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Sabbath Bloody Sabbath

Sabbath Bloody Sabbath is the fifth studio album by English rock band Black Sabbath, released in December 1973. It was produced by the band and recorded at Morgan Studios in London in September 1973. Following Black Sabbath's 1972–1973 world tour in support of their album, Vol. 4, the group returned to Los Angeles to begin work on its successor. Pleased with Vol. 4, the band sought to recreate the recording atmosphere, returned to the Record Plant Studios. The band rented a house in Bel Air and began writing in the summer of 1973 but, due in part to substance abuse and fatigue, were unable to complete any songs. "Ideas weren't coming out the way they were on Vol. 4 and we got discontent," guitarist and songwriter Tony Iommi said. "Everybody was sitting there waiting. I just couldn't think of anything, and if I didn't come up with anything, nobody would do anything." In 2013, bassist Geezer Butler told Mojo magazine that after the tour in support of Vol. 4 the band was "absolutely exhausted" and by the time they played the Hollywood Bowl, "Tony collapsed.

It was touch-and-go at one point whether he'd survive or not because he was depleted. So we had to cancel the rest of the tour and we took time off for the first time since the band started. We had a social life. We came back together to start on the next album, couldn't come up with anything." In his autobiography I Am Ozzy, singer Ozzy Osbourne states that in the time leading up to the Hollywood Bowl "Tony had been doing coke for days – we all had, but Tony had gone over the edge. I mean, that stuff just twists your whole idea of reality. You start seeing things, and Tony was gone. Near the end of the gig he walked off stage and collapsed." Regarding his writer's block, Iommi admitted to Phil Alexander in 2013, "I panicked because I didn't have a single idea about what to write. It might have been the drugs, it could have been the pressure, but either way I felt it was my fault." The band were disappointed to discover that the room they had used at the Record Plant had been replaced with a "giant synthesizer" by Stevie Wonder, who had recorded there.

After a month in Los Angeles with no results, the band opted to return to the UK, where they rented Clearwell Castle in The Forest of Dean, England, which the likes of Led Zeppelin, Mott the Hoople and Deep Purple wrote and recorded in. The medieval surroundings may have revitalised the band musically, but left a sinister impression. We followed this figure back into the armoury and there was no one there. Whoever it was had disappeared into thin air! The people that owned the castle knew all about this ghost and they said,'Oh yes, that's the ghost of so and so. We were like'What!?'" Adds Butler: "We rehearsed in the dungeons and it was creepy but it had some atmosphere, it conjured up things, stuff started coming out again". While working in the dungeon, Iommi stumbled onto the main riff of "Sabbath Bloody Sabbath", which set the tone for the new material. In 2001 Butler admitted to Dan Epstein of Guitar World, "We thought that we were finished as a band... Once Tony came out with the initial riff for'Sabbath Bloody Sabbath' we went'We're baaaack!'"

The spooky atmosphere at Clearwell Castle complemented the band's practice of playing practical jokes on one another. In the documentary Black Sabbath, Volume 1: 1970–1978 Iommi recalls, "I've got to be honest, we frightened the life out of each other. We had to leave in the end, everybody terrified of each other because we were playing jokes on each other and nobody knew, doing it... We used to drive back the next day, it was silly." In his autobiography Osbourne cracks, "We weren't so much the Lords of Darkness as the Lords of Chickenshit when it came to that kind of thing... We wound. You'd just lie there with your eyes wide open, expecting an empty suit of armour to walk into your bedroom at any second to shove a dagger up your arse." Osbourne writes that he nearly burned the castle down one night when he fell asleep with his boot in the fire. Osbourne said that when it came to the shenanigans Bill Ward "got the worst of it", with the drummer going to bed at night with a dagger. Although the band's then-manager Patrick Meehan received credit as co-producer, Iommi said years that Meehan had no actual involvement in the album's production, saying "Meehan's ego got involved, he stuck his name down as producer".

Recording was completed at Morgan Studios in Willesden, North London in 1973. Keyboardist Rick Wakeman of the band Yes was brought in as a session player, appearing on "Sabbra Cadabra". Wakeman refused payment from the band and was compensated with beer for his contribution. Allom used phasing effects at the end of "Sabbra Cadabra" to conceal Osbourne's foul language; the members of Led Zeppelin, close friends of the band from their early days in Birmingham, showed up at the studio during Sabbath Bloody Sabbath's recording. Drummer John Bonham was eager to play on "Sabbra Cadabra" but Sabbath preferred to play material other than their own for the occasion. In the end, the two bands had an improvised jam session, recorded but never released. Osbourne has said that Sabbath Bloody Sabbath was "the beginning of the end" for Black Sabbath's original line-up. In 2013, the singe

Friendship (NGO)

Friendship is a needs-driven non-governmental organisation that works in the Char islands and riverbanks of northern Bangladesh, the coastal belt in the south, as of 2017, the Rohingya refugee camps in Ukhia, Cox's Bazar in the southeast. Established by Runa Khan in 2002, Friendship works to empower people through a sustainable, integrated development approach. Friendship employees more than 1,500 employees that includes field staff, regional office staff, staff in the floating hospitals, teachers at Friendship schools, trainers at vocational schools and supervisors working in the northern and southern parts of the country and head office staff based in Dhaka. Friendship's first project was a floating hospital. French sailor and aviator Yves Marre sailed a river barge from France to Bangladesh to donate it for use by the people of Bangladesh. Runa Khan converted the river barge to a floating hospital, the Lifebuoy Friendship Hospital. Since Friendship has developed a healthcare system to provide primary healthcare and certain surgical procedures to river-based communities who are difficult to reach from the mainland.

The NGO now has introduced two more floating hospitals: the Emirates Friendship Hospital in 2008 sponsored by the Emirates Airline Foundation and the Rongdhonu Friendship Hospital, former Rainbow Warrior II from Greenpeace, in 2012. It has received a donation through the Islamic Development Bank for the operation and construction of five more hospital ships; the keel has been laid for the five new ships in December 2017. Starting from 2005, a system of mobile Satellite Clinics was set up, complemented by health workers to serve communities at the grassroots level. Presently, each month 250,000 persons are treated by Friendship's health program. Friendship has projects in education, disaster management, good governance, sustainable economic development and cultural preservation. Today Friendship helps about 500,000 people every month. Runa Khan is a Bangladeshi social entrepreneur and the founder and executive director of Friendship NGO. Friendship is based on Runa Khan's model of "integrated development," meaning it addresses problems in multiple sectors, including health, disaster management and economic development in communities where it is involved, rather than specializing in one of these.

Khan won the Rolex Awards for Enterprise in 2006 for work through Friendship to preserve the declining craft of traditional boat building in Bangladesh. Khan established a tourism company, Contic, in 1996 which gives tours on traditional wooden boats. Earlier, she wrote text-books for children with the aim of moving away from rote learning, an effort that won her the Ashoka Fellowship in 1994. Friendship supports communities in the shifting northern river islands, known as chars, of the Brahmaputra and Jamuna rivers and in the coastal areas of the Bay of Bengal. Friendship is active in 22 Upazilas over 12 Districts of Bangladesh. Today, its operations are most intense and multi-Sectoral in the districts of Kurigram and Gaibandha in the North, Patuakali and Satkhira in the South. Three years after Friendship went into operation in Bangladesh, Runa Khan took steps to set up a network of supporting organisations in Europe. Today Friendship is present in 5 countries in Europe including Luxembourg, Netherlands, UK and Germany.

Friendship built the Friendship Centre in the rural flatlands of Bangladesh near Gaibandha. Construction completed in 2011; the building complex serves as a training facility and meeting space for staff as well as the local community who live on nearby riverine islands called chars. The building complex houses offices, meeting rooms, a library, prayer and tea rooms; the residential area contains dorms for students, staff rooms, a dining area. In the training area, visitors sit on the floor for classes and community members in the mostly-illiterate population may watch educational theatre presentations on important issues such as child marriage. Friendship can train up to 80 people at a time in the four classrooms. To generate extra income for the organization, others can rent space at the Friendship Centre for meetings and conferences; the Friendship Centre acts as a gathering place and refuge for the economically-challenged local population. The building project helped bring international attention to architects and architecture in Bangladesh.

Kashef Chowdhury and his Dhaka-based architecture firm URBANA designed the Friendship Centre. The architect promotes "the architecture of responsibility" and wanted to create a structure, not just art but instead put the client's needs first by creating a suitable environment for the building's uses. Environmental sustainability and keeping within budget were important to the project. Chowdhury designed the architecture as simple and bare to suit the region's economy and to reflect the serenity of its riverine landscape; the Friendship Centre is located on a low-lying, flood-prone piece of land, which posed a challenge for its construction. Builders in the area will raise structures 2.4 metres above the ground to avoid flooding, but this can be expensive and the budget was tight. Instead, the design called for an earthen embankment surrounding the complex, a pumping facility for run-off, which helps keep water out at a low initial building cost. Stairs on two ends of the complex lead down to the buildings.

Other challenges to construction in the area include earthquakes and the low bearing capacity of the soil. The nearby ruins of the Vasu Bihara Buddhist temple, built in the third and fourth century, inspired the building's design; the low profile and green roofs integrate the buildings into their surroundings and from the air it appears more like a field than a building complex. The buildings

Mary Welleck Garretson

Mary Welleck Garretson was a geology teacher and a consultant in the fields of paleontology and stratigraphy. She received a degree in 1919 from Barnard College in New York, studying zoology and sedimentation. Mary was born on December 16, 1896 in Cincinnati, Ohio where she spent the majority of her childhood, her father was a well-known scientific editor and journalist. Her mother was the daughter of the noted 19th century American artist. Mary attended grade school at the Girls Latin School in Boston from 1909 - 1914. After graduating from grade school, she attended Barnard College in New York where she studied a wide diversity of subjects related to the sciences, earned an A. B. in 1918. While attending Barnard college, she studied under Professor Amadeus W. Grabau, went on to work as his research assistant on multiple research projects at Columbia University, she received her M. A. degree in Geology from Columbia in 1919, specializing in invertebrate zoology and sedimentation. While working and studying at Columbia, Mary met her husband, William Melvin Garretson and was married on September 27, 1922.

She had Mary Louise Garretson and William Welleck Garretson. She died in New York, on May 8, 1971 after a brief illness. While working on her graduate studies at Columbia University, Mary found a job as a teacher at the Young Men's Christian Association. In her first teaching job, Mary taught her students an Introduction to Geology course from 1921 to 1923. During her teaching job, she became an assistant at the Brooklyn Children's Museum where her contributions were made throughout 1920. While continuing teaching, Mrs. Garretson began her consulting work in the field of geology during World War Two, she was hired by airline and industrial companies from 1946 to 1951, where she studied and wrote about the geological characteristics of many areas to help these companies thrive. One of these articles was published in the New York Times and was about the geological characteristics of New York City. After finishing her consulting roles, Mary returned to her teaching jobs and become the Vice President of the Haitian- American Resource Company from 1956 to the time of her death.

She made tremendous contributions to the Haitian government by consulting and advising on mineral economics, the development of geological studies and developments in Haiti. In 1966, Mrs. Garretson's contributions to geology were recognized and she became a member of The Geological Society of America, American Institute of Mining and Petroleum Engineers, the International Society of Economic Geologists, the American Geophysical Union, the Geological Society of China, the New York Historical Society, became a founder of the Westchester County Conservation Association and was on the board of Directors from 1933 to 1950. Mrs. Garretson's greatest achievement was her contribution and aid to the works of Professor Grabau. Mary is referenced in Grabau's Introduction to Geology textbook, says that she "has been my assistant throughout the arrangement of this text for the press, has been of the greatest service in securing illustrations.” Professor Grabau and Mrs. Garretson's research was instrumental in the studies and knowledge of sedimentation.

With Garretson's help, Grabau went on to write papers about his findings on North American index fossils. Grabau attempted to collect fossil evidence that could link North American fossils to fossils around the world in hopes of reaffirming his idea of a Paleozoic Pangaea. Grabau and Garretson believed in and studied the theory of horizontal displacement, was considered to be a mobilist; the theory of horizontal displacement was first proposed by Alfred Wegner in 1912 and, due to popular belief at that time, was not accepted in North America and Europe. The theory starting gaining traction when the model of plate tectonics and continental drift were first introduced. With these models in place, geologists began searching for fossil evidence that could prove that organisms, that can be found all over the globe now, once existed in the same location. Professor Grabau and Mrs. Garretson were among the scientist who took interest to Wegner's claim, began looking for fossil evidence in North America.

During her tenure at Columbia University, Mrs. Garretson assisted Professor Grabau in his book titled "North American Index Fossils." The goal of this paper was to study the various index fossils found in North America and try to compile evidence that supported the theory that a single, great continent was existed on Earth called Pangaea. The book goes into tremendous detail regarding information on each class of fossils found, each class having its separate structural descriptions and general description of key characteristics tying it to a family, or, genus. In the early 1930s, Professor Grabau moved to China to study the continental stratigraphy and index fossils the country possessed. During his study in China, Mrs. Garretson was his representative in the United States, served as his research assistant. Grabau searched for further for evidence of the ancient super continent and informed Mrs. Garrestson of his research, who summarized and reported his findings to several Geology groups and faculties in North America.

Mrs. Garretson assisted, was referenced in, all of Professor Grabau's Chinese research papers until his eventual death, including: Ordovician Fossils of North China Early Permian Fossils of China Paleozoic Corals of China Stratigraphy of China 2. Https://

Commercial Motor

Commercial Motor is a weekly magazine serving the road transport industry in the United Kingdom. Founded in 1905 by Edmund Dangerfield, it is notable for having been "the first journal to be devoted to the commercial vehicle engaged in the conveyance of goods or in passenger carrying". Named The Commercial Motor, the title was shortened to Commercial Motor for the first issue of 1966; the publication is referred to as'CM' by its readers and editorial staff. Commercial Motor was published by Temple Press and since 2011 it has been published by Road Transport Media; the Commercial Motor was launched in March 1905 by Temple Press. In the leader of the first issue it described itself as a "missionary and educative medium". For the first issue on 16 March, 20,000 copies were issued "in Britain and other countries, with the hope that the normal weekly circulation would be at least 5,000"; the content of Commercial Motor consists of editorial followed by classified advertising. The editorial part of the publication is subdivided into:'This Week': news section, including letters'Legal Digest': case reports, O-licence applications and decisions, upcoming training courses'Operations': features section including a van or truck road test'Used Trucks': news and features for used truck buyers and sellers Commercial Motor's website launched at the end of November 2011.

Reflecting the print publication, it is a mixture of classified advertising. Commercial Motor is an official media partner of the Commercial Vehicle Show. In October 2012 a new event under the Commercial Motor brand called Commercial Motor Live was launched. Exhibitors at this event included truck manufacturers such as Mercedes-Benz and service suppliers to the road transport industry including Backhouse Jones; the event was held again in 2013. Commercial Motor Archive

Francis Macnab

Francis Macnab is a retired Australian Christian minister. He was the executive minister of St Michael's Uniting Church, a congregation of the Uniting Church in Australia in Collins Street, until December 2016, he is a fellow of the Jesus Seminar. Macnab was born to J. D. Macnab and Mary Anne Louisa Hughes on 21 June 1931. Macnab married his wife, Sheila, in 1958, they have a son. He was made a member of the Order of Australia for his contributions to religion. Macnab holds a Doctor of Divinity degree from the University of Aberdeen, he has honorary doctorates from the University of Melbourne and RMIT University in psychology and applied science. In 1961, Macnab opened the Cairnmillar Institute, a clinical psychological centre, the largest in Australia, for some time the largest training body for psychologists and counsellors in the country, he continued as its Executive Director until 2015. Macnab founded and is director of the Australian Foundation for Aftermath Reactions which provides trauma treatment and training.

He is a Fellow of the Australian Psychological Society. Following a ministry at Prahran Presbyterian Church from 1961 to 1970, Macnab became minister of the Collins Street Congregational Church, now known as "St Michael's on Collins", in 1971; the church became a congregation of the Uniting Church in Australia at its inception in 1977. He retired on 31 December 2016 During his ministry, Macnab has created "Mingary - the Quiet Place" a contemplative space at St Michael's open for members of the public for meditative and reflective experience. Mingary offers low cost counselling under the supervision of the manager psychologist, Lynette Kramer. Mingary is run in conjunction with the Cairnmillar Institute and the Australian Foundation for Aftermath Reactions, both of which Macnab founded. In the 16 September 2008 edition of The Age, said that "The old faith is in large sections unbelievable. We want to make the new faith more believable and helpful in terms of the way people live"; the new faith was launched with a $120,000 advertising campaign including posters reading, "The Ten Commandments, one of the most negative documents written."

Macnab described Moses as a mass murderer, Abraham as concocted and Jesus as a Jewish peasant and not God. The Moderator of the Synod of Victoria and Tasmania, the Revd Jason Kioa, described Macnab's comments challenging the divinity of Jesus as questioning some of the faith's most basic beliefs, turning away from 2000 years of "orthodox Christian belief"; the Synod of Victoria and Tasmania voted to request St Michael's Uniting Church to remove advertising for its new faith and apologise to Jews and Muslims for the comments it contained about the Ten Commandments. The Uniting Church did not move to discipline Macnab. Scots' Church, a member church of the Presbyterian Church of Australia located across the road from St Michael's, installed a poster declaring benefits of the Ten Commandments facing towards St Michael's. In an interview with Stateline Victoria, Macnab replied to criticism saying that he was in agreement with others inside Christianity who "are asking the traditional church to re-examine and renew their basic thinking about what faith can be, because millions of people do not find the old faith meaningful to their lives."

He said he "would expect that kind of reaction from people who take the scriptures far too literally."In an address on 5 October, Macnab defended his comments, including against suggestions they were offensive to Jews, citing his study in undergraduate and postgraduate work in Hebrew language and history, including distinctions, saying "Some of the comments have been knee-jerk reactions and overloaded with bad manners." He stated, "While I have no intention of denigrating the Ten Commandments as a sacred symbol of the Jewish Torah and the Old Covenant, I say they are negative." He gave eight reasons why he believes the Ten Commandments to be negative and outlined his alternative 10 commandments, which he described as "positive and powerful": In February 2010, a billboard was posted on the Monash Freeway with pictures of Florence Nightingale, Martin Luther King, Jr. and MacNab. St Michael's Church's website said that while Nightingale "gave people faith in the future that kept their spirits alive" and King "started a movement that shaped attitudes of acceptance of others", Macnab "speaks to us about how a new faith can energise our bodies and spirits, necessary to accept ourselves in a greater way, accept others in a spirit of generosity and open-mindedness."The Age newspaper reported that Macnab had posted the billboard "with pictures of Florence Nightingale, Martin Luther King and himself as model leaders".

It reported accusations of self-promotion. Macnab said that the billboard was intended to give the new faith a lift for 2010 and show that individuals could make a big difference. St Michaels website Cairnmillar Institute website The Centre for Wellbeing website

Mel Young

Mel Young known as Melanie Young, is a conservation biologist and ecologist based at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand. Her research focuses on understanding the diet and foraging behaviors of yellow-eyed penguins. Mel completed a Master of Science on the productivity of yellow-eyed penguins at the University of Otago in 2014; this involved using hatch rates, chick survival rates, the mass of chicks to predict how birds and breeding success might be impacted by changes in the marine environment. She worked as a biodiversity ranger for the Department of Conservation for a number of years, her work involved managing yellow-eyed penguin populations in the Otago region. Mel is completing a doctorate at the University of Otago; this involves using satellite trackers to map the foraging behaviors at sea of yellow-eyed penguins