Graves (wine region)
Graves is an important subregion of the Bordeaux wine region. Graves is situated on the left bank of the Garonne River, in the upstream part of the region, southeast of the city Bordeaux and stretches over 50 kilometres. Graves is the only Bordeaux subregion, famed for all three of Bordeaux' three main wine types—reds, dry whites and sweet wines—although red wines dominate the total production. Graves AOC is the name of one Appellation d'origine contrôlée which covers most, but not all of the Graves subregion; the area encompasses villages including Sauternes, Talence, Léognan, Saint-Morillon, Portets. The name Graves derives from its intensely gravelly soil; the soil is the result of glaciers from the Ice Age, which left white quartz deposits that can still be found in the soil of some of the top winemaking estates. The Graves is considered the birthplace of claret. Graves wine production for export dates back to Eleanor of Aquitaine, who married Henry II, King of England, creating a flourishing trade between both countries: wine versus coal and iron.
In the Middle Ages, the wines that were first exported to England were produced in this area. At that time, the Médoc subregion north of the city Bordeaux still consisted of marshland unsuitable for viticulture, while Graves were better-drained. Château Pape Clément, founded at the turn of the 14th century by the future Pope Clement V, was the first named chateaux in all of Bordeaux. In 1663, Samuel Pepys' mention of Château Haut-Brion was the first recorded mention of French claret in London. After Médoc was drained by the Dutch in mid-17th century, Médoc took over the role as the source of the most prized Bordeaux wines. In the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855, only one Graves property, Château Haut-Brion, one of the four original First growths, was included among the red wines, with all the rest being Médoc properties. All the sweet wines of the 1855 classification were from Sauternes, a part of Graves. A classification of Graves wine was carried out in 1953 for its red wine producers.
Dry white wines were included in an updated 1959 classification. In 1987, the part of Graves containing most of the producers of its most expensive wines, closest to the city Bordeaux itself, created a separate AOC under the name Pessac-Léognan; this has had the effect of devaluing the name and price of wines labeled with the Graves appellation. As with Médoc, Cabernet Sauvignon is the predominant grape, but a somewhat greater proportion of Merlot is used in the blend, with smaller amounts of Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot and Malbec; the dry white wines are a blend of Sauvignon Sémillon. A well-known sweet white dessert wine is made in the commune of Sauternes, located in the southeast corner of the Graves region; the Graves subregion contains the following Appellations d'origine contrôlées. Graves AOC is the basic appellation of the Graves subregion, can be used for both red and dry white wine. 3,100 hectares of vineyards were dedicated to this appellation in 2004. Graves Superieur AOC is an appellation for sweet white wine covering the same area as Graves AOC.
The wines are considered as simpler than those of Cérons AOC. About 500 hectares of vineyards were dedicated to the production of Graves Supérieures in 2004; this part of the Graves, located just south of the city of Bordeaux, is home to the first growth estate Château Haut-Brion, as well as all the 1953 classified Graves Growths, including Château La Mission Haut-Brion and Château Laville Haut-Brion. In addition to wine production, the area is known for its crops of pine trees, vineyards are separated by rows of forest trees; the soil of Pessac-Léognan is composed of gravel terraces with sediments from different geological eras. Pessac-Léognan received appellation status in 1987, produces both red and white wines. All of the estates named in the 1959 Graves classification are located in this appellation. Cabernet Sauvignon is the dominant grape variety, followed by Merlot and the white wine grapes Sauvignon blanc and Sémillon; the white wines of this area are aged on their lees. Sauternes is an appellation of Graves known for its intensely sweet, dessert wines such as the Premier Cru Supérieur classified Château d'Yquem.
Wines produced in the commune of Barsac, such as Premiers Crus Château Climens and Château Coutet, are allowed to be labeled either with the commune name or with Sauternes. The intense sweetness is the result of the grapes being affected by Botrytis cinerea, a fungus known as noble rot. In the autumn, the Ciron river produces mist that descends upon the area and persists until after dawn; these conditions are conducive to the growth of the fungus, which desiccates the grape and concentrates the sugars inside. The three main grapes are of this are Sémillon, Sauvignon blanc and Muscadelle. Production costs for this area's botrytized wines are comparatively high; the evaporation and fungus affections produces low yields, one-fifth to one-sixth of that in other Bordeaux regions. The berries are harvested individually from the bunch, with pickers going through the vineyards several times between September and November to ensure the berries are picked at their optimal points; the wine is fermented in small oak barrels, further adding to the cost.
With half bottles of the First Growths priced at several hundred dollars, these wines still have difficulties turning a profit, in the mid 20th century, a string of bad vintages drove many growers in the region out of business. Cérons AOC is an appellation for sweet white wines of similar style as Sauternes, but with no producers as noted as the cla
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving
Marguerite-Élie Guadet was a French political figure of the Revolutionary period. Born in Saint-Émilion, Aquitaine, he had gained a reputation as a lawyer in Bordeaux by the time of the Revolution. In 1790 he was made administrator of the Gironde, in 1791 president of the criminal tribunal, being elected to the Legislative Assembly as one of the group of deputies known subsequently as Girondists; as a supporter of the monarchist and liberal constitution of 1791 he joined the Jacobin Club, here and in the Assembly became an eloquent advocate of all the measures directed against real or supposed traitors to the Constitution. He opposed the ministers of King Louis XVI, was instrumental in forcing the king to accept the Girondist ministry of 15 March 1792, he supported the policy of forcing Louis XVI into harmony with the Revolution, moved for the dismissal of the king's non-juring confessor, for the banishment of all non-juring priests, for the disbandment of the royal guard, the formation in Paris of a camp des fédérés.
He remained a Royalist, with Armand Gensonné and Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud addressed a letter to the king soliciting a private interview. Whatever negotiations may have resulted, were cut short by the insurrection of 10 August. Guadet, who presided over the Assembly during part of the rebellion day, placed himself into strong opposition to the insurrectionary Paris Commune, it was on his motion that on 30 August the Assembly voted its dissolution — a decision reversed on the following day. In September, Guadet was returned by a large majority as deputy to the National Convention. At the trial of Louis XVI he voted for an appeal to the people and for the death penalty, but with a respite pending appeal. In March 1793 he had several meetings with Georges Danton, anxious to bring about a rapprochement between the Girondists and The Mountain during the Revolt in the Vendée, but he unconditionally refused to join with the man whom he held responsible for the September Massacres. Guadet was targeted during the fall of the Girondists, his arrest being decreed on 2 June 1793, he fled to Caen, afterwards hid in his father's house in Saint-Émilion.
He was discovered and taken to Bordeaux, after his identity had been established, he was guillotined. Notes Sources This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Guadet, Marguerite Élie". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 645–646. In turn, it cites as references: François Victor Alphonse Aulard, Les Orateurs de la législative et de la convention J. Guadet, Les Girondins
Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world's most recognized red wine grape varieties. It is grown in nearly every major wine producing country among a diverse spectrum of climates from Canada's Okanagan Valley to Lebanon's Beqaa Valley. Cabernet Sauvignon became internationally recognized through its prominence in Bordeaux wines where it is blended with Merlot and Cabernet Franc. From France, the grape spread across Europe and to the New World where it found new homes in places like California's Santa Cruz Mountains, Paso Robles, Napa Valley, New Zealand's Hawkes Bay, Australia's Margaret River and Coonawarra regions, Chile's Maipo Valley and Colchagua. For most of the 20th century, it was the world's most planted premium red wine grape until it was surpassed by Merlot in the 1990s. However, by 2015, Cabernet Sauvignon had once again become the most planted wine grape, with a total of 341000ha under vine worldwide. Despite its prominence in the industry, the grape is a new variety, the product of a chance crossing between Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon blanc during the 17th century in southwestern France.
Its popularity is attributed to its ease of cultivation—the grapes have thick skins and the vines are hardy and low yielding, budding late to avoid frost and resistant to viticultural hazards such as rot and insects—and to its consistent presentation of structure and flavours which express the typical character of the variety. Familiarity and ease of pronunciation have helped to sell Cabernet Sauvignon wines to consumers when from unfamiliar wine regions, its widespread popularity has contributed to criticism of the grape as a "colonizer" that takes over wine regions at the expense of native grape varieties. The classic profile of Cabernet Sauvignon tends to be full-bodied wines with high tannins and noticeable acidity that contributes to the wine's aging potential. In cooler climates, Cabernet Sauvignon tends to produce wines with blackcurrant notes that can be accompanied by green bell pepper notes and cedar which will all become more pronounced as the wine ages. In more moderate climates the blackcurrant notes are seen with black cherry and black olive notes while in hot climates the currant flavors can veer towards the over-ripe and "jammy" side.
In parts of Australia the Coonawarra wine region of South Australia, Cabernet Sauvignon wines tend to have a characteristic eucalyptus or menthol notes. For many years, the origin of Cabernet Sauvignon was not understood and many myths and conjectures surrounded it; the word "Sauvignon" is believed to be derived from the French sauvage meaning "wild" and to refer to the grape being a wild Vitis vinifera vine native to France. Until the grape was rumored to have ancient origins even being the Biturica grape used to make ancient Roman wine and referenced by Pliny the Elder; this belief was held in the 18th century, when the grape was known as Petite Vidure or Bidure a corruption of Biturica. There was belief that Vidure was a reference to the hard wood of the vine, with a possible relationship to Carménère, once known as Grand Vidure. Another theory was. While the period when the name Cabernet Sauvignon became more prevalent over Petite Vidure is not certain, records indicate that the grape was a popular Bordeaux planting in the 18th century Médoc region.
The first estates known to have grown the variety were Château Mouton and Château d'Armailhac in Pauillac. The grape's true origins were discovered in 1996 with the use of DNA typing at the UC Davis Department of Viticulture and Enology, by a team led by Dr. Carole Meredith; the DNA evidence determined that Cabernet Sauvignon was the offspring of Cabernet franc and Sauvignon blanc and was most a chance crossing that occurred in the 17th century. Prior to this discovery, this origin had been suspected from the similarity of the grapes' names and the fact that Cabernet Sauvignon shares similar aromas with both grapes—such as the blackcurrant and pencil box aromas of Cabernet franc and the grassiness of Sauvignon blanc. In 2016 scientists at the UC Davis announced they had sequenced a draft of the whole genome of the Cabernet Sauvignon grape, the first genome of a commercial wine-producing grape to be sequenced. While not as prolific in mutating as Pinot noir, nor as used in production of offspring, Cabernet Sauvignon has been linked to other grape varieties.
In 1961, a cross of Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache produced. Cygne blanc is a white-berried seedling of Cabernet Sauvignon, discovered in 1989 growing in a garden in Swan Valley, Western Australia. Cabernet blanc is a crossing of Cabernet Sauvignon and an unknown hybrid grape variety, discovered in Switzerland in the late 20th century. In 1977 a vine producing'bronze' grapes was found in the vineyards of Cleggett Wines in Australia, they propagated this mutant, registered it under the name of Malian, sold pale red wines under that name. In 1991 one of the Bronze Cabernet vines started producing white grapes. Cleggett registered this "White Cabernet" under the name of Shalistin. Compared to its Cabernet parent, Malian appears to lack anthocyanins in the subepidermal cells but retains them in the epidermis, whereas Shalistin has no anthocyanins in either layer; the team that went on to discover the VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 genes that control grape color have suggested that a gene involved in anthocyanin production has been deleted in the subepidermis of Malian, subepidermal cells invaded the epidermis to produce Shalistin.
During a ser
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown for winemaking, but raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture. A vineyard is characterised by its terroir, a French term loosely translating as "a sense of place" that refers to the specific geographical and geological characteristics of grapevine plantations, which may be imparted in the wine; the earliest evidence of wine production dates from between 6000 and 5000 BC. Wine making technology improved with the ancient Greeks but it wasn't until the end of the Roman Empire that cultivation techniques as we know them were common throughout Europe. In medieval Europe the Church was a staunch supporter of wine, necessary for the celebration of the Mass. During the lengthy instability of the Middle Ages, the monasteries maintained and developed viticultural practices, having the resources, security and interest in improving the quality of their vines, they owned and tended the best vineyards in Europe and vinum theologium was considered superior to all others.
European vineyards were planted with a wide variety of the Vitis vinifera grape. However, in the late 19th century, the entire species was nearly destroyed by the plant louse phylloxera accidentally introduced to Europe from North America. Native American grapevines include varieties such as Vitis labrusca, resistant to the bug. Vitis vinifera varieties were saved by being grafted onto the rootstock of Native American varieties, although there is still no remedy for phylloxera, which remains a danger to any vineyard not planted with grafted rootstock; the quest for vineyard efficiency has produced a bewildering range of systems and techniques in recent years. Due to the much more fertile New World growing conditions, attention has focussed on managing the vine's more vigorous growth. Innovation in palissage and pruning and thinning methods have replaced more general, traditional concepts like "yield per unit area" in favor of "maximizing yield of desired quality". Many of these new techniques have since been adopted in place of traditional practice in the more progressive of the so-called "Old World" vineyards.
Other recent practices include spraying water on vines to protect them from sub-zero temperatures, new grafting techniques, soil slotting, mechanical harvesting. Such techniques have made possible the development of wine industries in New World countries such as Canada. Today there is increasing interest in developing organic, ecologically sensitive and sustainable vineyards. Biodynamics has become popular in viticulture; the use of drip irrigation in recent years has expanded vineyards into areas which were unplantable. For well over half a century, Cornell University, the University of California and California State University, among others, have been conducting scientific experiments to improve viticulture and educate practitioners; the research includes investigating pest control. The International Grape Genome Program is a multi-national effort to discover a genetic means to improving quality, increasing yield and providing a "natural" resistance to pests; the implementation of mechanical harvesting is stimulated by changes in labor laws, labor shortages, bureaucratic complications.
It can be expensive to hire labor for short periods of time, which does not square well with the need to reduce production costs and harvest often at night. However small vineyards, incompatible widths between rows of grape vines and steep terrain hinder the employment of machine harvesting more than the resistance of traditional views which reject such harvesting. Numbers of New World vineyard plantings have been increasing as fast as European vineyards are being uprooted. Between 1990 and 2003, the number of U. S. vineyards increased from 1,180 to 3,860 km2 or 292,000 to 954,000 acres, while Australian vineyard numbers more than doubled from 590 to 1,440 km2 and Chilean vineyards grew from 654 to 1,679 km2. The size of individual vineyards in the New World is significant. Europe's 1.6 million vineyards are an average of 0.2 km2 each, while the average Australian vineyard is 0.5 km2, providing considerable economies of scale. Exports to Europe from New World growers increased by 54% in the six years up to 2006.
There have been significant changes in the kinds of grapes that are grown. For example, in Chile, large areas of low-quality grapes have been replaced with such grapes as Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon. In Argentina, due to an economic down-turn, acreage of Malbec was reduced in the 1980s, but in the 1990s, during the quality revolution incited by Malbec Pioneer Nicolás Catena Zapata, growers started planting more Malbec, most notably in higher altitudes where cooler temperatures and more intense sunlight yields more concentrated yet smoother and more complex malbecs. Grape changes are in response to changing consumer demand but sometimes result from vine pull schemes designed to promote vineyard change. Alternatively, the development of "T" budding now permits the grafting of a different grape variety onto existing rootstock in the vineyard, making it possible to switch varieties within a two-year period. Local legislation dictates which varieties are selected, how they are grown, whether vineyards can be irrigated and when grapes can be harvested, all of which in serves to rein
Classification of Saint-Émilion wine
In 1955 the wines of Saint-Émilion in the wine-growing region of Bordeaux were classified. Unlike the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855 covering wines from the Médoc and Graves regions, the Saint-Émilion list is updated every 10 years or so. Following the initial classification, the list was updated in 1969, 1986, 1996 and most in 2006; however the 2006 classification was declared invalid following a series of legal actions, the 1996 version of the classification has been reinstated for the vintages from 2006 to 2009. The region's Syndicat Viticole started planning for a classification of St.-Émilion wine in 1930, but it was not until October 7, 1954 that the principles behind the classification became official when the INAO agreed to take responsibility for handling the classification. The first list of classified St.-Émilion estates was published on June 16, 1955, was amended on August 7 and October 18, 1958. The original list contained; the fifth classification of St.-Émilion wine, announced in September 2006 and comprising 15 Premiers grands crus classés and 46 Grands crus classés, was challenged by four dissatisfied producers, demoted - La Tour du Pin Figeac, Cadet Bon, Guadet and Château de la Marzelle - and has resulted in several confusing legal turns during 2007 and 2008 that mean that the 2006 classification is invalid and the 1996 classification is applied instead.
The legal dispute has centered on the fact that several members of the panel involved in assessing the wines had vested interests, thus could be suspected of not being impartial. An administrative tribunal in Bordeaux declared the classification temporarily suspended in March 2007, after which a Bordeaux court suspended the classification indefinitely by denying a motion to lift the initial suspension. After that the Conseil d'État, the French supreme administrative court, on November 12, 2007 overturned the suspension of the 2006 classification, thereby reinstating it. However, this ruling was not final, only decided that the case of the four demoted châteaux did not merit a suspension of the entire classification; the matter was returned to a Bordeaux court to assess if the complaining châteux had been treated. On July 1, 2008 this court ruled that the wine tasting mechanism used in the 2006 classification was not impartial, thus again making the entire classification invalid. After the ruling, it was estimated that a further appeals process aiming at reinstating the classification could take about two years, would have an uncertain result.
This led the French regulatory body for wine, INAO, to request the French Government to use emergency powers to reinstate St.-Émilion classification, which it did on July 11, 2008. This decision extended the validity of the 1996 classification to the vintages 2006 to 2009. Thus, the complaining demoted châteaux are able to keep their classification, but those who were newly promoted are not; this measure will allow INAO to arrange for a less contested classification to be finalised by around 2010. The reaction among the estates who had their promotions retracted, such as Grand Corbin-Despagne, Pavie-Macquin and Troplong Mondot, was one of despair, who beyond facing financial consequences stated the decision was unjust, damaging to the image and community of St.-Émilion. Xavier Pariente of Troplong-Mondot said, "That's 20 years of hard work and investment by all the personnel here wiped out at the stroke of a pen, it frightens me and it revolts me". In December 2008, the French senate had allowed the 8 demoted estates to regain their previous status, with Pavie-Macquin and Troplong Mondot returning to Premiers grands crus classés, while Bellefond-Belcier, Fleur-Cardinale, Grand Corbin, Grand Corbin-Despagne, Monbousquet again to become classified as Grands crus classés, as a result of several months of lobbying.
However, in January 2009 this proposal was thrown out by the French government constitutional council. In March 2009, it was stated that the French Court of Appeal had made a final ruling, that the 2006 Saint-Émilion classification will not stand, although the ultimate outcome was the opposite. A law passed on May 13, 2009 contained a footnote clarifying that the six chateaux promoted to Grand Cru Classe in 2006 would be able to keep their status with immediate effect, date it back to the date of the classification, therefore the status of the classified estates of 1996, plus the eight chateaux promoted in 2006, is mandated by law until 2011, two years beyond what was scheduled; the 2012 classification was conducted differently than previous efforts, with tastings and inspections outsourced by INAO to independent groups with no involvement by St.-Emilion Wine Syndicate and Bordeaux wine trade, but instead wine professionals from Burgundy, the Rhône Valley, the Loire Valley and Provence made up a seven-person commission.
There is no longer a fixed number of châteaus which can be classified, the new rankings elevated Château Pavie and Château Angélus to Premier Classe A. Among new Premiers grands crus were Larcis Ducasse, Canon-la-Gaffelière and garagiste producers Valandraud and La Mondotte, while Château Magdelaine was omitted from the list as it will be merged with Château Bélair-Monange. Château La Tour du Pin Figeac did not apply for the 2012 classification, as it was being merged with Chateau Cheval Blanc. In January 2013, Château La Tour du Pin Figeac, Chateau Croque-Michotte and Château Corbin-Michotte filed complaints with a Bordeaux administrative tribunal, claiming there were procedural errors in the selection process. Chateau La Tour du Pi
Castillon-la-Bataille is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. This area was the site of the last battle of the Hundred Years' War, the Battle of Castillon, fought July 17, 1453. Castillon-la-Bataille, on the Dordogne river, saw the battle in which John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, charged valiantly but foolishly at the French artillery and was slain at the age of nearly 70, along with his son, John Talbot, 1st Viscount Lisle, most of the rest of the small English force that had gone out to try to prevent Bordeaux falling to the French king; this was the last battle in the Hundred Years' War. Near La Mothe-Montraval, on the right bank of the Dordogne, a tumulus is pointed out under the name of Talbot's tomb. On November 27, 1953, the name of the town was changed from Castillon-sur-Dordogne to its current name. Castillonnais Communes of the Gironde department INSEE