Saint-Lary-Soulan is a commune in the Hautes-Pyrénées department in south-western France. Saint-Lary is located in Hautes-Pyrénées 80 km south of the département's capital Tarbes, next to the Le Néouvielle Nature Reserve and the Pyrenees National Park and is a 20-minute drive to Spain. Saint-Lary-Soulan is one of the largest ski resorts in the French Pyrenees with over 100 km of downhill slopes. There are 53 pistes spread over three linked, yet distinct sectors. Saint Lary 1700 is known as the Pla d'Adet sector and provides family skiing including snow kindergarten, toboggan run and a'Kidpark', a snowpark aimed at young skiers aged between 6 and 12 years. Saint Lary 1900 is frequented by more experienced skiers; the showpiece ski run is the Mirabelle. Saint Lary 2400 has a snowpark which doubles as a skate park in the summer and slalom stadiums and provides access to Lake Oule for snow-shoeing. Saint-Lary-Soulan is a popular base camp for walkers; the coast to coast GR10 footpath passes through Saint-Lary itself and both the Pyrenees National Park and The Néouvielle Nature Reserve are close by.
The Tour de France runs through Saint-Lary-Soulan, most in 2005 and is close to a number of mountain climbs used on the tour including the Pla d'Adet, Col d'Aspin, Col de Peyresourde and Col du Tourmalet. Stage 17 of the 2014 Tour de France finishes above the commune. Stage 17 of the 2018 Tour de France will finish here on the Col du Portet. Communes of the Hautes-Pyrénées department INSEE commune file Official Saint Lary Website Pyrenees Travel information guide Official Tour de France Website George Hincapie Performance Village
Avranches is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. It is a subprefecture of the department; the inhabitants are called Avranchinais. By the end of the Roman period, the settlement of Ingena, capital of the Abrincatui tribe, had taken the name of the tribe itself; this was the origin of the name Avranches. In 511 the town became the seat of a bishopric and subsequently of a major Romanesque cathedral dedicated to Saint Andrew, dismantled during the French revolutionary period; as the region of Brittany emerged from the Roman region of Armorica, Avranchin was held by Alan I, King of Brittany as part of the Kingdom of Brittany at the turn of the 10th century. The regions that became the Duchies of Normandy and Brittany each experienced devastating Viking raids, with Brittany occupied by Vikings from 907 to 937. In 933 Avranches and its territory, the Avranchin, were ceded to the Normans. Hugh d'Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester, a magnate under William the Conqueror, was the son of Richard le Goz, Vicomte d'Avranches.
In 1172 a council was held at Avranches in response to the murder of Anglo-Norman Saint Thomas Becket. Henry II, King of England, after due penance done at Avranches on 21 May 1172, was absolved from the censures incurred by the assassination of the holy prelate and reached the Compromise of Avranches with the Church, swearing fidelity to Pope Alexander III in the person of the papal legate; the same council was forbidden to confer on children benefice, carrying with it the cure of souls, or on the children of priests for the churches of their fathers. Each parish was required to have an assistant, the Advent fast was commended to all who could observe it to ecclesiastics; the town was damaged in the Wars of Religion. Álvaro Vaz de Almada was made 1st Count of Avranches by King Henry VI of England on August 8, 1444. Many English families settled here after the Treaty of Paris. A literal description of the town in the 19th century is recorded in Guy de Maupassant's novel Notre Cœur, when the main character Mariolle meets his lover and sets up for Mont Saint-Michel:The houses crowning the heights gave to the place from a distance the appearance of a fortification.
Seen close at hand, it was an ancient and pretty Norman city, with small dwellings of regular and similar appearance built adjoining one another, giving an aspect of ancient pride and modern comfort, a feudal yet peasant-like air. The liberation of Avranches during World War II was led by General George S. Patton and began on 31 July 1944. On 1 January 2019, the former commune Saint-Martin-des-Champs was merged into Avranches. Avranches is situated at the southern end of the Cotentin Peninsula on the E40 road connecting Saint-Lô with Brittany and on the rail line between Lison and Dol; the town was founded on high ground overlooking the dunes and coastal marshes along the bay forming the corner between the peninsulas of the Cotentin and Brittany. From Avranches, it is possible to see the Mont Saint-Michel, founded by Saint Aubert, Bishop of Avranches in the 8th century. A museum houses the collection of manuscripts of Mont Saint-Michel, deposited in the municipal archives during the French Revolution.
It is one of the largest collections of medieval illuminated manuscripts in France, outside national and university libraries. Dominated by the cathedral, where Henry II did penance, an open grassed area La Plate-Forme overlooking the bay towards Mont Saint-Michel displays only a few remnants of the destroyed building; the major church Notre Dame des Champs was constructed in Gothic Revival style in the 19th century to restore the religious life of the town after the destruction of the cathedral. A smaller church Saint Gervais houses a treasury, best known for the purported skull of Saint Aubert complete with hole where the archangel Michael's finger pierced it; the botanical gardens were founded in the grounds of the former Franciscan convent in the late 18th century. The expansion and introduction of exotic species in the 19th century and the location of the gardens overlooking the bay made the gardens an important sight in the town; the Manoir de Brion, an ancient Benedictine priory of Mont Saint-Michel, is located in Dragey.
Avranches is twinned with St. Helier in Jersey. On 2 March 2010 a Jersey-registered boat "Archangel" succeeded in reaching Avranches at Marcey-les-Grèves, it is believed. US Avranches is based in the commune. Saint-Gaudens, since the autumn of 1944, when the town of Saint-Gaudens, Haute-Garonne fraternally assisted Avranches by giving clothing and food to it Korbach, since 1963 Saint Helier, since 1982 Crediton, United Kingdom, since 1993 Avranches was the birthplace of: General Jean-Marie Valhubert Paul-Armand Challemel-Lacour, statesman Jean-Luc Ponty and jazz composer Samuel Le Bihan, a movie actor. Hamon de Massey, Norman lord in the barony of Chester. INSEE commune file Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Council of Avranches". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company
Nébouzan was a small province of France located in the foothills of the Pyrenees mountains, in the southwest of France. It was not a contiguous province, but it was made up of several detached territories half of them around the town of Saint-Gaudens in the south of the present-day département of Haute-Garonne, the other half around the town of Lannemezan in the east of the present-day département of Hautes-Pyrénées; the capital of Nébouzan was Saint-Gaudens. Nébouzan had a land area of 465 km2. At the 1999 French census there were 29,218 inhabitants on the territory of the former province of Nébouzan, which means a density of 63 inh. per km². There are only two urban areas in Nébouzan: Saint-Gaudens, with 11,503 inhabitants in 1999, Lannemezan, with 6,137 inhabitants in 1999. Nébouzan was a part of Comminges. Sometime in the 13th century, the area of Saint-Plancard, 16 km. northwest of Saint-Gaudens, became the viscounty of Nébouzan, its viscounts were vassals of the counts of Comminges. In 1258, the viscount of Béarn, Gaston VII, acquired Nébouzan.
He had some claims over it through his wife, daughter of the last countess of Bigorre, herself a daughter of Count Bernard IV of Comminges. From 1267 on, Saint-Gaudens became the capital of Nébouzan. In 1290, when Gaston VII of Béarn died without a male heir, it was his son-in-law Count Roger-Bernard III of Foix who inherited Béarn, so Nébouzan became one of the fiefs of the House of Foix-Béarn. In the second part of the 14th century, the famous count Gaston III Fébus of Foix, trying to join his domains of Béarn and Foix together, managed to acquire Lannemezan, the fortified castle of Mauvezin, a key position near Lannemezan; these areas were incorporated into Nébouzan. The House of Foix-Béarn managed to acquire Bigorre, there remained only Comminges and Couserans, united to the French crown in the 1450s, which prevented them from creating a continuous territory from Foix to Béarn; the estates of the House of Foix-Béarn passed through heiresses to the House of Albret eventually to the House of Bourbon with Henry III of Navarre, son of Antoine de Bourbon and Jeanne d'Albret.
Henry III of Navarre became King Henry IV of France in 1589. In 1607, he united to the French crown those of his personal fiefs that were under French sovereignty, so Nébouzan became part of the royal domain. Before the French Revolution, Nébouzan was made part of the gouvernement of Guienne-Gascony, whereas for general matters it depended from the généralité of Auch like the rest of Gascony. For judicial matters, Nébouzan depended from the Parlement of Toulouse. Unlike so many other French provinces, Nébouzan, despite its small size, kept its provincial states until the Revolution; the provincial states of Nébouzan, which met in Saint-Gaudens, decided what was the level of taxation in Nébouzan, how much tax money was given to the king of France. In 1789, when it was time to elect representatives to the Estates-General in Versailles, Nébouzan was forced to join with the province of Comminges, which surrounded entirely the several detached areas making up Nébouzan, together they elected eight representatives to Versailles.
Nébouzan sent a letter of protest to Versailles: "The province of Nébouzan would regard as a disgrace the refusal of her deputation". In 1790, when French départements were created, the eastern part of Nébouzan around Saint-Gaudens and Saint-Plancard was joined with Comminges, a part of Languedoc, a part of Gascony to form the Haute-Garonne département, while the western part of Nébouzan around Lannemezan and Mauvezin was joined with Quatre-Vallées, small parts of Gascony to form the Hautes-Pyrénées département. Today, Nébouzan is the most forgotten of the old provinces of France. Most other provinces, although no longer on the administrative map, still exist as cultural or economic areas, with people referring to them. Nébouzan, however, is ignored today. People living on the territory of the former province of Nébouzan think of their area as "Comminges", indeed Saint-Gaudens is nowadays considered to be the capital of Comminges, it is maybe further west, in Hautes-Pyrénées, around Lannemezan, that Nébouzan is most remembered, because people there feel quite distinct from Bigorre, so they like to mention that their area was once Nébouzan, not Bigorre
Augustus Saint-Gaudens was an American sculptor of the Beaux-Arts generation who embodied the ideals of the American Renaissance. Raised in New York City, he traveled to Europe for further training and artistic study, returned to New York, where he achieved major critical success for his monuments commemorating heroes of the American Civil War, many of which still stand. In addition to his works such as the Robert Gould Shaw Memorial on Boston Common, the outstanding grand equestrian monuments to Civil War Generals, John A. Logan in Chicago's Grant Park, William Tecumseh Sherman, at the corner of New York's Central Park. Saint-Gaudens created Classical works such as the Diana, employed his skills in numismatics. Most notably, he designed the $20 "double eagle" gold piece for the US Mint, considered one of the most beautiful American coins issued as well as the $10 "Indian Head" gold eagle, both of which were minted from 1907 until 1933. In his years he founded the "Cornish Colony", an artistic colony that included notable painters, sculptors and architects.
His brother Louis Saint-Gaudens, with whom he collaborated, was a well-known sculptor. Saint-Gaudens was born in Dublin to a French father, Bernard Paul Ernest Saint-Gaudens, a shoemaker by trade from a small village in the French Pyrenees, Aspet, 15 kilometers from Saint-Gaudens, an Irish mother, he was raised in New York. In 1861, he became an apprentice to a cameo-cutter, Louis Avet, took evening art classes at the Cooper Union in New York City. Two years he was hired as an apprentice of Jules Le Brethon, another cameo cutter, enrolled at the National Academy of Design. At age 19, his apprenticeship was completed and he traveled to Paris in 1867, where he studied in the atelier of François Jouffroy at the École des Beaux-Arts. In 1870, he left Paris for Rome to study art and architecture, worked on his first commissions. There he met a deaf American art student, Augusta Fisher Homer, whom he married on June 1, 1877; the couple had a son named Homer Saint-Gaudens. In 1874, Edwards Pierrepont, a prominent New York reformer, hired Saint-Gaudens to create a marble bust of himself.
Pierrepont, a phrenologist, proved to be a demanding client, insisting that Saint-Gaudens make his head larger. Saint-Gaudens said that Pierrepont's bust "seemed to be affected with some dreadful swelling disease" and he told a friend that he would "give anything to get hold of that bust and smash it to atoms". In 1876, he won a commission for a bronze David Farragut Memorial, he rented a studio at 49 rue Notre Dame des Champs. Stanford White designed the pedestal, it was unveiled on May 1881, in Madison Square Park. He collaborated with Stanford White again in 1892–94 when he created Diana as a weather vane for the second Madison Square Garden building in New York City; the statue stood on a 300-foot-high tower. It was the first statue in that part of Manhattan to be lit at night by electricity; the statue and its tower was a landmark until 1925. In New York, he was a member of the Tilers, a group of prominent artists and writers, including Winslow Homer, William Merritt Chase and Arthur Quartley.
He was a member of the Salmagundi Club in New York. In 1876, Saint-Gaudens received his first major commission: a monument to Civil War Admiral David Farragut, in New York's Madison Square; the commissions followed fast, including the colossal Standing Lincoln in Lincoln Park, Chicago in a setting by architect White, 1884–1887, considered the finest portrait statue in the United States, a long series of memorials, funerary monuments and busts, including the Adams Memorial, the Peter Cooper Monument, the John A. Logan Monument. Arguably the greatest of these monuments is the bronze bas-relief that forms the Robert Gould Shaw Memorial on Boston Common, 1884–1897, which Saint-Gaudens labored on for 14 years. Two grand equestrian monuments to Civil War generals are outstanding: to General John A. Logan, atop a tumulus in Chicago, 1894–1897, to William Tecumseh Sherman at the corner of Central Park in New York, 1892–1903, the first use of Robert Treat Paine's pointing device for the accurate mechanical enlargement of sculpture models.
The depictions of the African-American soldiers on the Shaw memorial is noted as a rare example of true-to-life, non-derogatory, depictions of Afro-ancestral physical characteristics in 19th-century American art. For the Lincoln Centennial in 1909, Saint-Gaudens produced another statue of the president. A seated figure, Abraham Lincoln: The Head of State, is in Chicago's Grant Park. Saint-Gaudens completed the design work and had begun casting the statue at the time of his death—his workshop completed it; the statue's head was used as the model for the commemorative postage stamp issued on the 100th anniversary of Lincoln's birth. Saint-Gaudens created the statue for the monument of Charles Stewart Parnell, installed at the north end of Dublin's O'Connell Street in 1911
Subprefectures in France
In France, a subprefecture is the administrative center of a departmental arrondissement that does not contain the prefecture for its department. The term applies to the building that houses the administrative headquarters for an arrondissement; the civil servant in charge of a subprefecture is the subprefect, assisted by a general secretary. Between May 1982 and February 1988, subprefects were known instead by the title commissaire adjoint de la République. Where the administration of an arrondissement is carried out from a prefecture, the general secretary to the prefect carries out duties equivalent to those of the subprefect; the municipal arrondissements of Paris and Marseille are divisions of the city rather than the prefecture, so are not arrondissements in the same sense. List of subprefectures of France List of arrondissements of France
Haute-Garonne is a department in the southwest of France named after the Garonne river. Its main city and capital is Toulouse. Haute-Garonne is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from part of the former province of Languedoc. The department was larger; the reduction in its area resulted from an imperial decree dated 21 November 1808 and which established the neighbouring department of Tarn-et-Garonne, to the north. The new department, created in response to the pleadings of various locally powerful politicians, took territory from five surrounding departments including Haute-Garonne; the districts lost to Tarn-et-Garonne in 1808 were those of Castelsarrasin. Haute-Garonne is part of the current region of Occitanie and is surrounded by the departments of Hautes-Pyrénées, Tarn-et-Garonne, Tarn and Ariège, it borders Spain in the south. The department is crossed by the upper course of the Garonne River for nearly 200 kilometers; the borders of the department follow the river.
The Garonne enters France from Spain at the town of Fos, goes through Toulouse and leaves the department. The extreme south of the department lies in the Pyrenees mountain range and is mountainous; the highest elevation is the Peak of Perdiguère, at 3,222 meters above sea level. This department was the political base of former Prime Minister Lionel Jospin; the President of the General Council is Pierre Izard of the Socialist Party. The inhabitants of the department are called Haut-Garonnais; the greatest population concentration is around Toulouse. The south of the department is quite sparsely populated. More than a million people inhabited the department at the last census in 1999. Young people are well represented with 55% of the population under the age of 40 and of those, 16% are between the ages of 20 and 29; this is. The largest towns are: The department has four ski resorts. Peyragudes, 55 km of slopes Luchon-Superbagnères, 30 km of slopes Le Mourtis, 22 km of slopes Bourg-d'Oueil Cantons of the Haute-Garonne department Communes of the Haute-Garonne department Arrondissements of the Haute-Garonne department General council website Prefecture website Tourism website Photography Panoramics 360° website
Vielha e Mijaran
Vielha e Mijaran is a municipality in Aran, Spain. It was created in 1970 by the merger of the municipalities of Arròs e Vila, Escunhau, Gausac and Vilac: some of the former municipalities retain some privileges as "decentralised municipal entities", as does the village of Betren. Mijaran means "Middle Aran" in Aranese, as the inhabited part of the municipality is situated in the valley of the Garonne; the Noguera Ribagorçana has its source on the territory of the municipality, on the opposite side of the watershed. The ajuntament is in Vielha, spelled Viella in Catalan and Spanish, the capital of Aran; the municipality is linked to the rest of Catalonia by the N-230 road. The C-28 road continues up the valley to Naut Aran, on over the Port de la Bonaigua to the comarca of Pallars Sobirà; this road, the higher stretches of which are impassable in winter, was the only route between the Aran valley and the rest of Spain before the opening of the Vielha tunnel in 1948. The municipality is composed of thirteen distinct settlements.
Populations are given as of 2001: Arròs Aubèrt, in the EMD of Aubèrt e Betlan Betlan, on the left bank of the Garonne Betren, on the left bank of the Garonne Casarilh, in the EMD of Escunhau e Casarilh, on the left bank of the Garonne Casau, inhabited in Roman times Escunhau Gausac Mont, on the right bank of the Garonne at the foot of the Es Cròdos range Montcorbau, on the right bank of the Garonne Vielha Vila Vilac Saint-Gaudens, France