Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water, on ice or on land over a chosen course, part of a larger plan of navigation. A course defined with respect to the true wind direction is called a point of sail. Conventional sailing craft cannot derive power from sails on a point of sail, too close into the wind. On a given point of sail, the sailor adjusts the alignment of each sail with respect to the apparent wind direction to mobilize the power of the wind; the forces transmitted via the sails are resisted by forces from the hull and rudder of a sailing craft, by forces from skate runners of an iceboat, or by forces from wheels of a land sailing craft to allow steering the course. In the 21st century, most sailing represents a form of sport. Recreational sailing or yachting can be divided into cruising. Cruising can include extended offshore and ocean-crossing trips, coastal sailing within sight of land, daysailing; until the mid of the 19th century, sailing ships were the primary means for marine commerce, this period is known as Age of Sail.
Throughout history sailing has been instrumental in the development of civilization, affording humanity greater mobility than travel over land, whether for trade, transport or warfare, the capacity for fishing. The earliest representation of a ship under sail appears on a painted disc found in Kuwait dating between 5500 and 5000 BCE. Austronesian oceanfarers traveled vast distances of open ocean in outrigger canoes using navigation methods such as stick charts. Advances in sailing technology from the Middle Ages onward enabled Arab, Chinese and European explorers to make longer voyages into regions with extreme weather and climatic conditions. There were improvements in sails and rigging. From the 15th century onwards, European ships went further north, stayed longer on the Grand Banks and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, began to explore the Pacific Northwest and the Western Arctic. Sailing has contributed to many great explorations in the world. According to Jett, the Egyptians used a bipod mast to support a sail that allowed a reed craft to travel upriver with a following wind, as late as 3,500 BCE.
Such sails evolved into the square-sail rig. Such rigs could not sail much closer than 80° to the wind. Fore-and-aft rigs appear to have evolved in Southeast Asia—dates are uncertain—allowing for rigs that could sail as close as 60–75° off the wind; the physics of sailing arises from a balance of forces between the wind powering the sailing craft as it passes over its sails and the resistance by the sailing craft against being blown off course, provided in the water by the keel, underwater foils and other elements of the underbody of a sailboat, on ice by the runners of an ice boat, or on land by the wheels of a sail-powered land vehicle. Forces on sails depend on the speed and direction of the craft; the speed of the craft at a given point of sail contributes to the "apparent wind"—the wind speed and direction as measured on the moving craft. The apparent wind on the sail creates a total aerodynamic force, which may be resolved into drag—the force component in the direction of the apparent wind—and lift—the force component normal to the apparent wind.
Depending on the alignment of the sail with the apparent wind, lift or drag may be the predominant propulsive component. Depending on the angle of attack of a set of sails with respect to the apparent wind, each sail is providing motive force to the sailing craft either from lift-dominant attached flow or drag-dominant separated flow. Additionally, sails may interact with one another to create forces that are different from the sum of the individual contributions each sail, when used alone; the term "velocity" refers both to direction. As applied to wind, apparent wind velocity is the air velocity acting upon the leading edge of the most forward sail or as experienced by instrumentation or crew on a moving sailing craft. In nautical terminology, wind speeds are expressed in knots and wind angles in degrees. All sailing craft reach a constant forward velocity for a given true wind velocity and point of sail; the craft's point of sail affects its velocity for a given true wind velocity. Conventional sailing craft cannot derive power from the wind in a "no-go" zone, 40° to 50° away from the true wind, depending on the craft.
The directly downwind speed of all conventional sailing craft is limited to the true wind speed. As a sailboat sails further from the wind, the apparent wind becomes smaller and the lateral component becomes less. In order to act like an airfoil, the sail on a sailboat is sheeted further out as the course is further off the wind; as an iceboat sails further from the wind, the apparent wind increases and the boat speed is highest on the broad reach. In order to act like an airfoil, the sail on an iceboat is sheeted in for all three points of sail. Lift on a sail, acting as an airfoil, occurs in a direction perpendicular to the incident airstream and is a result of pressure differences between the windward and leeward surfaces and depends on angle of attack, sail shape, air density, speed of the apparent wind; the lift force results from the average pressure on the windward surface of the sail being higher than the
Sir Paul Meernaa Caedwalla Hasluck, was an Australian statesman who served as the 17th Governor-General of Australia, in office from 1969 to 1974. Prior to that, he was a Liberal Party politician, holding ministerial office continuously from 1951 to 1969. Hasluck was born in Fremantle, Western Australia, attended Perth Modern School and the University of Western Australia. After graduation he joined the university as a faculty member becoming a reader in history. Hasluck joined the Department of External Affairs during World War II, served as Australia's first Permanent Representative to the United Nations from 1946 to 1947, he would contribute two volumes to Australia in the War of 1939–1945, the official history of Australia's involvement in the war. In 1949, Hasluck was elected to federal parliament for the Liberal Party, winning the Division of Curtin. In 1951, less than two years after entering politics, he was made Minister for Territories in the Menzies Government. In his twelve years in the position, he initiated transitions toward self-government in Australia's territories, including Nauru, Papua New Guinea, the Northern Territory.
Hasluck served as Minister for Defence and Minister for External Affairs. His tenure in those positions covered Australia's involvement in the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation and the first years of the Vietnam War. After the disappearance of Harold Holt, Hasluck unsuccessfully stood in the resulting Liberal leadership election, he stayed on in cabinet under the new prime minister, John Gorton, but in 1969 Gorton instead nominated him to replace Lord Casey as governor-general. In his five years in the position, Hasluck saw two previous political adversaries become prime minister. In retirement, he was a prolific author, publishing an autobiography, several volumes of poetry, multiple works on Australian history. Hasluck was born in Fremantle, Western Australia, the son of Patience Eliza and E'thel Meernaa Caedwalla Hasluck, his father was born in Essex and his mother was born in London. Hasluck spent his early years in Collie, where his father ran a boys' home, attended a one-room school there.
His parents moved to Guildford, where they ran a nursing home, Riversleigh House, "the first non-government home for aged men in Western Australia". Hasluck won a scholarship to Perth Modern School, which he attended from 1918 to 1922, he attended Perth's sole campus at the time, the University of Western Australia, where he graduated with an initial diploma in journalism and a Master of Arts degree. While still a student, Hasluck joined the literary staff of Perth's main newspaper, The West Australian. After he had obtained his MA, he worked as a tutor in the UWA's history department, in 1939 he was promoted to a lectureship in history. By that time he had been married for seven years to Alexandra Darker. Alexandra Hasluck became a distinguished writer and historian in her own right, was the first woman to be appointed a Dame of the Order of Australia. In 1939, Hasluck established Freshwater Bay Press, through which he released his first book, Into the Desert; the advent of the Second World War, saw the publishing company go into hiatus.
The Freshwater Bay Press was revived by his son Nicholas, amongst its subsequent publications it issued a second book of Paul Hasluck's poetry, Dark Cottage in 1984. In 1941 Hasluck was recruited to the staff of the Department of External Affairs, served on Australian delegations to several international conferences, including the San Francisco Conference which founded the United Nations. Here he came into close contact with the Minister for External Affairs in the Labor government, Dr H. V. Evatt, towards whom he conceived a permanent aversion reciprocated by Evatt's attitude to him. After the war Hasluck returned to the University of Western Australia as a Reader in History, was commissioned to write two volumes of Australia in the War of 1939–1945, a 22-volume official history of Australia's involvement in World War II; these volumes were published as The Government and the People 1939–1941 in 1951 and The Government and the People 1941–1945 in 1970. This work was interrupted by his decision to enter politics, a decision motivated by his disapproval of Evatt's foreign policy.
At the 1949 election Hasluck won Liberal preselection for the newly created Perth-area seat of Curtin. Although it was notionally a Labor seat, it was located in natural Liberal territory in Perth's wealthy beachside suburbs, Hasluck won it with a resounding swing of 14 percent as part of the Coalition's large victory that year. In 1951 the Prime Minister, Robert Menzies appointed Hasluck as Minister for Territories, a post he held for twelve years; this gave him responsibility for Australia's colonial possession, Papua New Guinea, the Northern Territory, home to Australia's largest population of Aboriginal people. Although he shared the paternalistic views of the period about the treatment of the Papua New Guineans, followed an assimilationist policy for the Aboriginal people, he carried out significant reforms in the way both peoples were treated. Michael Somare, who became Papua New Guinea's first Prime Minister, said that his country had been able to enter self-government without fear of having to argue with an Ian Smith "simply because of Paul Hasluck".
Hasluck was Minister for Defence in 1963 and 1964
Beaufort is the first novel by Israeli author and media professional Ron Leshem. The work was published in 2005 and in English translation under this title in 2007; the novel was the basis for the 2007 Academy Award-nominated film Beaufort. Beaufort is about an Israel Defense Forces unit stationed at the Beaufort Castle, Lebanon post in Southern Lebanon during the South Lebanon conflict, it takes the form of a narrative written by the unit's commander, Liraz Librati, the last commander of the Beaufort castle before the Israeli withdrawal in 2000. The Hebrew original of Beaufort won Israel's 2006 Sapir Prize for Literature and the Yitzhak Sadeh Prize for Military Literature. Ron Leshem, Im yesh gan eden. Tel Aviv: Zmora Bitan Publishing Ron Leshem, New York: Random House, translation: Evan Fallenberg Ron Leshem, London: Harvill Secker, British English edition Beaufort synopsis at Random House, Inc. Reviewed by Tim Rutten, Los Angeles Times