Safe sex

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Male (or external) condoms can be used to cover the penis, fingers, or other body parts for safer sex.
Dental dams can be used to cover the vulva or anus when engaging in cunnilingus and/or anilingus for safer sex.
Internal (or female condoms) can be used by receptive partners for safer sex.

Safe sex is sexual activity using methods or devices (such as condoms) to reduce the risk of transmitting or acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially HIV.[1] Safe sex is also sometimes referred to as safer sex or protected sex to indicate that some safe sex practices do not completely eliminate STI risks.

The concept of safe sex emerged in the 1980s as a response to the global AIDS epidemic. Promoting safe sex is now one of the aims of sex education and STI prevention, especially reducing new HIV infections. Safe sex is regarded as a harm reduction strategy aimed at reducing risks of STI transmission.[2][3]

Although some safe sex practices (like condoms can also be used as birth control (contraception), most forms of contraception do not protect against STIs. Likewise, some safe sex practices, like partner selection and low-risk sex behavior, may not be effective forms of contraception.

History[edit]

The term safer sex in Canada and the United States has gained greater use by health workers, reflecting that risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections in various sexual activities is a continuum. The term safe sex is still in common use in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand.[citation needed]

Although safe sex is used by individuals to refer to protection against both pregnancy and HIV/AIDS or other STI transmissions, the term was born in response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It is believed that the term safe sex was used in the professional literature in 1984, in the content of a paper on the psychological effect that HIV/AIDS may have on homosexual men. The term was related with the need to develop educational programs for the group considered at risk, homosexual men.[citation needed]

A year later, the same term appeared in an article in The New York Times. This article emphasized that most specialists advised their AIDS patients to practice safe sex. The concept included limiting the number of sexual partners, using prophylactics, avoiding bodily fluid exchange, and resisting the use of drugs that reduced inhibitions for high-risk sexual behavior.[4] Moreover, in 1985, the first safe sex guidelines were established by the 'Coalition for Sexual Responsibilities'.[who?] According to these guidelines, safe sex was practiced by using condoms also when engaging in anal or oral sex.[citation needed]

Although the term safe sex was primarily used in reference to the sexual activity of homosexual men, in 1986 the concept was spread to the general population. Various programs were developed with the aim of promoting safe sex practices among college students. These programs were focused on promoting the use of the condom, a better knowledge about the partner's sexual history and limiting the number of sexual partners. The first book on this subject appeared in the same year. The book was entitled "Safe Sex in the Age of AIDS", it had 88 pages and it described both positive and negative approaches to sexual life.[citation needed] Sexual behavior could be either safe (kissing, hugging, massage, body-to-body rubbing, mutual masturbation, exhibitionism, phone sex, and use of separate sex toys); possibly safe (use of condoms); and unsafe.[4]

In 1997, specialists in this matter promoted the use of condoms as the most accessible safe sex method (besides abstinence) and they called for TV commercials featuring condoms. During the same year, the Catholic Church in the United States issued their own "safer sex" guidelines on which condoms were listed, though two years later the Vatican urged chastity and heterosexual marriage, attacking the American Catholic bishops' guidelines.

A study carried out in 2006 by Californian specialists showed that the most common definitions of safe sex are condom use (68% of the interviewed subjects), abstinence (31.1% of the interviewed subjects), monogamy (28.4% of the interviewed subjects) and safe partner (18.7% of the interviewed subjects).[4]

"Safer sex" is thought to be a more aggressive term which may make it more obvious to individuals that any type of sexual activity carries a certain degree of risk.

The term safe love has also been used, notably by the French Sidaction in the promotion of men's underpants incorporating a condom pocket and including the red ribbon symbol in the design, which were sold to support the charity.

Safer sex practices[edit]

A shunga print by Kunisada depicting female mutual or partnered masturbation.

Phone sex/cybersex/sexting[edit]

Sexual activities, such as phone sex,cybersex, and sexting, that do not include direct contact with the skin or bodily fluids of sexual partners, carries no risk of STI transmission or pregnancy and, thus, are forms of safe sex.[5]

Masturbation[edit]

Masturbation is the pleasurable manipulation of one's own genitals and erogenous zones usually to orgasm. Solo or solitary masturbation carries no risk of STI transmission or pregnancy. Thus, it is a form of safe sex. However, mutual or partnered masturbation, carries some STI risk, especially if there is skin contact or shared bodily fluids with sexual partners. Thus, mutual or partnered masturbation is considered a form of safer sex. Risks are significantly lower than many other sexual activities but not entirely risk-free.[5]

Non-penetrative sex[edit]

A range of sex acts, sometimes called "outercourse", can be enjoyed with significantly reduced risks of infection or pregnancy. U.S. President Bill Clinton's surgeon general, Joycelyn Elders, tried to encourage the use of these practices among young people, but her position encountered opposition from a number of outlets, including the White House itself, and resulted in her being fired by President Clinton in December 1994.[6][7][8]

Non-penetrative sex includes practices such as kissing, mutual masturbation, rubbing or stroking and, according to the Health Department of Western Australia, this sexual practice may prevent pregnancy and most STIs. However, non-penetrative sex may not protect against infections that can be transmitted skin-to-skin such as herpes and genital warts.[9]

Condoms, dental dams, gloves[edit]

Various protective devices are used to avoid contact with blood, vaginal fluid, semen or other contaminant agents (like skin, hair and shared objects) during sexual activity. Sexual activity using these devices is called protected sex.

How to put on a male condom
  • Condoms cover the penis during sexual activity. They are most frequently made of latex, and can also be made out of synthetic materials including polyurethane.
  • Female condoms are inserted into the vagina prior to intercourse. Male and female condoms shouldn't be used together, as the friction of the two rubbing together can compromise the effectiveness of both.
  • A dental dam (originally used in dentistry) is a sheet of latex used for protection when engaging in oral sex. It is typically used as a barrier between the mouth and the vulva during cunnilingus or between the mouth and the anus during anal–oral sex.
  • Medical gloves made out of latex, vinyl, nitrile, or polyurethane may be used as a makeshift dental dam during oral sex, or to protect the hands during sexual stimulation, such as masturbation. Hands may have invisible cuts on them that may admit pathogens or contaminate the other body part or partner.
  • Another way to protect against pathogen transmission is the use of protected or properly cleaned dildos and other sex toys. If a sex toy is to be used in more than one orifice or partner, a condom can be used over it and changed when the toy is moved.

When latex barriers are used, oil-based lubrication can break down the structure of the latex and remove the protection it provides.

Limitations of condoms[edit]

While the use of condoms can reduce transmission of HIV and other infectious agents, it does not do so completely. One study has suggested condoms might reduce HIV transmission by 85% to 95%; effectiveness beyond 95% was deemed unlikely because of slippage, breakage, and incorrect use.[10] It also said, "In practice, inconsistent use may reduce the overall effectiveness of condoms to as low as 60–70%".[10]p. 40.

During each act of anal intercourse, the risk of the receptive partner acquiring HIV from HIV seropositive partners not using condoms is about 1 in 120. Among people using condoms, the receptive partner's risk declines to 1 in 550, a four- to fivefold reduction.[11] Where the partner's HIV status is unknown, "Estimated per-contact risk of protected receptive anal intercourse with HIV-positive and unknown serostatus partners, including episodes in which condoms failed, was two thirds the risk of unprotected receptive anal intercourse with the comparable set of partners."[11]p. 310.

In March 2013, Bill Gates offered a US$100,000 grant through his foundation for a condom design that "significantly preserves or enhances pleasure" to encourage more males to adopt the use of condoms for safer sex. The grant information states: “The primary drawback from the male perspective is that condoms decrease pleasure as compared to no condom, creating a trade-off that many men find unacceptable... Is it possible to develop a product without this stigma, or better, one that is felt to enhance pleasure?” The project has been named the "Next Generation Condom".[12] After a few promising prototypes were made with the grant, the condom designers found it takes years and millions of dollars to get them approved by the FDA, so no new product will be ready in the near future.[13]


Condoms (male or female) are used to protect against STIs, and used with other forms of contraception to improve contraceptive effectiveness. For example, simultaneously using both the male condom and spermicide (applied separately, not pre-lubricated) is believed to reduce perfect-use pregnancy rates to those seen among implant users.[14] However, if two condoms are used simultaneously (male condom on top of male condom, or male condom inside female condom), this increases the chance of condom failure.[15][16]

Proper use of barriers, such as condoms, depends on the cleanliness of surfaces of the barrier, handling can pass contamination to and from surfaces of the barrier unless care is taken.

Studies of latex condom performance during use reported breakage and slippage rates varying from 1.46% to 18.60%.[17] Condoms must be put on before any bodily fluid could be exchanged, and they must be used also during oral sex.[18]

Female condoms are made of two flexible polyurethane rings and a loose-fitting polyurethane sheath.[17] According to laboratory testing, female condoms are effective in preventing the leakage of body fluids and therefore the transmission of STIs and HIV. Several studies show that between 50% and 73% of women who have used this type of condoms during intercourse find them as or more comfortable than male condoms. On the other hand, acceptability of these condoms among the male population is somewhat less, at approximately 40%. Because the cost of female condoms is higher than male condoms, there have been studies carried out with the aim of detecting whether they can be reused. Research has shown that structural integrity of polyurethane female condoms is not damaged during up to five uses if it is disinfected with water and household bleach. However, regardless of this study, specialists still recommend that female condoms be used only once and then discarded.

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)[edit]

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (often abbreviated as PrEP) is the use of prescription drugs by those who do not have HIV to prevent HIV infection. PrEP drugs are taken prior to HIV exposure to prevent the transmission of the virus, usually between sexual partners. PrEP drugs do not prevent other STI infections or pregnancy.

As of 2018, the most-widely approved form of PrEP combines two drugs (tenofovir and emtricitabine) in one pill. That drug combination is licensed sold under the brand name Truvada by Gilead Sciences. It is also sold in generic formulations worldwide, and other drugs are being studied for use as PrEP. Different countries have approved different protocols for using the tenofovir/emtricitabine-combination drug as PrEP. That two-drug combination has been shown to prevent HIV infection in different populations when taken daily, intermittently, and on demand. Numerous studies have found the tenofovir/emtricitabine combination to be over 90% effective at preventing HIV transmission between sexual partners. [19]

Treatment as Prevention (TasP)[edit]

Treatment as Prevention (often abbreviated as TasP) is the practice of testing for and treating HIV infection as a way to prevent further transmission of HIV. Those having knowledge of their HIV-positive status can use safe-sex practices to protect themselves and their partners (such as using condoms, sero-sorting partners, or choosing less-risky sexual activities). And, because HIV-positive people with durably suppressed or undetectable amounts of HIV in their blood cannot transmit HIV to sexual partners, sexual activity with HIV-positive partners on effective treatment is a form of safe sex (to prevent HIV infection). This fact has given rise to the concept of "U=U" ("Undetectable = Untransmittable"). [20]

Other forms of safe sex[edit]

Other methods may also be used to prevent or eliminate STI and pregnancy risk during sexual activity.

  • Immunization against viruses that can be transmitted sexually. The most common vaccines are HPV vaccine, which protects against the most common types of human papillomavirus that can cause cervical cancer, penile cancer, and genital warts, and the Hepatitis B vaccine. Immunization before initiation of sexual activity increases effectiveness of these vaccines.
  • Limiting numbers of sexual partners, particularly casual sexual partners, or restricting sexual activity to those who know and honestly share their STI status, can also reduce risk of acquiring/transmitting an STI. Monogamy or polyfidelity, practiced faithfully, is very safe (as far as STIs are concerned) when all partners are non-infected. However, many monogamous people have been infected with sexually transmitted diseases by partners who are sexually unfaithful, have used injection drugs, or were infected by previous sexual partners. The same risks apply to polyfidelitous people, who face higher risks depending on how many people are in the polyfidelitous group.
  • Communication with sexual partners about sexual history and STI status, preferred safe sex practices, and acceptable risks for partnered sexual activities.
  • Engaging in less-risky sexual activities. In general, solo activities are less risky than partnered activities; penetration and shared body fluids are most risky.
  • Regular STI testing and treatment, especially by those who are sexually active with more than one casual sexual partner, can eliminate STI pathogens and prevent their spread to sexual partners.[21][22] Due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of pathogens that can be transmitted during sex, treatment failure is possible and additional and different medications may be necessary.[23]
  • Male circumcision and HIV: Some research has suggested that male circumcision can reduce the risk of HIV infection in some countries. The World Health Organization cites the procedure as a measure against the transmission of HIV between women and men; some African studies have found that circumcision can reduce the rate of transmission of HIV to men by up to 60%.[24] Some advocacy groups dispute these findings.[25][26] In sub-Saharan Africa, at least, condom use and behavior change programs are estimated to be more efficient and much more cost-effective than surgical procedures such as circumcision.[27]

Ineffective methods[edit]

Most methods of contraception are not effective at preventing the spread of STIs. This includes birth control pills, vasectomy, tubal ligation, periodic abstinence, [[IUD]s and many non-barrier methods of pregnancy prevention. However, condoms are highly effective for birth control and STI prevention.

The spermicide Nonoxynol-9 has been claimed to reduce the likelihood of STI transmission. However, a technical report[28] by the World Health Organization has shown that Nonoxynol-9 is an irritant and can produce tiny tears in mucous membranes, which may increase the risk of transmission by offering pathogens more easy points of entry into the system. They reported that Nonoxynol-9 lubricant do not have enough spermicide to increase contraceptive effectiveness cautioned they should not be promoted.[28]

The use of a diaphragm or contraceptive sponge provides some women with better protection against certain sexually transmitted diseases,[29] but they are not effective for all STIs.

Hormonal methods of preventing pregnancy (such as oral contraceptives [i.e. 'The pill'], depoprogesterone, hormonal IUDs, the vaginal ring, and the patch) offer no protection against STIs. The copper intrauterine device and the hormonal intrauterine device provide an up to 99% protection against pregnancies but no protection against STIs. Women with copper intrauterine device may be subject to greater risk of infection from bacterial infectious such as gonorrhea or chlamydia, although this is controversial.[30]

Coitus interruptus (or "pulling out"), in which the penis is removed from the vagina, anus, or mouth before ejaculation, may reduce transmission of STIs but still carries significant risk. This is because pre-ejaculate, a fluid that oozes from the penile urethra before ejaculation, may contain STI viruses and bacteria. Additionally, the microbes responsible for some diseases, including genital warts and syphilis, can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact or mucus membrane contact.

Abstinence[edit]

U.S. World War II anti-venereal disease poster.

Sexual abstinence is sometimes promoted as a way to avoid the risks associated with sexual contact, though STIs may also be transmitted through non-sexual means, or by involuntary sex. HIV may be transmitted through contaminated needles used in tattooing, body piercing, or injections. Medical or dental procedures using contaminated instruments can also spread HIV, while some health-care workers have acquired HIV through occupational exposure to accidental injuries with needles.[31] Evidence does not support the use of abstinence only sex education.[32] Abstinence-only education programs have been found to be ineffective in decreasing rates of HIV infection in the developed world[33] and unplanned pregnancy.[32]

Some groups, such as some Christian denominations, oppose sex outside marriage and therefore object to safe-sex education programs because they believe that providing such education promotes promiscuity. Virginity pledges and sexual abstinence education programs are often promoted in lieu of contraceptives and safe-sex education programs. This may entail exposing some teenagers to increased risk of sexually transmitted infections, because about 60 percent of teenagers who pledge virginity until marriage do engage in pre-marital sex and are then one-third less likely to use contraceptives than their peers who have received more conventional sex education.[34]

Anal sex[edit]

Unprotected anal penetration is considered a high-risk sexual activity because the thin tissues of the anus and rectum can be easily damaged.[35][36] Slight injuries can allow the passage of bacteria and viruses, including HIV. This includes penetration of the anus by fingers, hands, or sex toys such as [dildo]s. Also, condoms may be more likely to break during anal sex than during vaginal sex, increasing the risk of STI transmission.[37]

The main risk which individuals are exposed to when performing anal sex is the transmission of HIV. Other possible infections include Hepatitis A, B and C; intestinal parasite infections like Giardia; and bacterial infections such as Escherichia coli.[38]

Anal sex should be avoided by couples in which one of the partners has been diagnosed with an STI until the treatment has proven to be effective.

In order to make anal sex safer, the couple must ensure that the anal area is clean and the bowel empty and the partner on whom anal penetration occurs should be able to relax. Regardless of whether anal penetration occurs by using a finger or the penis, the condom is the best barrier method to prevent transmission of STI. Enemas should be not be used as they can increase the risk of HIV infection[39] and lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis.[40]

Since the rectum can be easily damaged, the use of lubricants is highly recommended even when penetration occurs by using the finger. Especially for beginners, using a condom on the finger is both a protection measure against STI and a lubricant source. Most condoms are lubricated and they allow less painful and easier penetration. Oil-based lubricants damage latex and should not be used with condoms;[41] water-based and silicone-based lubricants are available instead. Non-latex condoms are available for people who are allergic to latex made out of polyurethane or polyisoprene.[42] Polyurethane condoms can safely be used with oil-based lubricant.[43] The "female condom" may also be used effectively by the anal receiving partner.

Anal stimulation with a sex toy requires similar safety measures to anal penetration with a penis, in this case using a condom on the sex toy in a similar way.

It is important that the man washes and cleans his penis after anal intercourse if he intends to penetrate the vagina. Bacteria from the rectum are easily transferred to the vagina, which may cause vaginal and urinary tract infections.[44]

When anal-oral contact occurs, protection is required since this is a risky sexual behavior in which illnesses as Hepatitis A or STIs can be easily transmitted, as well as enteric infections. The dental dam or the plastic wrap[45] are effective protection means whenever anilingus is performed.

Sex toys[edit]

Two sex toys intended for anal use (note the flared bases)

Putting a condom on a sex toy provides better sexual hygiene and can help to prevent transmission of infections if the sex toy is shared, provided the condom is replaced when used by a different partner. Some sex toys are made of porous materials, and pores retain viruses and bacteria, which makes it necessary to clean sex toys thoroughly, preferably with use of cleaners specifically for sex toys. Glass is non-porous and medical grade glass sex toys more easily sterilized between uses.[46]

In cases in which one of the partners is treated for an STI, it is recommended that the couple not use sex toys until the treatment has proved to be effective.

All sex toys have to be properly cleaned after use. The way in which a sex toy is cleaned varies on the type of material it is made of. Some sex toys can be boiled or cleaned in a dishwasher. Most of the sex toys come with advice on the best way to clean and store them and these instructions should be carefully followed.[47] A sex toy should be cleaned not only when it is shared with other individuals but also when it is used on different parts of the body (such as mouth, vagina or anus).

A sex toy should regularly be checked for scratches or breaks that can be breeding ground for bacteria. It is best if the damaged sex toy is replaced by a new undamaged one. Even more hygiene protection should be considered by pregnant women when using sex toys. Sharing any type of sex toy that may draw blood, like whips or needles, is not recommended, and is not safe.[48]

When using sex toys in the anus, sex toys "...can easily get lost" as "rectal muscles contract and can suck an object up and up, potentially obstructing the colon"; to prevent this serious problem, sex toy users are advised to use sex "...toys with a flared base or a string".[49]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Compact Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 2009, Accessed 23 September 2009
  2. ^ "Global strategy for the prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections: 2006–2015. Breaking the chain of transmission" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2007. Retrieved 26 November 2011. 
  3. ^ Chin, H. B.; Sipe, T. A.; Elder, R.; Mercer, S. L.; Chattopadhyay, S. K.; Jacob, V.; Wethington, H. R.; Kirby, D.; et al. (2012). "The Effectiveness of Group-Based Comprehensive Risk-Reduction and Abstinence Education Interventions to Prevent or Reduce the Risk of Adolescent Pregnancy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Sexually Transmitted Infections". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 42 (3): 272–294. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.11.006. PMID 22341164. 
  4. ^ a b c "How Do Californians Define Safe Sex?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 August 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2010. 
  5. ^ a b "Safer Sex ("Safe Sex")". Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  6. ^ "Getting Out the Wrecking Ball". Time. 19 December 1994. Retrieved 8 March 2009. 
  7. ^ Dash, Leon (1997). "Joycelyn Elders: From Sharecropper's Daughter to Surgeon General of the United States of America. - book reviews". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on 17 March 2008. 
  8. ^ Mitchell, Alison (6 November 1996). "President Clinton Makes a Celebratory Return to His Starting Point in Arkansas". New York Times. Retrieved 8 March 2009. 
  9. ^ "STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases)". Retrieved 23 January 2014. 
  10. ^ a b Varghese, B; Maher, JE; Peterman, TA; Branson, BM; Steketee, RW (2002). "Reducing the risk of sexual HIV transmission: quantifying the per-act risk for HIV on the basis of choice of partner, sex act, and condom use" (PDF). Sex Transm Dis. 29 (1): 38–43. doi:10.1097/00007435-200201000-00007. PMID 11773877. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2011. 
  11. ^ a b Vittinghoff, E; Douglas, J; Judson, F; McKirnan, D; MacQueen, K; Buchbinder, SP (1999). "Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners". Am J Epidemiol. 150 (3): 306–11. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a010003. PMID 10430236. 
  12. ^ Chasmar, Jessica (24 March 2013). "Bill Gates offers $100,000 grant for improved condoms". The Washington Times. Retrieved 2 May 2013. 
  13. ^ 2 Years Later, Here's What Happened to Bill Gates' Condoms of the Future Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  14. ^ Kestelman, P; Trussell, J (1991). "Efficacy of the simultaneous use of condoms and spermicides". Fam Plann Perspect. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 23, No. 5. 23 (5): 226–232. doi:10.2307/2135759. JSTOR 2135759. PMID 1743276. 
  15. ^ "Does using two condoms provide more protection than using just one condom?". Condoms and Dental Dams. New York University Student Health Center. Retrieved 30 June 2008. 
  16. ^ "Are two condoms better than one?". Go Ask Alice!. Columbia University. 21 January 2005. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008. 
  17. ^ a b "Methods to Prevent Sexual Transmission of HIV". Retrieved 28 July 2010. 
  18. ^ "Sexual Health Education". Archived from the original on 8 July 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2010. 
  19. ^ "Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 19 September 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
  20. ^ "U=U". Prevention Access Campaign. 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2018. 
  21. ^ Kahn, J. O.; Walker, B. D. (1998). "Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 infection". N. Engl. J. Med. 339 (1): 33–39. doi:10.1056/NEJM199807023390107. PMID 9647878. 
  22. ^ Daar E, Little S, Pitt J, et al. (2001). "Diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection. Los Angeles County Primary HIV Infection Recruitment Network". Ann. Intern. Med. 134 (1): 25–9. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-134-1-200101020-00010. PMID 11187417. 
  23. ^ Baarda, Benjamin I.; Sikora, Aleksandra E. (2015). "Proteomics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: the treasure hunt for countermeasures against an old disease". Frontiers in Microbiology. 6. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.01190. ISSN 1664-302X; Access provided by the University of Pittsburgh. 
  24. ^ "WHO agrees HIV circumcision plan". BBC World News. BBC. 3 March 2007. Retrieved 12 July 2008. 
  25. ^ "Circumcision and HIV - the Randomised Controlled Trials". www.circumstitions.com. 
  26. ^ "Circumcision and AIDS". Archived from the original on 23 July 2008. 
  27. ^ Mcallister, R.G.; Travis, J.W.; Bollinger, D; Rutiser, C; Sundar, V (Fall 2008). "The cost to circumcise Africa". International Journal of Men's Health. Men's Studies Press. 7 (3): 307–316. doi:10.3149/jmh.0703.307. ISSN 1532-6306. 
  28. ^ a b "Technical Consultation on Nonoxynol-9" (PDF). WHO. October 2001. Retrieved 2018-03-10. 
  29. ^ Fackelmann, Kathy A. (1992). "Diaphragm and sponge protect against STDs - sexually transmitted diseases". Science News. Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 5 April 2010. 
  30. ^ Hubacher, David (November 2014). "Intrauterine devices & infection: Review of the literature". The Indian Journal of Medical Research. 140 (Suppl 1): S53–S57. PMC 4345753Freely accessible. PMID 25673543. 
  31. ^ Do, A.N.; Ciesielski, C.A.; Metler, R.P.; Hammett, T.A.; Li, J; Fleming, P.L. (2003). "Occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: national case surveillance data during 20 years of the HIV epidemic in the United States". Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 24 (2): 86–96. doi:10.1086/502178. PMID 12602690. 
  32. ^ a b Ott, M.A.; Santelli, J.S. (October 2007). "Abstinence and abstinence-only education". Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 19 (5): 446–52. doi:10.1097/GCO.0b013e3282efdc0b. PMID 17885460. 
  33. ^ Underhill, K; Operario, D; Montgomery, P (17 October 2007). Operario, Don, ed. "Abstinence-only programs for HIV infection prevention in high-income countries". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD005421. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005421.pub2. PMID 17943855. 
  34. ^ "Recent Findings from The 'Add Health' Survey: Teens and Sexual Activity". 22 September 2004. 
  35. ^ Dean, John; Delvin, David. "Anal sex". Netdoctor.co.uk. Retrieved 29 April 2010. 
  36. ^ Voeller B. AIDS and heterosexual anal intercourse. Arch Sex Behav 1991; 20:233–276. as cited in Leichliter, Jami S. PhD, "Heterosexual Anal Sex: Part of an Expanding Sexual Repertoire?" in Sexually Transmitted Diseases: November 2008 – Volume 35 – Issue 11 – pp 910–911 [1] Accessed 26 January 2010
  37. ^ "Can I get HIV from anal sex?". Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  38. ^ "Anal Sex". CDC. Retrieved 2018-03-10. 
  39. ^ Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Bauermeister, José A.; Ventuneac, Ana; Dolezal, Curtis; Balan, Ivan; Remien, Robert H. (2008-11-01). "The Use of Rectal Douches among HIV-uninfected and Infected Men who Have Unprotected Receptive Anal Intercourse: Implications for Rectal Microbicides". AIDS and Behavior. 12 (6): 860–866. doi:10.1007/s10461-007-9301-0. ISSN 1090-7165. PMC 2953367Freely accessible. 
  40. ^ de Vries, Henry J. C.; van der Bij, Akke K.; Fennema, Johan S. A.; Smit, Colette; de Wolf, Frank; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A.; MorrÉ, Servaas A. (February 2008). "Lymphogranuloma Venereum Proctitis in Men Who Have Sex With Men Is Associated With Anal Enema Use and High-Risk Behavior". Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 35 (2): 203. doi:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e31815abb08. ISSN 0148-5717. 
  41. ^ Steiner, M.; Piedrahita, C.; Glover, L.; Joanis, C.; Spruyt, A.; Foldesy, R. (1993). "The impact of lubricants on latex condoms during vaginal intercourse" (PDF). International Journal of STD and AIDS. 5 (1): 29–36. doi:10.1177/095646249400500108. 
  42. ^ "Condoms". NHS. Retrieved 2018-03-10. 
  43. ^ "Clinical Prevention Guidance - 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines". www.cdc.gov. 2017-10-10. Retrieved 2018-03-10. 
  44. ^ "Anal Sex - Facts and Safe Sex Information". Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 5 April 2010. 
  45. ^ Van Dyk, Alta C. (2008). HIVAIDS care & counselling : a multidisciplinary approach (4th ed.). Cape Town: Pearson Education South Africa. p. 157. ISBN 9781770251717. OCLC 225855360. 
  46. ^ "The Safety Dance: Sex Toy Safety for a New Generation". Kinsey Confidential. Retrieved 2017-05-09. 
  47. ^ "Are sex toys safe?". Retrieved 31 March 2010. 
  48. ^ Choices, N. H. S. "Are sex toys safe? - Health questions - NHS Choices". 
  49. ^ Nuzzo, Regina. "Good Vibrations: U.S. Consumer Web Site Aims to Enhance Sex Toy Safety". 

External links[edit]