Safran S. A. is a French multinational aircraft engine, rocket engine, aerospace-component and defense company. It was formed by a merger between the aircraft and rocket engine manufacturer and aerospace component manufacturer group SNECMA and the security company SAGEM in 2005. In 2018 Safran took control of Zodiac Aerospace expanding its aircraft equipment activities, its headquarters are located in Paris. Employing over 91,000 people and generating 24.64 billion euros in sales in 2019, Safran operates in the aircraft propulsion and equipment and defense markets. The company is listed on the Euronext stock exchange and is part of the CAC 40 and Euro Stoxx 50 indices; the name Safran was chosen including 1,750 proposed by employees. As a holding company for many subsidiaries, the name was deemed suitable for the suggestion of direction and strategy. Safran translates as rudder blade and as saffron, which the company highlights as one of the catalysts for early international trade. In 1905 Louis Seguin created the company Gnome.
Production of the first rotary engine for airplanes, the Gnome Omega, started in 1909. This company merged with the Le Rhône, a company created in 1912 by Louis Verdet, to form the Gnome et Rhône engine company. Gnome & Rhône was nationalized in 1945. In 2000, this company gave its name to the “Snecma Group”, carried out a number of acquisitions to form a larger group with an array of complementary businesses. Sagem was created in 1925 by Marcel Môme. In 1939, Sagem entered the telephone and transmissions market by taking control of Société anonyme des télécommunications, it acquired Société de Fabrication d’Instruments de Mesure, a measurement instrument specialist, in 1999. However, by 2008 Sagem Mobile and Sagem Communications had been sold. Sagem Mobile became Sagem Wireless in January 2009; the Safran Group was created on May 11, 2005, with the merger of Snecma and Sagem SA. In June 2014, Arianespace CEO Stephane Israel announced that European efforts to remain competitive in response to SpaceX's recent success have begun in earnest.
This included the creation of a new joint venture company from Arianespace's two largest shareholders: the launch-vehicle producer Airbus and engine-producer Safran. By May 2015, Safran had created with Airbus Group a launcher joint venture called Airbus Safran Launchers; this entity is developing the Ariane 6 launch vehicle for initial flights in the 2020s. In January 2017, Safran initiated a takeover of the aircraft interior supplier Zodiac Aerospace to create the third largest aerospace supplier with $22.5 billion revenue, behind United Technologies with $28.2 billion and GE Aviation with $24.7 billion. In May 2017, Safran announced the completion of the sale of its identity and security activities to Advent International for Euro 2.4 billion. In February 2018, Safran took control of Zodiac Aerospace expanding its aircraft equipment activities. Zodiac Aerospace has 32,500 employees and generated sales of 5.1 billion euros for its fiscal year ended August 31, 2017. On June 4, 2018, Boeing and Safran announced their 50-50 partnership to design and service APUs after regulatory and antitrust clearance in the second-half of 2018.
This could threaten the dominance of United Technologies. The Safran group is divided into three main branches: The aerospace propulsion branch groups all operations concerning the propulsion of aeroplanes, helicopters and launchers, for the civil aviation, military aviation, space markets: design, marketing, maintenance and overhaul. Safran Aircraft Engines Commercial & military engines, liquid propulsion for space launchers Safran Helicopter Engines Turboshaft engines for helicopters Jet engines for training and support aircraft Turbines for missiles and drones APU. Safran provides APU systems since 1962. Safran Aero Boosters Components for aircraft and rocket engines Safran Transmission Systems Power transmissions for aircraft engines ArianeGroup Solid rocket motors for launchers and tactical missiles Thermostructural composite materialsAt the October 2018 NBAA convention, Safran presented its ENGINeUS electric motor range up to 500 kW designed for electric aircraft, starting with a 45 kW one with integrated control electronics, with an energy efficiency of over 94% and a power-to-weight ratio of 2.5 kW / kg at 2,500rpm and 172 N⋅m of torque, for a 18 kg weight with the controller, 12 kg without.
Flight-testing may happen in 2019 or 2020. Cenco Smartec SMA Engines Snecma Services Brussels Snecma Suzhou Snecma Xinyi Airfoil Castings The aircraft equipment branch groups all design, production and support operations for systems and equipment used by civil and military airplanes and helicopters. Safran Landing Systems Landing gear design and support Wheels and carbon brakes for mainline commercial jets Braking control and hydraulic systems Safran Nacelles Commercial airplane engine nacelles and thrust reversers Safran Electrical & Power Aircraft wiring and power distribution Safran Electronics & Defense Technologies and services in optronics, avionics and safety-critical software Safran Aerosystems Equipment and systems in fluid management and security Safran Engineering Services Engineering and consulting company Safran Cabin Cabin interiors Safran Seats Passenger and technical seats Safran Passenger Solutions Cabin eq
TV 2 is a Norwegian free-to-air television channel. Its headquarters are located in Bergen. TV 2 began test broadcasting on 13 November 1991, a year it was launched on 5 September 1992, became Norway's first commercial free-to-air television channel. In 1992, TV 2 A/S was admitted as full active member of the European Broadcasting Union; as is common with television in Norway, most foreign-language shows and segments of local programmes with foreign language dialogues are subtitled in Norwegian, not dubbed. Since 2012, TV 2 is owned by one of its co-founders, the Copenhagen-based Scandinavian media company Egmont Group. TV 2 started broadcasting in high-definition on 25 June 2009; the channel was only available on the terrestrial RiksTV platform. The first programme broadcast in HD was Allsang på grensen. Other broadcasts in HD during 2009 include Tour de France and Saturday movies, Sunday night football, Jakten på kjærligheten, Skal vi danse and American series such as Grey's Anatomy, Scrubs, Brothers & Sisters, Modern Family and Criminal Minds.
TV2 produces original programming, including the award-winning show Gylne tider. TV 2 HD is transmitted in 720p50. List of Norwegian television channels List of programmes broadcast by TV 2 TV 2 Nyhetene Official website Television schedule
Sleep debt or sleep deficit is the cumulative effect of not getting enough sleep. A large sleep debt may lead to physical fatigue. There are two kinds of sleep debt: the results of partial sleep deprivation and total sleep deprivation. Partial sleep deprivation occurs when a person or a lab animal sleeps too little for several days or weeks. Total sleep deprivation means being kept awake for at least 24 hours. There is debate in the scientific community over the specifics of sleep debt, it is not considered to be a disorder, it has been found that there are 80 proteins in the brain, called "sleep need index phosphoproteins", which become more and more phosphorylated during waking hours, are dephosphorylated during sleep. The phosphorylation is aided by a protein called Sik3. There is a kind of mutant mouse called Sleepy with a mutated version of this protein, more active than the normal version, resulting in the mice being sleepy and showing more slow-wave activity during non-REM sleep, the best measurable index of sleep need known.
Inhibiting Sik3 decreases phosphorylation and slow-wave activity in both mutant mice. Chronic sleep debt has a substantial health impact on the human body on metabolic and endocrine functions. A study published in The Lancet investigated the physiological effects of sleep debt by assessing the sympathovagal balance, thyrotropic function, HPA axis activity as well as the carbohydrate metabolism of 11 young adult males whose sleep period for six nights was either restricted to four hours per night or extended to 12 hours in bed per night. Results revealed that in the sleep-debt condition, thyrotropin concentrations were decreased while lowered glucose and insulin responses indicated a clear impairment of carbohydrate tolerance, a 30% decrease than in the well-rested sleep condition. On the other hand, males who were sleep-restricted showed elevated concentrations of evening cortisol and elevated sympathetic nervous system activity in comparison to those who enjoyed a full sleep, over a period of 6 nights.
Chronic sleep debt has a detrimental impact on human physiological functioning and can disrupt immune and metabolic function while increasing the severity of cardiovascular and age-related illnesses over a period of time. Accumulated and continuous short-term sleep deficit has been shown to increase and intensify psychophsyiological reactions in humans to emotional stimuli; the amygdala plays a strong functional role in the expression of negative emotions such as fear, through its anatomical connections with the medial prefrontal cortex has an important function in subjective suppression of and the reframing and reappraisal of negative emotions. A study assessing sleep deficit in young Japanese men over a 5-day period during which they slept only 4 hours per day showed that there was greater left amygdala activation to fearful faces but not happy faces, an overall subjective mood deterioration; as a result short-term continuous sleep debt, or deprivation, has been shown to reduce this functional relationship between the amygdala and mPFC, inducing negative mood changes through increased fear and anxiety to unpleasant emotional stimuli and events.
Thus, a full and uninterrupted 7-hour sleep is crucial for the proper functioning of the amygdala in modulating an individual's mood states by reducing negative emotional intensities and increasing reactivity to positive emotional stimuli. Epidemiological research has solidified the association between sleep debt and/or deprivation and obesity as a result of an elevated body mass index through various ways such as disruptions in the hormones leptin and ghrelin that regulate appetite, higher food consumption and poor diets, a decrease in overall calorie burning. However, in recent years, multimedia usage such as internet and television consumption that play an active role in sleep deficit has been linked to obesity by provoking unhealthy sedentary lifestyles and habits as well as higher food consumption. Moreover, work-related behaviors such as long working and commuting hours and irregular work timings such as during shift work functions as a contributing factor to overweight and obesity as a result of shorter sleeping periods.
In comparison to adults, children exhibit a more consistent association between sleep debt and obesity. Several studies have shown that sleep duration sleep deficit or shorter sleep duration, has an effect on mortality, whether it be weekdays or weekends. In people aged 65 years and younger, a daily sleep duration of 5 hours or less during weekends correlated with a 52% higher mortality rate compared to a control group who slept for 7 hours. Consistent weekday sleep debt exhibited a detrimental association with mortality and morbidity, but this effect was negated when compensated with long sleep during weekends. However, the harmful consequences of sleep debt over weekdays and weekends was not seen in individuals aged 65 years and older. There is debate among researchers as to whether the concept of sleep debt describes a measurable phenomenon; the September 2004 issue of the journal Sleep contains dueling editorials from two leading sleep researchers, David F. Dinges and Jim Horne. A 1997 experiment conducted by psychiatrists at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine suggested that cumulative nocturnal sleep debt affects daytime sleepiness on the first, second and seventh days of sleep restriction.
In one study, subjects were tested using the psychomotor vigilance task. Different groups of people were tested with different sleep times for two wee