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Sackbut

A sackbut is a type of trombone from the Renaissance and Baroque eras, characterised by a telescopic slide, used to vary the length of the tube to change pitch. Unlike the earlier slide trumpet from which it evolved, the sackbut possesses a U-shaped slide, with two parallel sliding tubes, which allows for playing scales in a lower range. Records of the term "trombone" predates the term "sackbut" by two decades, evidence for the German term "Posaune" is older. "Sackbut" a French term, was used in England until the instrument fell into disuse in the eighteenth century. In modern English, an older trombone or its replica is called a sackbut. An older instrument differs from modern trombones by its smaller, more cylindrically-proportioned bore, its less-flared bell; the bell section was more resonant. These traits produce a "covered, blended sound, a timbre effective for working with voices... zincks and crumhorns", as in an alta capella. The revived instrument had changed in specific ways. In the mid-18th century, the bell flare increased, crooks fell out of use, flat, removable stays were replaced by tubular braces.

The new shape produced a stronger sound, suitable to open-air performance in the marching bands where trombones became popular again in the 19th century. Before the early 19th century, most trombones adjusted tuning with a crook on the joint between the bell and slide or, more between the mouthpiece and the slide, rather than the modern tuning slide on the bell curve, whose cylindrical sections prevent the instrument from flaring smoothly through this section. Older trombones generally don't have water keys, stockings, a leadpipe, or a slide lock, but as these parts are not critical to sound, replicas may include them. Bore size remained variable; the first reference to a slide instrument was trompette des ménestrels, first found in Burgundy in the 1420s and in other regions of Europe. The name distinguished the instrument from the trompettes de guerre; the next word to appear in the 15th century that implied a slide was the sackbut group of words. There are two theories for the sources: it is either derived from the Middle French sacquer and bouter or from the Spanish sacar and bucha.

The term survives in numerous English spelling variations including sacbut, sagbut, sacabushe and shakbusshe. Related to sackbut was the name used in France: sacqueboute and in Spain, where it was sacabuche; these terms were used in France until the 18th century. In Scotland in 1538 the slide instrument is referred to as draucht trumpet as opposed to a weir trumpet, which had a fixed length. In Germany, the original word was Posaune, is still used today; this derives from busine, Latinate and meant straight trumpet. In Italy it was trombone, which derived from trumpet in the Latin tromba or drompten, used in the Low Countries; the first records of it being used are around 1440, but it is not clear whether this was just a nickname for a trumpet player. In 1487 a writer links the words trompone and sacqueboute and mentions the instrument as playing the contratenor part in a danceband; the trombone developed from the trumpet. Up until 1375 trumpets were a long straight tube with a bell flare. There are various uses of sackbut-like words in the Bible, which has led to a faulty translation from the Latin bible that suggested the trombones date back as far as 600 BC, but there is no evidence of slides at this time.

From 1375 the iconography sees trumpets being made with bends, some in'S' shapes. Around 1400 we see the "loop"-shaped trumpet appear in paintings and at some point in the 15th century, a single slide was added; this slide trumpet was known as a "trompette des ménestrels" in the alta capella bands. The earliest clear evidence of a double slide instrument is in a fresco painting by Filippino Lippi in Rome, The Assumption of the Virgin, dating from 1488–93. From the 15th to the 19th centuries, the instrument designs changed little overall, apart from a slight widening of the bell in classical era. Since the 19th century, trombone bore bells have increased significantly, it was one of the most important instruments in Baroque polychoral works, along with the cornett and organ. Sackbuts come in several sizes. According to Michael Praetorius, these were: The pitch of the trombones has moved up a semi-tone since the 17th century, this is explained in the section on pitch; because the tenor instrument is described as "Gemeine", this is the most used trombone.

The basses, due to their longer slides, have a hinged handle on the slide stay, used to reach the long positions. The giant Octav-Posaun / double bass trombone / contra-bass trombone in the style of those made in 16th/17th centuries is represented by only a few existing instruments. There is an original instrument made by Georg Nicolaus Öller built in Stockholm in 1639 and housed in the Scenkonstmuseet. In addition, Ewald Meinl has made a modern copy of this instrument, it is owned and played by Wim Becu; the bore size of renaissance/baroque trombones is 10 mm and the bell more than 10.5 cm in diameter. This compares with modern tenor trombones, which have bores 12.7 mm to 13.9 mm and bells 17.8 cm to 21.6 cm. Modern reproductions of sackbut

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1522

United Nations Security Council resolution 1522, adopted unanimously on 15 January 2004, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Council welcomed efforts to establish the first integrated and unified brigade in Kisangani as a step towards forming a national army. It was the first Security Council resolution adopted in 2004; the Security Council was encouraged by progress in the Congolese peace process in the country and considered a reform of the security sector, the restructuring and integration of armed forces, establishment of a national police in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was essential to the success of the transition process. It reaffirmed the responsibility of the Government of National Unity and Transition and welcomed the establishment of a High Command; the resolution welcomed steps to establish an integrated and unified brigade in Kisangani as part of an overall formation of a Congolese national army. Since the government was in place, demands for demilitarisation in Kisangani contained in Resolution 1304 would not apply to restructured and integrated forces.

The government was urged to take appropriate measures for the restructuring and integration of the country’s armed forces and the international community was asked to assist in that regard. Kivu conflict Ituri conflict List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1501 to 1600 Second Congo War Works related to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1522 at Wikisource Text of the Resolution at undocs.org

Chrysler Valiant Charger

The Chrysler Valiant Charger was a two door hardtop coupe introduced by Chrysler Australia in 1971. It was a short wheelbase version of the concurrent Australian Chrysler Valiant sedan. Introduced within the VH Valiant series, it continued as a variant through the subsequent VJ, VK and CL series, until production ceased in 1978, it was marketed and badged as the Valiant Charger in the VH and VJ series and as the Chrysler Charger in the VK and CL series. While still based on the US Chrysler A-body platform, with identical front suspension, the fenders were widened, a wider rear axle fitted, so that the track and rear, was wider than any US A-body, this allowed wheels much wider than a US A-body; the Australian Chargers used a 5-on-4.5" wheel bolt circle, while the US cars did not go to "big bolt pattern" until 1973. The Charger was extraordinarily popular in Australia during the VH series. At one point Charger production totalled 80% of all Australian Valiant production; the VH Valiant Charger achieved critical acclaim, winning the 1971 Australian Wheels Car of the Year Award.

It was popular in New Zealand where they were assembled from imported kits. The sporty image of the Charger faded through the VJ range of cars and was neutered altogether by 1975 release of the VK series. During the seven years of production, the Charger carried many variations of two basic powerplants, based on the Chrysler Hemi-6 Engine and versions of the Chrysler LA engine V8; the Chrysler VH Valiant Charger range, introduced in 1971, consisted of Charger, Charger XL, Charger 770 and Charger R/T models. The R/T version carried on Chrysler's performance image from the VG series Valiant Pacer, soon became the platform for Chrysler's participation in production car racing in Australia; the range of cars was broad-based to appeal to all manner of people: Charger: 215 cu in base engine (140 bhp, 3spd manual, $2795.00 Charger XL: 245 cu in base engine (160 bhp, 3spd manual, $3195.00 Charger R/T: 265 cu in HP base engine (218 bhp, 3spd manual, $3395.00 Charger R/T E38: 265 cu in HP base engine (280 bhp, 3spd manual, $3975.00 Charger R/T E49: 265 cu in HP base engine (302 bhp, 4spd manual, $3975.00 Charger 770: 265 cu in HP base engine (203 bhp, 3spd automatic, $3625.00 Charger 770: 318 cu in 2bbl V8 engine (230 bhp, 3spd automatic, $4105.00 Charger 770 SE E55: 340 cu in 4bbl V8 engine (275 bhp, 3spd automatic, $4850.00The Charger R/T option E37 featured a tuned "Six Pack" version of the engine characterised by triple sidedraught Weber carburettors, formed the basis of Chrysler's touring car racer for 1971.

This engine could be ordered as an option on all models The Charger R/T E49 engine produced remarkable torque on a seven bearing configuration which enabled considerable power development unobtained from 6-cylinder engines and not surpassed until the Porsche Turbo 911 release of 1975The Charger 770 SE featured the E55 option. Chrysler Racing Manager John Ellis stated at the time that a ute fitted with the 340ci V8 was track tested at the Mallala circuit in South Australia by racing driver Leo Geoghegan, but was found to be 2–3 seconds slower around Mallala than the E49. Despite the slower lap times at Mallala, it was expected that the extra power of the 340ci V8 would have worked better on the long straights and uphill runs at Bathurst where there were few heavy braking or tight corners. John Ellis incorrectly stated that the 340ci engines were not imported for Bathurst and that an R/T 340 Charger was not being considered.336 340ci engines plus 4 speed gear boxes were imported by Colin Adey under direct instructions from Chrysler Chief Engineer Walt McPherson.

Chrysler General Manager David Brown and Walt McPherson had discussed the short comings of the E49 265ci and decided the 340ci was to be the next R/T Touring Car. This information never filtered down to John Ellis. Due to bad press coverage at the time the 340ci program was aborted and Chrysler did the only thing it could do, to recoup the cost outlay by selling the stocks of the imported 340ci engines; the engines were sold off in the upmarket 770 SE Charger. The SE was fitted with an imported'Torqueflite' 727 transmission, Chrysler further watered down engine performance by using a single pipe exhaust system. Apart from its unique engine, the Charger 770 SE featured other signature details such as combination black and white vinyl trim and one with single colour Maroon vinyl trim, turned metal dash facia, it was only available in three body colours, namely Vintage Red and Sunfire. Production records indicate that Chrysler manufactured a total of 125 VH Valiant Charger 770 SE cars, two of which varied from standard specification in being painted White and one Deep Maroon.

In March 1973 the VH range was superseded by the VJ series. The VJ featured changes to the cowl, grille and rear quarter feature panel, with notably 7" round headlights replacing the previous rectangular units; this new model range saw the end of the Charger R/T, which pretty much coincided with Chrysler having withdrawn from participation in Australian touring car racing at the end of the 1972 season. However, the essential eleme