyo, whose first cable television station began broadcasting in 1987. In the mid 1990s, two-way multichannel cable television platforms first appeared in the market.

There are several national and regional cable television providers in Japan, the largest being J:COM, followed by Japan Cablenet. These companies compete with the Japanese satellite television platforms SKY PerfecTV! and WOWOW, as well as the IPTV platform Hikari TV operated by NTT Plala. Japan Cable Television Engineering Association is the umbrella organisation representing 600 member companies involved in research, manufacturing and maintenance of cable television facilities in Japan. Analog broadcasting on cable television ceased in most areas between July 24, 2011 and March 31, 2015. Cable television was introduced to Malaysia in 1995 when Mega TV was launched as the country's first subscription-based pay television service. Mega TV ceased operations in 2001, due to stiff competition from the Malaysian satellite television operator Astro as well as a failure to expand its range of channels. In 2013, ABNXcess was launched as Malaysia's second cable television service and marked the return of cable television to Malaysia after a 12-year absence.

There are only two cable television providers in the Maldives. As the population of the country is separated across around 200 inhabited islands, there is a cable provider for nearly every island. MediaNet Pvt. Ltd. is the country's largest cable TV provider, providing state of the art digital TV service. MediaNet is a Malé based cable TV provider that provides digital cable and Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service services to most of the Islands in the Maldives. MediaNet holds a distribution license for 100 TV channels and distributes TV channels to nearly all the TV operators of the country. In Maldives, cable television subscribers can get most basic and premium TV channels available in Asia. There are several cable television providers in Mongolia; the main three are SuperVision and Sansar CATV. All three cover 15 national channels and 40 foreign channels, such as CNN, the BBC and NHK. Sansar has the largest network in Ulaanbaatar. SuperVision is the first digital cable television service in Mongolia and other CATVs are planning to launch digital cable television with CA systems.

NUVUE, the first cable television system in the Philippines, was set up in Baguio City by American expatriate Russel Swartley in 1969. Cable television became popular in the 1980s after the Marcos administration. Sky Cable, the largest cable television provider in the Philippines, began operations in 1992. Cable providers have proliferated since including Destiny Cable and some regional cable providers. In 2007, Sky Cable introduced the DigiBox, a set-top box that provides a digital television signal for higher video quality and prevents illegal cable connections. In 2008, Sky Cable broadcast the 37th Ryder Cup in high-definition television. In 2009, Sky Cable became the first cable television service provider in the Philippines to broadcast the UAAP Games in high definition via the new SkyHD Cable TV service. Cable television was introduced to Singapore in 1991 when Singapore Cable Vision was licensed to develop and establish a cable-based subscription televisio