A schooner is a type of sailing vessel with fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts. The most common type has the foremast being shorter than the main. While the schooner was gaff-rigged, modern schooners carry a Bermuda rig; the first detailed definition of a schooner, describing the vessel as two-masted vessel with fore and aft gaff-rigged sails appeared in 1769 in William Falconer's Universal Dictionary of the Marine. According to the language scholar Walter William Skeat, the term schooner comes from scoon, while the sch spelling comes from the adoption of the Dutch spelling. Another study suggests that a Dutch expression praising ornate schooner yachts in the 17th century, "een schoone Schip", may have led to the term "schooner" being used by English speakers to describe the early versions of the schooner rig as it evolved in England and America; the Dutch word "schoon" means nice, good looking, sexually arousing, or horny.. A popular legend holds that the first schooner was built by builder Andrew Robinson and launched in Gloucester, Massachusetts where a spectator exclaimed "Oh how she scoons", scoon being similar to scone, a Scots word meaning to skip along the surface of the water.
Robinson replied, "A schooner let her be." The launch is variously described as being in 1713 or 1745. Naval architects such as Howard Chapelle have dismissed this invention story as a "childish fable", but some language scholars feel that the legend may support a Gloucester origin of the word. Other sources state the etymology as uncertain. Although associated with North America, schooners were first used by the Dutch in the 16th or 17th century, they were further developed in North America from the early 18th century, came into extensive use in New England. Schooners were popular in trades requiring speed and windward ability, such as slaving, blockade running, offshore fishing. In the Chesapeake Bay area several distinctive schooner types evolved, including the Baltimore clipper and pungy. Schooners were popular among pirates in the West Indies during the Golden Age of Piracy, for their speed and agility, they could sail in shallow waters, while being smaller than other ships of the time period, they could still hold enough cannons to intimidate merchant vessels into submission.
Schooners first evolved in the late 17th century from a variety of small two-masted gaff-rigged vessels used in the coast and estuaries of the Netherlands. Most were working craft but some pleasure yachts with schooner rigs were built for wealthy merchants. Following the arrival of the Dutch Stadtholder William of Orange on the British throne, the British Royal Navy built a royal yacht with a schooner rig in 1695, HMS Royal Transport; this vessel, captured in a detailed Admiralty model, is the earliest documented schooner. Royal Transport was noted for its speed and ease of handling, mercantile vessels soon adopted the rig in Europe and in European colonies in North America. Schooners were popular with colonial traders and fishermen in North America with the first documented reference to a schooner in the United States appearing in Boston port records in 1716. North American shipbuilders developed a variety of schooner forms for trading and privateering. Essex, was the most significant shipbuilding center for schooners.
By the 1850s, over 50 vessels a year were being launched from 15 shipyards and Essex became recognized worldwide as North America's center for fishing schooner construction. In total, Essex launched over 4,000 schooners, most headed for the Gloucester, fishing industry. Bath, was another notable center, which during much of the 19th century had more than a dozen yards working at a time, from 1781 to 1892 launched 1352 schooners, including the Wyoming. Schooners were popular on both sides of the Atlantic in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, long dominating yacht races such as the America's Cup, but gave way in Europe to the cutter. Schooners were used to carry cargo in many different environments, from ocean voyages to coastal runs and on large inland bodies of water, they were popular in North America. In their heyday, during the late 19th century more than 2,000 schooners carried on the Great Lakes. Three-masted "terns" were a favourite rig of Canada's Maritime Provinces; the scow schooner, which used a schooner rig on a flat-bottomed, blunt-ended scow hull, was popular in North America for coastal and river transport.
Schooners were used in North American fishing the Grand Banks fishery. Some Banks fishing schooners such as Bluenose became famous racers. Two of the most famous racing yachts and Atlantic, were rigged as schooners, they were about 152 feet in length. Although a schooner may have several masts, the typical schooner has only two, with the foremast shorter than the mainmast. There may be a bowsprit to help balance the rig; the principal issue with a schooner sail plan is how to fill the space between the two masts most effectively. Traditional schooners were gaff rigged, the trapezoid shape of the foresail occupied the inter-mast space to good effect, with a useful sail area and a low center of effort. A Bermuda rigged schooner has four triangular sails: a mainsail, a main staysail abaft the foremast, plus a forestaysail and a jib forward of the foremast. An advantage of the staysail schooner is that it is handled and reefed by a small crew, as both staysails can be self-tacking; the main staysail will not overlap the mainsail, so does little to prepare the wind for the mainsail, but is effective when close-hauled or when on a beam reach.
A sail is a tensile structure—made from fabric or other membrane materials—that uses wind power to propel sailing craft, including sailing ships, windsurfers, ice boats, sail-powered land vehicles. Sails may be made from a combination of woven materials—including canvas or polyester cloth, laminated membranes or bonded filaments—usually in a three- or four-sided shape. A sail provides propulsive force via a combination of lift and drag, depending on its angle of attack—its angle with respect to the apparent wind. Apparent wind is the air velocity experienced on the moving craft and is the combined effect of the true wind velocity with the velocity of the sailing craft. Angle of attack is constrained by the sailing craft's orientation to the wind or point of sail. On points of sail where it is possible to align the leading edge of the sail with the apparent wind, the sail may act as an airfoil, generating propulsive force as air passes along its surface—just as an airplane wing generates lift—which predominates over aerodynamic drag retarding forward motion.
The more that the angle of attack diverges from the apparent wind as a sailing craft turns downwind, the more drag increases and lift decreases as propulsive forces, until a sail going downwind is predominated by drag forces. Sails are unable to generate propulsive force if they are aligned too to the wind. Sails may be attached to a mast, boom or other spar or may be attached to a wire, suspended by a mast, they are raised by a line, called a halyard, their angle with respect to the wind is controlled by a line, called a sheet. In use, they may be designed to be curved in both directions along their surface as a result of their curved edges. Battens may be used to extend the trailing edge of a sail beyond the line of its attachment points. Other non-rotating airfoils that power sailing craft include wingsails, which are rigid wing-like structures, kites that power kite-rigged vessels, but do not employ a mast to support the airfoil and are beyond the scope of this article. Sailing craft employ two types of the square rig and the fore-and-aft rig.
The square rig carries the primary driving sails are carried on horizontal spars, which are perpendicular or square, to the keel of the vessel and to the masts. These spars are called yards and their tips, beyond the last stay, are called the yardarms. A ship so rigged is called a square-rigger; the square rig is aerodynamically most efficient. A fore-and-aft rig consists of sails that are set along the line of the keel rather than perpendicular to it. Vessels so rigged. Archaeological studies of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture ceramics show use of sailing boats from the sixth millennium BCE onwards. Excavations of the Ubaid period in Mesopotamia provides direct evidence of sailing boats. Sails from ancient Egypt are depicted around 3200 BCE, where reed boats sailed upstream against the River Nile's current. Ancient Sumerians used square rigged sailing boats at about the same time, it is believed they established sea trading routes as far away as the Indus valley; the proto-Austronesian words for sail and other rigging parts date to about 3000 BCE when this group began their Pacific expansion.
Greeks and Phoenicians began trading by ship by around 1200 BCE. Triangular fore-and-aft rigs were invented in the Mediterranean as single-yarded lateen sails and independently in the Pacific as the more efficient bi-sparred crab claw sail, continue to be used throughout the world. During the 16th-19th centuries other fore-and-aft sails were developed in Europe, such as the spritsail, gaff rig, genoa and Bermuda rig mainsail, improving the upwind sailing ability of European vessels; the fore-and-aft rig began as a convention of southern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea: the gentle climate made its use practical, in Italy a few centuries before the Renaissance it began to replace the square rig which had dominated all of Europe since the dawn of sea travel. Northern Europeans were resistant to adopting the fore-and-aft rig, despite having seen its use in the course of trade and during the Crusades; the Renaissance changed this: beginning in 1475, their use increased and within a hundred years the fore-and-aft rig was in common use on rivers and in estuaries in Britain, northern France, the Low Countries, though the square rig remained standard for the harsher conditions of the open North Sea as well as for trans-Atlantic sailing.
The lateen sail proved to have better upwind performance for smaller vessels. Aerodynamic forces on sails depend on wind speed and direction and the speed and direction of the craft; the direction that the craft is traveling with respect to the true wind is called the "point of sail". The speed of the craft at a given point of sail contributes to the apparent wind —the wind speed and direction as measured on the moving craft; the apparent wind on the sail creates a total aerodynamic force, which may be resolved into drag—the force component in the direction of the apparent wind—and lift—the force component normal to the apparent wind. Depending on the alignment of the sail with the apparent wind, lift or drag may be the predominant propulsive component. Total aerodynamic force resolves into a forward, driving force—resisted by the medium through or over which the craft is passing —and a lateral force, resisted by the underwater foils, ice runners, or wheels of the sailing craft. For apparent wind angles aligned with the entry point of the sail, the sail acts as an airfoil and lift is the predominant component of propulsion.
The mast of a sailing vessel is a tall spar, or arrangement of spars, erected more or less vertically on the centre-line of a ship or boat. Its purposes include carrying sail and derricks, giving necessary height to a navigation light, look-out position, signal yard, control position, radio aerial or signal lamp. Large ships have several masts, with the configuration depending on the style of ship. Nearly all sailing masts are guyed; until the mid-19th century all vessels' masts were made of wood formed from a single or several pieces of timber which consisted of the trunk of a conifer tree. From the 16th century, vessels were built of a size requiring masts taller and thicker than could be made from single tree trunks. On these larger vessels, to achieve the required height, the masts were built from up to four sections, known in order of rising height above the decks as the lower, top and royal masts. Giving the lower sections sufficient thickness necessitated building them up from separate pieces of wood.
Such a section was known as a made mast, as opposed to sections formed from single pieces of timber, which were known as pole masts. Those who specialised in making masts were known as mastmakers. For square-sail carrying ship, the masts, given their standard names in bow to stern order, are: Sprit topmast: a small mast set on the end of the bowsprit. Shorter than the fore-mast. Sections: mizzen-mast lower—mizzen topmast—mizzen topgallant mastSome names given to masts in ships carrying other types of rig are: Bonaventure mizzen: the fourth mast on larger sixteenth century galleons lateen-rigged and shorter than the main mizzen. Jigger-mast: where it is the shortest, the aftmost mast on vessels with more than three masts. Sections: jigger-mast lower—jigger topmast—jigger topgallant mast Most types of vessels with two masts are supposed to have a main-mast and a smaller mizzen-mast, although both brigs and two-masted schooners carry a fore-mast and a main-mast instead. On a two-masted vessel with the main-mast forward and a much smaller second mast, such as a ketch, or a yawl, the terms mizzen and jigger are synonymous.
Although two-masted schooners may be provided with masts of identical size, the aftmost is still referred to as the main-mast, has the larger course. Schooners have been built with up to seven masts with several six-masted examples. On square-rigged vessels, each mast carries several horizontal yards from which the individual sails are rigged. Folding mast ships use a tabernacle anchor point—"the open socket or double post on the deck, into which a mast is fixed, with a pivot near the top so that the mast can be lowered", "large bracket attached to the deck, to which the foot of the mast is fixed. A two-masted merchant vessel with a sizable foresail rigged on a inclined foremast is depicted in an Etruscan tomb painting from 475–450 BC. An artemon the same size as the galley's mainsail can be found on a Corinthian krater as early as the late 6th century BC; the foremast became common on Roman galleys, inclined at an angle of 45°, it was more akin to a bowsprit, the foresail set on it, reduced in size, seems to be used rather as an aid to steering than for propulsion.
While most of the ancient evidence is iconographic, the existence of foremasts can be deduced archaeologically from slots in foremast-feets located too close to the prow for a mainsail. Artemon, along with mainsail and topsail, developed into the standard rig of seagoing vessels in imperial times, complemented by a mizzen on the largest freighters; the earliest recorded three-masters were the giant Syracusia, a prestige object commissioned by king Hiero II of Syracuse and devised by the polymath Archimedes around 240 BC, other Syracusan merchant ships of the time. The imperial grain freighters travelling the routes between Alexandria and Rome included three-masted vessels. A mosaic in Ostia depicts a freighter with a three-masted rig entering Rome's harbour. Special craft could carry many more masts: Theophrastus records how the Romans imported Corsican timber by way of a huge raft propelled by as many as fifty masts and sails. Throughout antiquity, both foresail and mizzen remained secondary in terms of canvas size, although large enough to require full running rigging.
In late antiquity, the foremast lost most of
A catboat is a sailboat with a single sail on a single mast set well forward in the bow of the boat. Most have a shallow draft, with centreboards. Most are gaff rigged but some have a Bermuda rig; the beam of the classic Cape Cod Cat's beam measurement is half the waterline length, making it stable. Some cat boats in current use include the Beetle Cat, the Redden Catboat, the Nonsuch, the Inland Cat, the Zijlsloep; the Cape Cod Cat Com-Pac Trailerable, Marshal Menger, the APBY cat boat. A catboat is not the same as a catamaran, a twin-hull boat. Nor is it the same as a Cat, a Norwegian ship used to carry up to 600 tons of coal. Descended from small boats carried by 18th century British merchant ships in the new world, around the turn of the 20th century, catboats were adapted for racing, long booms and gaffs and large jibs were fitted to capture as much wind as possible; the decline of racing and advent of small, efficient gasoline engines eliminated the need for large sail plans, catboats today are used as pleasure craft for day sailing and cruising, have the virtues of roominess and simple handling, though many catboats have poorer upwind performance than well-designed sloop-rigged craft.
One of the most well-known catboats is the 12-foot Beetle Cat daysailer. Fleets of these one-design boats are found in harbors all across New England competing in races. In the 1960s, Breck Marshall based his 18-foot fiberglass Sanderling upon an existing, wooden design; the Sanderling has since become a popular boat, with more than 700 built, it has helped to rekindle interest in the catboat. To honor Marshall and his contribution to the type, the Catboat Association funded the construction of the Breck Marshall, a 20-foot catboat built and berthed at Mystic Seaport. Leavens, John M.. The Catboat Book. Middleboro, MA: Catboat Association with Intl Marine Publishing Co. p. 160. ISBN 0877423148. ISBN 978-0877423140 Rousmaniere, John; the Illustrated Dictionary of Boating Terms: 2000 Essential Terms for Sailors and Powerboaters. W. W. Norton & Company. P. 174. ISBN 0393339181. ISBN 978-0393339185 Grayson, Stan. Cape Cod Catboats. Marblehead, MA: Devereux Books. ISBN 1-928862-05-5
A fractional rig on a sailing vessel consists of a foresail, such as a jib or genoa sail, that does not reach all the way to the top of the mast. In the adjacent picture, the forestay that secures the mast at the front of the boat is attached to the mast at a lower point and the fore sail is rigged to this stay; the mast is farther forward on the boat than on a masthead rig and so it has a larger main sail. Masthead rigs are most common on cruisers. A fractional rig is used on dinghy sailing boats and racing oriented keel boats, such as the J/24. Fractional rigs were introduced on race boats in order to allow more controllability of the surface of the main sail and less drag during tacking. According to one manufacturer, "a key to making fast boats easier to sail than slow boats is the fractional rig". A fractional rig features a larger main sail and a smaller non-overlapping jib; this configuration is optimized for up-wind sailing efficiency. For downwind sailing, a larger jib is more desirable but in the case of many high-performance fractional rig sailboats, the smaller jib is substituted by a spinnaker or gennaker.
On many modern skiffs and race dinghies, the jib is small compared to the size of the main and it is left in place when the spinnaker or gennaker is used due to this type of jib's minimal aerodynamic interference. A major advantage of the fractional rig the'3/4' rig, is that the jib can be taken in without the boat rounding up into the wind like a weather vane. With the masthead sloop, both the main and the jib must be reefed, when shortening sail, to keep this from happening. Since jibs need considerable fore stay tension to set properly and the amount of tension needed increases with wind speed, being able to drop the jib first in windy conditions puts less strain on the rig and hull. Fractional rigs are used on built multi-hulls for this reason. Throughout the 20th century, most sloops of less than 20 feet in length have had fractional rigs. Many sailing sloops from the first part of the 20th century were fractional rigged; the increased prevalence of fractional rigs on sloops in the early 20th century coincided with the disappearance of the gaff rig.
One possibility for its increased prevalence during this era is that, relative to a masthead rig, it allows the designer to provide the boat with more sail area without using a bowsprit or a boom that extends beyond the stern, without demanding that the sails be of a high aspect ratio. This was important because the sailcloth available in those days made it difficult to construct high-aspect sails; as sailcloth improved in the second half of the 20th century, it became possible to construct sails of a higher aspect ratio. It therefore became more practical for sloops to be designed with the simpler masthead-rigged mast. Most production sailboats from the'60s and'70s were masthead-rigged sloops. Masthead-rigged sloops carry a larger spinnaker than fractional-rigged sloops, therefore enjoy a speed advantage when racing downwind. Fractional rigged sloops are starting to become popular again for high-performance racing boats. A fractional rig allows the mast to bend more which in turn allows more adjustment to the shape of the mainsail when sailing upwind.
Many people believe that a fractional-rigged sloop is faster upwind than a similar masthead-rigged sloop as the wind strength increases. Most of the newest generation of fractional-rigged sloops fly their spinnakers from the top of the mast; these boats are said to have "masthead spinnakers", this development gives the boat good performance both upwind and downwind in all wind strengths. An inherent problem of a fractional rig is its inability to exert as much tension on the forestay as a similar masthead rig; the reason for this is because the attachment point of the forestay is not directly opposite to the backstay. Under certain conditions, the moment arm that results from these offset attachment points can be used to advantage, as this is an effective method of inducing bend in the mast, which in turn flattens the mainsail. If the distance between the attachment points is too great, a mast of average stiffness will be unable to apply optimum forestay tension, unless one of the following mast-stiffening design features is used: Jumper Stays—These additional stays and their associated jumper struts limit the amount that the upper portion of the mast can bend, thereby enable tension to be transferred from the backstay to the forestay.
Jumper stays were common in the first part of the 20th century. Their biggest disadvantage is windage aloft. Running Backstays—These are supplemental temporary backstays that attach opposite of the forestay, they are effective at generating forestay tension, but make the boat more difficult to tack because one running backstay needs to be released and the other one applied each time the boat tacks. Swept back spreaders—Swept back spreaders provide significant fore-and-aft support to the mast, thereby increase tension in the forestay; the biggest disadvantage of this scheme is that it makes it difficult to deliberately slacken the forestay for the purpose of making the jib fuller in light winds
A boat is a watercraft of a large range of type and size. Ships are distinguished from boats based on their larger size and cargo or passenger capacity, their ability to carry boats. Small boats are found on inland waterways such as rivers and lakes, or in protected coastal areas. However, some boats, such as the whaleboat, were intended for use in an offshore environment. In modern naval terms, a boat is a vessel small enough to be carried aboard a ship. Anomalous definitions exist, as bulk freighters 1,000 feet long on the Great Lakes being known as oreboats. Boats vary in proportion and construction methods due to their intended purpose, available materials, or local traditions. Canoes have been used since prehistoric times and remain in use throughout the world for transportation and sport. Fishing boats vary in style to match local conditions. Pleasure craft used in recreational boating include ski boats, pontoon boats, sailboats. House boats may be used for long-term residence. Lighters are used to convey cargo to and from large ships unable to get close to shore.
Lifeboats have safety functions. Boats can be propelled by manpower and motor. Boats have served as transportation since the earliest times. Circumstantial evidence, such as the early settlement of Australia over 40,000 years ago, findings in Crete dated 130,000 years ago, in Flores dated to 900,000 years ago, suggest that boats have been used since prehistoric times; the earliest boats are thought to have been dugouts, the oldest boats found by archaeological excavation date from around 7,000–10,000 years ago. The oldest recovered boat in the world, the Pesse canoe, found in the Netherlands, is a dugout made from the hollowed tree trunk of a Pinus sylvestris, constructed somewhere between 8200 and 7600 BC; this canoe is exhibited in the Drents Museum in Netherlands. Other old dugout boats have been recovered. Rafts have operated for at least 8,000 years. A 7,000-year-old seagoing reed. Boats were used between 4000 and 3000 BC in the Indian Ocean. Boats played an important role in the commerce between the Indus Valley Civilization and Mesopotamia.
Evidence of varying models of boats has been discovered at various Indus Valley archaeological sites. Uru craft originate in Beypore, a village in south Calicut, Kerala, in southwestern India; this type of mammoth wooden ship was constructed of teak, with a transport capacity of 400 tonnes. The ancient Arabs and Greeks used such boats as trading vessels; the historians Herodotus, Pliny the Elder and Strabo record the use of boats for commerce and military purposes. Boats can be categorized into three main types: human-powered. Unpowered craft include rafts meant for one-way downstream travel. Human-powered boats include canoes, kayaks and boats propelled by poles like a punt. Sailboats, propelled by means of sails. Motorboats, propelled by mechanical means, such as engines; the hull is the main, in some cases only, structural component of a boat. It provides both buoyancy; the keel is a boat's "backbone", a lengthwise structural member to which the perpendicular frames are fixed. On most boats a deck covers the hull, in whole.
While a ship has several decks, a boat is unlikely to have more than one. Above the deck are lifelines connected to stanchions, bulwarks topped by gunnels, or some combination of the two. A cabin may protrude above the deck forward, along the centerline, or covering much of the length of the boat. Vertical structures dividing the internal spaces are known as bulkheads; the forward end of a boat is called the aft end the stern. Facing forward the right side is referred to as starboard and the left side as port; until the mid-19th century most boats were made of natural materials wood, although reed and animal skins were used. Early boats include the bound-reed style of boat seen in Ancient Egypt, the birch bark canoe, the animal hide-covered kayak and coracle and the dugout canoe made from a single log. By the mid-19th century, many boats had been built with iron or steel frames but still planked in wood. In 1855 ferro-cement boat construction was patented by the French, who coined the name "ferciment".
This is a system by which a steel or iron wire framework is built in the shape of a boat's hull and covered over with cement. Reinforced with bulkheads and other internal structure it is strong but heavy repaired, and, if sealed properly, will not leak or corrode; these materials and methods were copied all over the world and have faded in and out of popularity to the present time. As the forests of Britain and Europe continued to be over-harvested to supply the keels of larger wooden boats, the Bessemer process cheapened the cost of steel, steel ships and boats began to be more common. By the 1930s boats built of steel from frames to plating were seen replacing wooden boats in many industrial uses and fishing fleets. Private recreational boats of steel remain uncommon. In 1895 WH Mullins produced steel boats of galvanized iron and by 1930 became the world's largest producer of pleasure boats. Mullins offered boats in aluminum from 1895 through 1899 and once again in the 1920s, but it wasn't until the mid-20th century that aluminium gained widespread popularity.
Though much more expensive than steel, aluminum alloys exist that do not corrode in salt water, allowing a similar load carrying capacity to steel at much less weight. Around the mid-1960s, boats made of fiberglass became pop
Dinghy sailing is the activity of sailing small boats by using five essential controls: the sails the foils the trim side-to-side balance of the dinghy by hiking or movement of the crew in windy weather the choice of route When racing, the above skills need to be refined and additional skills and techniques learned, such as the application of the "racing rules of sailing", boat handling skills when starting and when rounding marks, knowledge of tactics and strategy. Racing tactics include positioning your boat at different angles. To improve speed when racing, sailors should position themselves at the windward direction in order to get "clean air". Shared challenges and the variability of the weather and sea can make dinghy sailing and racing a fascinating and rewarding recreational sport: physically, in terms of personal relationships with other crew members and organizers; the RYA, regulating authority for sail training in the UK and Europe, states that, "With a reliance on nature and the elements, sailing... is about adventure, exploration and fun."
There has always been a need for small tender boats for transporting goods and personnel to and from anchored sailing ships. Together with other smaller work craft such as fishing and light cargo, small inshore craft have always been in evidence. Charles II of England had a private sailing boat presented to him when he returned from exile to England in the 17th century, he sailed for recreation and competition. In 1887 Thomas Middleton, a Dublin solicitor, considered that yacht racing was becoming an excessively expensive activity, with boats becoming eclipsed by better designs each year, he proposed the'One Model' principle. He wanted yacht racing to be an exercise of skill with all boats being built to the same design, he assembled a group of potential owners who agreed to call the boat'The Water Wag'. The Water Wag Club still prospers in Dún Laoghaire harbour, with racing each Wednesday evening during the Summer season. Towards the end of the 19th century people began to use these small boats for sport and recreational sailing, utilising the opportunities for leisure afforded by the industrial revolution.
Larger used sailing boats had developed separately, have resulted in the yachts of today. There has been some crossover, in that the sloop sail plan was adopted as standard and most convenient by early dinghy designers; the development of the sailing dinghy was helped in the early 20th century by Uffa Fox, an English boat designer and sailing enthusiast. He developed and contributed to many dinghy classes that are still with us nearly a century later: the Albacore, International 14, National 12, Jet 14, Flying Fifteen and Scorpion, he introduced the major advance of hull shapes that can plane, which can therefore reach beyond the usual speed limits for small sailing boats. In effect, a boat, planing is skimming along the surface, with the bow of the boat not in the water; this results in less friction because of reduced waterline length, reduced displacement, reduced'wetted area'. The driving force provided by the sails has to overcome less resistance, therefore speed increases dramatically. In 1928 Uffa Fox introduced planing to the English dinghy racing world in his International 14 boat, the Avenger.
He gained two second places and three third places out of 57 race starts that year. Note: Graham Anderson in his 1999 book Fast Light Boats, a Century of Kiwi Innovation argues that planing centreboard sailing boats were introduced into New Zealand in the early 20th century – well before Uffa Fox popularised the concept. Another advance in dinghy sailing was introduced in the 1930s, when the technique of trapezing was introduced; this involves using the crew to provide more leverage to keep the sails vertical and the boat balanced. As a result, the boat is easier to keep upright, the sails can deliver maximum power most of the time. While trapezing can be helpful and increase speed, it can be dangerous if the crew is not wearing a quick-release harness or is inexperienced; the quick-release harness allows the crew to unstrap themselves so as to not get forced under the boat if it were to capsize. Trapezing during a race first appeared in 1934, on the Amazon A Class Rater Vagabond 14 foot international sailed by Peter Scott, John Winter.
The owner of the boat, Beecher Moore, of Thames Sailing Club, had worked on developing the technique, in discussion with Uffa Fox. Vagabond was spectacularly successful in that race, winning by four minutes; the innovative technique was banned, received little development until it was reintroduced on the Osprey and Fiveohfive Class in 1954 by John Westell and the Flying Dutchman class in the early 1960s. During the Second World War plywood had become a major building material for aircraft. After the war, plywood was adapted for building sailing dinghies. Two primary methods of construction were adopted: stitch and glue and timber-framed construction. Jack Holt designed many dinghies to be built by home handymen using these construction techniques; the Mirror Dinghy was predominantly built using stitch and glue, while the Enterprise and He