Saint-Cloud is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.6 kilometres from the centre of Paris. Like other communes of Hauts-de-Seine such as Marnes-la-Coquette, Neuilly-sur-Seine or Vaucresson, Saint-Cloud is one of the wealthiest towns in France, ranked second in average household income among communities with 10- to 50-thousand tax households. In 2006, it had a population of 29,981; the town is named after Clodoald, grandson of Clovis, supposed to have sought refuge in a hamlet on the Seine near Paris named Novigentum, like many other newly founded mercantile settlements outside the traditional towns. After he was canonized, the village where his tomb was located took the name of Sanctus Clodoaldus. A park contains the ruins of the Château de Saint-Cloud, built in 1572 and destroyed by fire in 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War; the château was the residence of several French rulers and served as the main country residence of the cadet Orléans line prior to the French Revolution.
The palace was the site of the coup d'état led by Napoleon Bonaparte that overthrew the French Directory in 1799. The town is famous for the Saint-Cloud porcelain produced there from 1693 to 1766; the Headquarters of the International Criminal Police Organization had been located at 22 Rue Armengaud from 1966 until 1989, when it moved to Lyon. The main landmarks are the park of the demolished Château de Saint-Cloud and the Pavillon de Breteuil; the Saint-Cloud Racecourse, a race track for Thoroughbred flat racing, was built by Edmond Blanc in 1901 and is host to a number of important races including the annual Grand Prix de Saint-Cloud. On the Avenue de Longchamp, in Saint-Cloud, there is a bronze statue commissioned by the Airclub of France representing the Greek god Icarus, in honour of Santos Dumont; the monument was inaugurated on October 19, 1913, is located on a square near the old Aerostation of Saint-Cloud, where Santos Dumont performed his experiments with the heavier than air. Dumont was responsible for the construction of the first hangar in the world in Saint-Cloud.
Today there is a replica of it, in the same place, erected in 1952, because the original was destroyed for its bronze during the Nazi military occupation. Saint-Cloud is served by two stations on the Transilien La Défense and Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail lines: Le Val d'Or and Saint-Cloud; the town is served by a number of stops on the T2 Tramway, which runs along the side of the Seine. Central Saint-Cloud, known as le village, is served by the metro station'Boulogne-Pont de Saint-Cloud', located across the Seine river on the Boulogne-Billancourt side of the Pont de Saint Cloud. René Huguenin Hospital Public high schools: Lycée Alexandre-Dumas Lycée Santos-DumontIt is served by the public high school Lycée Jean Pierre Vernant in Sèvres. Private high schools: Institution Saint-Pie-XInternational schools: American School of Paris Internationale Deutsche Schule Paris Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of France from 1715 to 1723 Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans Regent of Lorraine, lived at the Palace at Saint-Cloud Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, a key figure during the early stages of the French Revolution.
Napoléon Ier – lived in the Château de Saint-Cloud Antoine Sénard – member of the National Assembly, mayor of Saint-Cloud from 1871 to 1874 Émile Verhaeren – Flemish poet André Chevrillon – French author Florent Schmitt – French composer Maurice Ravel – French composer Marcel Dassault – French businessman and politician Santos Dumont – Brazilian inventor and aviation pioneer Lino Ventura – Italian actor and died in Saint-Cloud Jean-Pierre Fourcade – French Minister, mayor of Saint-Cloud from 1971 to 1992 Gérard Holtz, French sports journalist Jean-Marie Le Pen, French politician, owner of Domaine de Montretout in Saint-Cloud. Edmond Blanc René Alexandre Maurice Bessy Gérard Blain Gilbert Grandval Fernand Gravey Jean-René Huguenin Dorothy Jordan Vlado Perlemuter Andrée Servilange Jean Toulout Maurice Yvain Saint-Cloud is twinned with: Bad Godesberg, Germany Boadilla del Monte, Spain Frascati, Italy Kortrijk, Belgium Maidenhead, United Kingdom Saint-Cloud is the main setting of the 1955 French film Les Diaboliques.
The 2006 NCAA Division III Men's Basketball Tournament was the 32nd annual single-elimination tournament to determine the national champions of National Collegiate Athletic Association men's Division III collegiate basketball in the United States. The field contained sixty-four teams, each program was allocated to one of four sectionals. All sectional games were played on campus sites, while the national semifinals, third-place final, championship finals were contested at the Salem Civic Center in Salem, Virginia. Virginia Wesleyan defeated Wittenberg, 59–56, in the championship, clinching their first national title; the Marlins were coached by David Macedo. Ton Ton Balenga from Virginia Wesleyan, was named Most Outstanding Player. Site: Salem Civic Center, Virginia 2006 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament 2006 NCAA Division II Men's Basketball Tournament 2006 NCAA Division III Women's Basketball Tournament 2006 NAIA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament
J. C. Newman Cigar Company was established in 1895 and is the oldest family-owned premium cigar maker in the United States, it was founded in Ohio by Julius Caeser Newman, a Hungarian immigrant. The business relocated to a historic 1910 cigar factory in the Cigar City of Ybor City, Florida in 1954; the family business is now in its fourth generation. J. C. Newman Cigar Company's long history dates back more than a century to 1895, when Julius Caeser Newman rolled his first cigars in the family barn in Cleveland, Ohio. At the young age of 14, Julius Caeser Newman, became a cigar maker apprentice in Cleveland, Ohio. In 1890, the Newmans were recent immigrants to the United States and J. C.'s mother, paid $3.00 per month so that he could learn the cigar trade. After completing his apprenticeship, J. C. worked as a journeyman cigar maker for the next 3 years until a severe recession resulted in massive layoffs throughout the country. As an unemployed immigrant cigar maker, J. C. decided to start his own company.
Though his dreams of success were great, the company's beginnings were quite simple. In 1895, J. C. created a cigar table from some old boards, borrowed $50 for tobacco, received his first order for 500 cigars from the family grocer. The business that started that day in the barn behind the family home was the J. C. Newman Cigar Company. J. C.’s first brand of cigars was called “A. B. C.” an acronym that stood for “Akron and Cleveland,”, the name of a local streetcar line. Over the years, J. C. had four children. By 1916, the company had expanded with the addition of two factories in Marion and Lorain and employed a total of 700 employees. J. C.’s top-selling cigar brand was called Judge Wright, with its famous slogan, “A fair trial will give a verdict in favor of this cigar.” However, the cigar business was difficult during the Great Depression. After World War II, J. C.’s sons and Millard Newman, returned from military service and joined the company. Stanford was responsible for the cigar manufacturing operations and Millard oversaw the company’s sales.
As America prospered, the Newmans’ company continued to flourish in Cleveland selling its famous, Student Prince cigars. The company joined the Tampa cigar manufacturing community in 1954 when J. C. determined. He resolved to relocate to Tampa, which enjoyed a world-class reputation for producing high-quality premium cigars; the move brought him closer to his primary source of tobacco: Cuba. Interestingly, in the early part of the 19th century, more hand-rolled Clear Havana cigars – cigars made of Cuban tobacco – had been made in Tampa than were made in Cuba and imported in the United States. Prior to uprooting his whole life and company, J. C. sent his son Stanford to begin trial operations. Stanford found an ideal manufacturing location at a landmark cigar factory in Ybor City, Tampa's central cigar-making district founded in 1886 by legendary Cuban revolutionary Vincent Ybor. Built in 1910, the Regensburg factory was one of the last and largest cigar factories built in Tampa. Like every cigar factory in town, the Regensburg had a nickname: El Reloj, Spanish for “The Clock.”
For generations, residents had risen and retired to the hourly chimes ringing from its tall brick clock tower. After decades of silence, the landmark El Reloj now rings again thanks to a loving restoration by the Newman family in 2002. Stanford knew that if the company was going to continue to be successful, he would need to acquire an existing premium brand. So, five months after the death of his father in 1958, Stanford purchased the internationally renowned Cuesta-Rey brand from Karl and Anch Cuesta. After gaining title to Cuesta-Rey, when every other Tampa cigar manufacturer was marketing their standard palma shape cigar for 26¢, Stanford created a novel package for his Cuesta-Rey palma cigars — two bundles of 25 cigars packed in the round and placed in luxurious aromatic cedar cabinets; the legendary 35¢ Cuesta-Rey #95 cigar was born. In 1961 when the enactment of the Cuban Embargo made it impossible for Tampa's cigar manufacturers to obtain their critical tobaccos, Stanford was a visionary.
As a 25-year veteran cigar manufacturer at the time, he searched the world for a high quality, flavorful wrapper leaf to replace his historic Cuban tobacco. He discovered Cameroon wrapper leaves of West Africa. Cameroon wrapper was similar to Cuban tobacco in appearance, but with better burning qualities and an exceptional taste all its own. In 1963 he became the first premium cigar manufacturer to introduce Cameroon tobacco to America. Though it cost twice the price of Cuban tobacco, it was Cameroon wrapper, responsible for making Cuesta-Rey one of the largest selling premium cigars in the country. Three weeks after the leveraged buy-out was completed, fellow Tampa cigar maker, Carlos Fuente, Sr. called Stanford with a proposition. Carlos wanted to close his Tampa factory and concentrate his efforts on his handmade factory in the Dominican Republic, he asked if Stanford would be interested in making his Tampa factory brands to which he agreed, provided that Carlos made handmade cigars for J.
C. Newman Cigar Co; the first brand under the new partnership, La Unica Dominican Primeros, became the number one selling premium bundle cigar in American within 6 months of its launch. Shortly after, production of Cuesta-Rey was moved to the Fuente's Dominican factory and enjoyed similar success. In 1990, J. C. Newman Cigar Co. became the distributor of Carlos’ Arturo Fuente and Montesino brands expanding sales across the United States, a partnership which continues on today. Today, a new generation contin
AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation transmissions. It was the first method developed for making audio radio transmissions, is still used worldwide for medium wave transmissions, but on the longwave and shortwave radio bands; the earliest experimental AM transmissions began in the early 1900s. However, widespread AM broadcasting was not established until the 1920s, following the development of vacuum tube receivers and transmitters. AM radio remained the dominant method of broadcasting for the next 30 years, a period called the "Golden Age of Radio", until television broadcasting became widespread in the 1950s and received most of the programming carried by radio. Subsequently, AM radio's audiences have greatly shrunk due to competition from FM radio, Digital Audio Broadcasting, satellite radio, HD radio and Internet streaming. AM transmissions are much more susceptible than FM or digital signals are to interference, have lower audio fidelity.
Thus, AM broadcasters tend to specialise in spoken-word formats, such as talk radio, all news and sports, leaving the broadcasting of music to FM and digital stations. The idea of broadcasting — the unrestricted transmission of signals to a widespread audience — dates back to the founding period of radio development though the earliest radio transmissions known as "Hertzian radiation" and "wireless telegraphy", used spark-gap transmitters that could only transmit the dots-and-dashes of Morse code. In October 1898 a London publication, The Electrician, noted that "there are rare cases where, as Dr. Lodge once expressed it, it might be advantageous to'shout' the message, spreading it broadcast to receivers in all directions". However, it was recognized that this would involve significant financial issues, as that same year The Electrician commented "did not Prof. Lodge forget that no one wants to pay for shouting to the world on a system by which it would be impossible to prevent non-subscribers from benefiting gratuitously?"On January 1, 1902, Nathan Stubblefield gave a short-range "wireless telephone" demonstration, that included broadcasting speech and music to seven locations throughout Murray, Kentucky.
However, this was transmitted using induction rather than radio signals, although Stubblefield predicted that his system would be perfected so that "it will be possible to communicate with hundreds of homes at the same time", "a single message can be sent from a central station to all parts of the United States", he was unable to overcome the inherent distance limitations of this technology. The earliest public radiotelegraph broadcasts were provided as government services, beginning with daily time signals inaugurated on January 1, 1905, by a number of U. S. Navy stations. In Europe, signals transmitted from a station located on the Eiffel tower were received throughout much of Europe. In both the United States and France this led to a small market of receiver lines designed geared for jewelers who needed accurate time to set their clocks, including the Ondophone in France, the De Forest RS-100 Jewelers Time Receiver in the United States The ability to pick up time signal broadcasts, in addition to Morse code weather reports and news summaries attracted the interest of amateur radio enthusiasts.
It was recognized that, much like the telegraph had preceded the invention of the telephone, the ability to make audio radio transmissions would be a significant technical advance. Despite this knowledge, it still took two decades to perfect the technology needed to make quality audio transmissions. In addition, the telephone had been used for distributing entertainment, outside of a few "telephone newspaper" systems, most of which were established in Europe. With this in mind, most early radiotelephone development envisioned that the device would be more profitably developed as a "wireless telephone" for personal communication, or for providing links where regular telephone lines could not be run, rather than for the uncertain finances of broadcasting; the person credited as the primary early developer of AM technology is Canadian-born inventor Reginald Fessenden. The original spark-gap radio transmitters were impractical for transmitting audio, since they produced discontinuous pulses known as "damped waves".
Fessenden realized that what was needed was a new type of radio transmitter that produced steady "undamped" signals, which could be "modulated" to reflect the sounds being transmitted. Fessenden's basic approach was disclosed in U. S. Patent 706,737, which he applied for on May 29, 1901, was issued the next year, it called for the use of a high-speed alternator that generated "pure sine waves" and produced "a continuous train of radiant waves of uniform strength", or, in modern terminology, a continuous-wave transmitter. Fessenden began his research on audio transmissions while doing developmental work for the United States Weather Service on Cobb Island, Maryland; because he did not yet have a continuous-wave transmitter he worked with an experimental "high-frequency spark" transmitter, taking advantage of the fact that the higher the spark rate, the closer a spark-gap transmission comes to producing continuous waves. He reported that, in the fall of 1900, he transmitted speech over a distance of about 1.6 kilometers, which appears to have been the first successful audio transmission using radio signals.
However, at this time the sound was far too distorted to be commercially practical. For a time he continued working with more sophist
Maha Mandalaswara Birud-antembara-ganda Hiriya Bettada Vijaya Chamaraja Wodeyar III was fifth raja of the Kingdom of Mysore and the last one to rule as feudal king under the Vijayanagara Empire. He reigned after his father's demise in 1513 until his death in 1553. Chamaraja Wodeyar III ruled under four Vijayanagara emperors of the Tuluva dynasty, he began his kingship under Emperor Krishnadevaraya. Krishnadevaraya's rajaguru was a Mysore-born guru and philosopher. Further, the growing rebel against Vijayanagara was suspended by Chamaraja Wodeyar III's father, Chamaraja Wodeyar II in order to understand Krishnadevaraya first. Krishnadevaraya proved to be an efficient ruler, he was inordinately knowledgeable. His reign focussed on all aspects of livelihood: arts and literature, culture and business, whatnot. Besides, his rule was justified by its benevolence, hence none under him rose against him, he defeated Yusuf Adil Khan's offspring Yusuf Adil Khan of the Bijapur Sultanate and annexed many Bahamani holdings.
During the last days of Krishnadevaraya and after his time, his brother Achyuta Deva Raya took over, continuing in his brother's footsteps. He was succeeded by his son Venkata Raya. However, Venkata Raya's maternal uncle, Salakaraju Chinna Tirumala, had all claimants to the throne assassinated and usurped to power, he went on to place the Bijapur Sultan Ibrahim Adil Shah I in his place for seven days in defiance of Venkata Raya's supporters. This was too much for Vijayanagara's nobles to tolerate; this was the apple of discord for all subordinate Hindu rulers, including Chamaraja Wodeyar III. After diplomatically convincing, Salakaraju Chinna Tirumala returned, but Venkata Raya's followers assassinated Salakaraju Chinna Tirumala and installed Achyuta Raya's nephew, Sadasiva Raya, with Krishnadevaraya's son-in-law Rama Raya as royal adviser, who played de facto emperor, was strategically mediating among the Deccan Sultanates with the long-term intention of breaking them apart. During this period, Chamaraja Wodeyar came to begin questioning the authenticity of the Vijayanagara ruling family and what had become of it from the Sangama dynasty to the Tuluva family.
He was queasy about bowing before the centre in Vijayanagara and had unofficially begun to undermine the centre's authority. He thought that it was not necessary any more for Mysore Kingdom to act as feudal lords but as allied friends, but before he could take a political stand, Chamaraja Wodeyar III died. Chamaraja Wodeyar III constructed the fort of Mysore on the site of what was a village called Puragiri, whereupon today stands Mysore Palace; this fort defined for the first time the palace of the monarch of the Kingdom of Mysore. The fort has been built and rebuilt multiple times, like the palace itself it abuts, with the most recent in 1940, commissioned by Maharaja Jayachamaraja Wadiyar during the beginning of his reign. Chamaraja Wodeyar III died on 17 February 1553. Wodeyar dynasty Mysore Palace
True & Livin is a studio album by Zion I. It was released by Live Up Records in 2005. Kabir Hamid of Chicago Reader described the album as "soulful hip-hop that favors acoustic sounds over electronics, thoughtfulness over braggadocio, spirit-enhancing grooves over testosterone-fueled beats." Rachel Swan of East Bay Express wrote, "This is hip-hop without irony, geared for people who prefer feel-good vibes and songs with happy endings." A. J. Wolosenko of Vibe wrote, "True & Livin' is an album full of contradictions, that's what makes it so interesting and appealing." Del F. Cowie of Exclaim! Commented that "While past efforts dabbled with drum & bass and delved into melodic electronics and live instrumentation, this organic effort represents the most potent synthesis yet of their spiritually-infused hip-hop." True & Livin' at Discogs