The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran from 1501 to 1736. The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, established in the city of Ardabil in the Azerbaijan region, it was an Iranian dynasty of Kurdish origin but during their rule they intermarried with Turkoman, Georgian and Pontic Greek dignitaries. From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over parts of Greater Iran and reasserted the Iranian identity of the region, thus becoming the first native dynasty since the Sasanian Empire to establish a national state known as Iran; the Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 and, at their height, they controlled all of what is now Iran, Azerbaijan Republic, Armenia, eastern Georgia, parts of the North Caucasus, Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Pakistan and Uzbekistan. Despite their demise in 1736, the legacy that they left behind was the revival of Iran as an economic stronghold between East and West, the establishment of an efficient state and bureaucracy based upon "checks and balances", their architectural innovations and their patronage for fine arts.
The Safavids have left their mark down to the present era by spreading Twelver Islam in Iran, as well as major parts of the Caucasus and Mesopotamia. The Safavid Kings themselves claimed to be sayyids, family descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, although many scholars have cast doubt on this claim. There seems now to be a consensus among scholars that the Safavid family hailed from Iranian Kurdistan, moved to Azerbaijan settling in the 11th century CE at Ardabil. Traditional pre-1501 Safavid manuscripts trace the lineage of the Safavids to the Kurdish dignitary, Firuz-Shah Zarrin-Kolah. According to historians, including Vladimir Minorsky and Roger Savory, the Safavids were of Turkicized Iranian origin: From the evidence available at the present time, it is certain that the Safavid family was of indigenous Iranian stock, not of Turkish ancestry as it is sometimes claimed, it is probable that the family originated in Persian Kurdistan, moved to Azerbaijan, where they adopted the Azari form of Turkish spoken there, settled in the small town of Ardabil sometimes during the eleventh century.
By the time of the establishment of the Safavid empire, the members of the family were Turkicized and Turkish-speaking, some of the Shahs composed poems in their then-native Turkish language. Concurrently, the Shahs themselves supported Persian literature and art projects including the grand Shahnameh of Shah Tahmasp, while members of the family and some Shahs composed Persian poetry as well; the authority of the Safavids was religiously based, their claim to legitimacy was founded on being direct male descendants of Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, regarded by the Shiʻa as the first Imam. Furthermore, the dynasty was from the start intermarried with both Pontic Greek as well as Georgian lines. In addition, from the official establishment of the dynasty in 1501, the dynasty would continue to have many intermarriages with both Circassian as well as again Georgian dignitaries with the accession of Tahmasp I. Ismail I 1501–1524 Tahmasp I 1524–1576 Ismail II 1576–1578 Mohammad Khodabanda 1578–1587 Abbas I 1587–1629 Safi 1629–1642 Abbas II 1642–1666 Suleiman I 1666–1694 Sultan Husayn I 1694–1722 Tahmasp II 1722–1732 Ahmad I 1725–1728 Abbas III 1732–1736 The Safavid family was a literate family from its early origin.
There are extant Tati and Persian poetry from Shaykh Safi ad-din Ardabili as well as extant Persian poetry from Shaykh Sadr ad-din. Most of the extant poetry of Shah Ismail I is in Azerbaijani pen-name of Khatai. Sam Mirza, the son of Shah Esmail as well as some authors assert that Ismail composed poems both in Turkish and Persian but only a few specimens of his Persian verse have survived. A collection of his poems in Azeri were published as a Divan. Shah Tahmasp who has composed poetry in Persian was a painter, while Shah Abbas II was known as a poet, writing Azerbaijani verses. Sam Mirza, the son of Ismail I was himself a poet and composed his poetry in Persian, he compiled an anthology of contemporary poetry. Persianate states List of Shi'a Muslim dynasties Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam Khanates of the Caucasus Safavid art Blow, David. Shah Abbas: The Ruthless King Who Became an Iranian Legend. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-0857716767. Jackson, Peter; the Timurid and Safavid Periods. The Cambridge History of Iran.
6. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521200943. Khanbaghi, Aptin; the Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early Modern Iran. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1845110567. Mikaberidze, Alexander. Historical Dictionary of Georgia. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1442241466. Savory, Roger. Iran under the Safavids. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521042512. Sicker, Martin; the Islamic World in Decline: From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0275968915. Yarshater, Ehsan. Encyclopædia Iranica. Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0933273566. Christoph Marcinkowski,Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia and Early Ottoman Turkey, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971-77-488-7. Christoph Marcinkowski,Mirza Rafi‘a's Dastur al-Muluk: A Manual of Later Safavid Administration. Annotated English Translation, Comments
Daejeon Subway Line 1 is the fourth subway system in Busan, Daegu and other areas outside the Seoul metropolitan area. The subway line is located in South Korea, its line color is ● green. It is 22.6 km long with 22 stations. It is the first of five planned lines for the Daejeon Metropolitan Subway; the first section was opened on March 16, 2006, the second on April 17, 2007. The track leads from Banseok Station in Yuseong-gu to Panam Station in Dong-gu. 2029 is the tentative opening date of a 14-kilometer extension from Banseok to Government Complex Sejong In 1991, the Daejeon Metropolitan City Urban Railway Construction Plan was established. In January 1994, the Subway Planning Unit was established. In February 1996, the basic plan for subway construction, which links the old city center of Daejeon metropolitan city with the new city center, was confirmed; the subway construction headquarters was established in April 1996, construction of the first line of Daejeon subway line was started in October of the same year.
Adjudin is a drug, under development as a potential non-hormonal male contraceptive drug, which acts by blocking the production of sperm in the testes, but without affecting testosterone production. It is an analogue of the chemotherapy drug lonidamine, an indazole-carboxylic acid, further studies continue to be conducted into this family of drugs as possible contraceptives; as of 1 May 2007, adjudin was in phase II human trials. As shown in mature male rats, the agent induces reversible germ cell loss from the seminiferous epithelium by disrupting cell adhesion function between Sertoli and germ cells, it weakens the adhesion between the Sertoli cell and maturing sperm leading to a sloughing and loss of the latter. As it does not affect spermatogonia themselves the loss of fertility is reversible. In experiments hormonal levels were undisturbed during administration, normal spermatogenesis returned in 95% of the tubules of rats at 210 days after the drug had been discontinued; when taken orally, the drug has low bioavailability.
The oral dose effective for contraception is so high that there have been side effects in the muscles and liver. Coupling an Adjudin molecule to a mutant form of follicle-stimulating hormone may solve this problem; the mutant FSH is modified such that it no longer induces Inhibin B production, but the membrane-bound FSH receptors on Sertoli cells still bind to it, delivering the Adjudin directly to the target cells. The adjudin-FSH can be delivered in an implant, or as a gel. A study in 2013 indicated that Adjudin, similar to its analogue lonidamine, has properties that inhibit cancer growth by targeting mitochondria and blocking energy metabolism in certain kinds of tumor cells in mice, indicating that it has potential as a drug for cancer therapy, it was invented by Chuen Yan Cheng. "Trials for alternative male Pill show no side-effects" at the Independent "Sperm-stopping male pill hope" at BBC News Adjudin at MaleContraceptives.org