Denis Diderot was a French philosopher, art critic, writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert. He was a prominent figure during the Enlightenment. Diderot began his education by obtaining a Master of Arts degree in philosophy at a Jesuit college in 1732, he considered working in the church clergy before studying law. When he decided to become a writer in 1734, his father disowned him for not entering one of the learned professions, he lived a bohemian existence for the next decade. He befriended philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau in 1742. Though his work was broad as well as rigorous, it did not bring Diderot riches, he secured none of the posts that were given to needy men of letters. He saw no alternative to selling his library to provide a dowry for his daughter. Empress Catherine II of Russia heard of his financial troubles and commissioned an agent in Paris to buy the library, she requested that the philosopher retain the books in Paris until she required them, act as her librarian with a yearly salary.
Between October 1773 and March 1774, the sick Diderot spent a few months at the empress's court in Saint Petersburg. Diderot died of pulmonary thrombosis in Paris on 31 July 1784, was buried in the city's Église Saint-Roch, his heirs sent his vast library to Catherine II, who had it deposited at the National Library of Russia. He has several times been denied burial in the Panthéon with other French notables; the French government considered memorializing him in this fashion on the 300th anniversary of his birth, but this did not come to pass. Diderot's literary reputation during his lifetime rested on his plays and his contributions to the Encyclopédie. Denis Diderot was born in Champagne, his parents were Didier Diderot, a cutler, maître coutelier, his wife, Angélique Vigneron. Three of five siblings survived to adulthood, Denise Diderot and their youngest brother Pierre-Didier Diderot, their sister Angélique Diderot. According to Arthur McCandless Wilson, Denis Diderot admired his sister Denise, sometimes referring to her as "a female Socrates".
Diderot began his formal education at a Jesuit college in Langres, earning a Master of Arts degree in philosophy in 1732. He entered the Collège d'Harcourt of the University of Paris, he abandoned the idea of entering the clergy in 1735, instead decided to study at the Paris Law Faculty. His study of law was short-lived however and in the early 1740s, he decided to become a writer and translator; because of his refusal to enter one of the learned professions, he was disowned by his father, for the next ten years he lived a bohemian existence. In 1742, he befriended Jean-Jacques Rousseau, whom he met while watching games of chess and drinking coffee at the Café de la Régence. In 1743, he further alienated his father by marrying a devout Roman Catholic; the match was considered inappropriate due to Champion's low social standing, poor education, fatherless status, lack of a dowry. She was about three years older than Diderot; the marriage, in October 1743, produced a girl. Her name was Angélique, named after sister.
The death of his sister, a nun, in her convent may have affected Diderot's opinion of religion. She is assumed to have been the inspiration for his novel about a nun, La Religieuse, in which he depicts a woman, forced to enter a convent where she suffers at the hands of the other nuns in the community. Diderot had affairs with Mlle. Babuti, Madeleine de Puisieux, Sophie Volland and Mme de Maux, his letters to Sophie Volland are known for their candor and are regarded to be "among the literary treasures of the eighteenth century". Diderot's earliest works included a translation of Temple Stanyan's History of Greece. In 1745, he published a translation of Shaftesbury's Inquiry Concerning Virtue and Merit, to which he had added his own "reflections". In 1746, Diderot wrote his first original work: the Philosophical Thoughts. In this book, Diderot argued for a reconciliation of reason with feeling so as to establish harmony. According to Diderot, without feeling there is a detrimental effect on virtue, no possibility of creating sublime work.
However, since feeling without discipline can be destructive, reason is necessary to control feeling. At the time Diderot wrote this book. Hence there is a defense of deism in this book, some arguments against atheism; the book contains criticism of Christianity. In 1747, Diderot wrote The Skeptic's Walk in which a deist, an atheist, a pantheist have a dialogue on the nature of divinity; the deist gives the argument from design. The atheist says that the universe is better explained by physics, chemistry and motion; the pantheist says that the cosmic unity of mind and matter, which are co-eternal and comprise the universe, is God. This work remained unpublished till 1830; the local police—warned by the priests of another attack on Christianity—either seized the manuscript, or authorities forced Diderot give an undertaking that he would no
Marie Anne de Bourbon
Marie Anne de Bourbon, Légitimée de France was the eldest legitimised daughter of King Louis XIV of France and his mistress Louise de La Vallière. At the age of thirteen, she was married to Louis Armand de Bourbon, Prince of Conti and as such was the Princess of Conti by marriage, her father's favourite daughter, Marie Anne was widowed in 1685 aged 19. She never had no children. Following her mother's retirement to a convent, Marie Anne continued to reside at her father's court and was her mother's heiress, she became the Duchess of La Vallière in her own right. Born secretly at the Château de Vincennes outside Paris on 2 October 1666 while the court was in residence, Marie Anne was the eldest illegitimate child of King Louis XIV. Considered by some as the king's most beautiful daughter, she would become his favourite female child, his favourite child, was her younger half-brother, Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine. She and her younger brother Louis de Bourbon were put in the care of Madame Colbert, the wife of Finance Minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert.
They were raised by Madame Colbert away from the intrigues of the Court. The following year, Marie Anne was legitimised by her father on 14 May 1667. On the same day, her mother was given the titles of Duchess of La Vallière and of Vaujours with letters patent. Marie Anne would succeed to her mother's La Vallière title. During her youth, she was known as Mademoiselle de Blois, a style, granted to her younger half-sister, Françoise Marie de Bourbon, youngest daughter of the king by Madame de Montespan. On 16 January 1680, Marie Anne married her cousin, Louis Armand de Bourbon, Prince of Conti, in the chapel of the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, he had fallen in love with her at first sight. Her dowry was one million livres; the marriage was the first between a Prince of the Blood and one of Louis XIV's legitimised daughters which caused a scandal at the time. After a disastrous wedding night, the marriage remained sterile and Marie Anne shocked the court when she stated that her husband was not good at making love.
In 1683, she lost her beloved brother the Count of Vermandois, who shared the same birthday with her. The young count had been exiled from court after being involved in a homosexual scandal involving the Chevalier de Lorraine, himself the long term lover of Marie Anne's uncle the Duke of Orléans. From all sources, Marie Anne was quite upset by her brother's death, according to contemporary accounts, the young man's parents did not shed a tear. In 1685, her husband contracted smallpox from Marie Anne. Although she recovered, he succumbed after five days. After his death, she was called Madame la Princesse Douairière, la Grande Princesse de Conti, she never remarried and refused an offer of marriage from the Sultan of Morocco, Ismail Ibn Sharif preferring to be free. During the five years of her marriage to the Prince of Conti, a Prince of the Blood, she was one of the most important ladies at her father's court, her younger half sister Louise Françoise de Bourbon, the elder legitimised daughter of Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan, made a more important marriage in 1685 to Louis de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon, the eldest son of the Prince of Condé and heir to the title.
As the Conti line descended from the Condé's, the latter took precedence over the former and as such Marie Anne had to yield precedence to a sister seven years her junior. This matter of etiquette, so important at Versailles, led to friction between the two. In 1698, there might have been Philippe of France, Duke of Anjou, he became the King of Spain and married twice to Marie Louise of Savoy and Elisabeth Farnese. The situation of rank at Versailles grew more irritating to Marie Anne in 1692. In that year, Louise Françoise's full sister, Françoise Marie de Bourbon married the Duke of Chartres, Philippe d'Orléans, a petit-fils de France by birth and heir to the House of Orléans. On her marriage, Françoise Marie assumed the rank of petite-fille de France, giving her precedence over both Marie Anne and Louise Françoise. In addition, she was given a dowry of 2 million livres, a much higher amount than what either of her sisters had received on her marriage; these developments irritated both Marie Anne and Louise Françoise who were hostile to their younger sister who deliberately flaunted her position much to their annoyance.
In order to differentiate between them at court after the death of the various Princes of Conti, their widows were given the name of Douairière and a number corresponding to the time of their widowhood, their full style thus being Madame la Princesse de Conti'number' Douairière. Between 1727 and 1732, there were three widowed Princesses de Conti: Marie Anne de Bourbon, the illegitimate daughter of Louis XIV and Louise de La Vallière; the title went to François Louis, Prince of Conti. Marie Thérèse de Bourbon, the wife of François Louis, Prince of Conti. Louise Élisabeth de Bourbon, the wife of Louis Armand, Prince of Conti, the son and successor of François Louis, Prince of Conti, she was the daughter of Madame la Duchesse. After her husband died in 1727, she became known as Madame la Princesse de Conti Troisième/Dernière Douairière. From her staff at Versailles, Marie Anne introduced her older half brother, the Dauphin, to his second wife, Émilie de Choin
Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion to express the triumph of the Catholic Church. It was characterized by new explorations of form and shadow, dramatic intensity. Common features of Baroque architecture included gigantism of proportions. Whereas the Renaissance drew on the wealth and power of the Italian courts and was a blend of secular and religious forces, the Baroque was at least, directly linked to the Counter-Reformation, a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself in response to the Protestant Reformation. Baroque architecture and its embellishments were on the one hand more accessible to the emotions and on the other hand, a visible statement of the wealth and power of the Catholic Church; the new style manifested itself in particular in the context of the new religious orders, like the Theatines and the Jesuits who aimed to improve popular piety.
Lutheran Baroque art, such as the example of Dresden Frauenkirche, developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists. The architecture of the High Roman Baroque can be assigned to the papal reigns of Urban VIII, Innocent X and Alexander VII, spanning from 1623 to 1667; the three principal architects of this period were the sculptor Gianlorenzo Bernini, Francesco Borromini and the painter Pietro da Cortona and each evolved his own distinctively individual architectural expression. Dissemination of Baroque architecture to the south of Italy resulted in regional variations such as Sicilian Baroque architecture or that of Naples and Lecce. To the north, the Theatine architect Camillo-Guarino Guarini, Bernardo Vittone and Sicilian born Filippo Juvarra contributed Baroque buildings to the city of Turin and the Piedmont region. A synthesis of Bernini and Cortona's architecture can be seen in the late Baroque architecture of northern Europe, which paved the way for the more decorative Rococo style.
By the middle of the 17th century, the Baroque style had found its secular expression in the form of grand palaces, first in France—with the Château de Maisons near Paris by François Mansart—and throughout Europe. During the 17th century, Baroque architecture spread through Europe and Latin America, where it was promoted by the Jesuits. Michelangelo's late Roman buildings St. Peter's Basilica, may be considered precursors to Baroque architecture, his pupil Giacomo della Porta continued this work in Rome in the façade of the Jesuit church Il Gesù, which leads directly to the most important church façade of the early Baroque, Santa Susanna, by Carlo Maderno. Distinctive features of Baroque architecture can include: in churches, broader naves and sometimes given oval forms fragmentary or deliberately incomplete architectural elements dramatic use of light. Colonialism required the development of centralized and powerful governments with Spain and France, the first to move in this direction. Colonialism brought in huge amounts of wealth, not only in the silver, extracted from the mines in Bolivia and elsewhere, but in the resultant trade in commodities, such as sugar and tobacco.
The need to control trade routes and slavery, which lay in the hands of the French during the 17th century, created an endless cycle of wars between the colonial powers: the French religious wars, the Thirty Years' War, Franco–Spanish War, the Franco-Dutch War, so on. The initial mismanagement of colonial wealth by the Spaniards bankrupted them in the 16th century, recovering only in the following century; this explains why the Baroque style, though enthusiastically developed throughout the Spanish Empire, was to a large extent, in Spain, an architecture of surfaces and façades, unlike in France and Austria, where we see the construction of numerous huge palaces and monasteries. In contrast to Spain, the French, under Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the minister of finance, had begun to industrialize their economy, thus, were able to become at least, the benefactors of the flow of wealth. While this was good for the building in
The rue Saint-Honoré is a street in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France. It is named after the collegial Saint-Honoré church situated in ancient times within the cloisters of Saint-Honoré; the street, on which are located a number of museums and upscale boutiques, is near the Jardin des Tuileries and the Saint-Honoré market. Like many streets in the heart of Paris, the rue Saint-Honoré, as it is now known, was laid out as early as the Middle Ages or before; the street, at one time, continued beyond the former city walls into. This continuation was named the rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré; the rue Saint-Honoré has been given the following names in its long history: The section between the rue de la Lingerie and the rue de la Tonnellerie was named the rue de la Chausseterie from 1300 to the 17th century. The section between the now extinct rue Tirechappe and the rue de l'Arbre Sec was named the rue du Chastiau Festu or du Château Fêtu; the section between the rue de l'Arbre Sec and the now defunct rue du Rempart was named the rue de la Croix du Trahoir, rue de la Croix du Tiroir or rue du Traihoir, du Traihouer, du Trayoir, du Trahoir, du Triouer, or du Trioir between the 13th and 14th centuries.
The section between the now extinct rue du Rempart and the rue Royale was known successively as the chemin de Clichy, grand chemin Saint-Honoré, chaussée Saint-Honoré, grand chemin de la porte Saint-Honoré, chemin Royal, nouvelle rue Saint-Louis, grand rue Saint-Louis, rue Neuve-Saint-Louis, grande rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, chaussée Saint-Honoré, rue Neuve-Saint-Honoré In 1966, the part between the Palais-Royal, Théâtre Français, place André Malraux was given the name place Colette. On 8 September 1429, Jeanne d'Arc was wounded at the Porte Saint-Honoré in her unsuccessful attack on Paris, at the time when it was held by the English. In 1631, the old Porte Saint-Honoré, across from the rue de Richelieu, was torn down and replaced, facing the rue Royale. In 1670, the northern fortifications of Paris were demolished and the street was called the boulevard Saint-Honoré, traversing from the rue Saint-Antoine to the rue Saint-Martin. Number 9: 14 May 1610, King Henry IV of France was assassinated by Catholic zealot François Ravaillac.
Number 92: 15 January 1611, the playwright known as Molière was born. Number 129 was where Louis Gaston Hebert, one of the founding pioneers of Canada, was born and lived prior to his journey with his wife and three children to New France in 1620. Number 145: The Oratoire du Louvre Protestant church. Numbers 146, 148, 150: The remains of King Philip II are entombed. Number 182: The Immeuble des Bons-Enfants, arm of the French Ministry of Culture was built between 2000 and 2004; the façade facing the street, clad with an ornamental metallic net, is the work of Léon Vaudoyer. Executing architects were Frédéric Druot. Number 204: The Palais-Royal, built in 1629 by Cardinal Richelieu, is now the seat of the Comédie-Française number 211: The former Hôtel de Noailles Bertin, built in 1715 by Pierre Cailleteau dit Lassurance on the site of the former Hôtel Pussort, of which some parts still exist, surrounded by buildings of the Hôtel Saint-James et Albany. Between numbers 229 and 235: Former Couvent des Feuillants or Les Feuillants Convent where gathered the right-wing dissidents from the "Society of Friends of the Constitution", supporters of a Constitutional Monarchy, including La Fayette, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth and Théodore de Lameth.
Louis XVI, Marie-Antoinette and their family were imprisoned there during three days after the Insurrection of 10 August. Banker Claude Perier fitted out his town house in the estate. Number 239: Hôtel Costes numbers 263 and 265: Église Notre-Dame-de-l'Assomption de Paris number 273: During the French Revolution, Sieyès lived at this address. Number 284: Église Saint-Roch number 398: Maximilien de Robespierre was sheltered by Maurice Duplay; the cart which took Robespierre to the guillotine on the place de la Concorde on 28 July 1794 made a stop in front of this house. Bernard Stéphane and Franz-Olivier Giesbert. Petite et Grande Histoire des rues de Paris. Paris: Albin Michel, 2000. ISBN 2-226-10879-3. ISBN 978-2-226-10879-1 Bernard-Claude Galey. Origines surprenantes des noms de villages, des noms des rues de Paris et de villes de province. Paris: Le Cherche Midi, 2004. ISBN 2-7491-0192-1. ISBN 978-2-7491-0192-7. Anne Thorval. Promenades sur les lieux de l'histoire: D'Henri IV à Mai 68, les rues de Paris racontent l'histoire de France.
Paris: Paragamme, 2004. ISBN 2-84096-323-X. ISBN 978-2-84096-323-3
Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette
Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, known in the United States as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War, commanding American troops in several battles, including the Siege of Yorktown. After returning to France, he was a key figure in the French Revolution of 1789 and the July Revolution of 1830. Lafayette was born into a wealthy land-owning family in Chavaniac in the province of Auvergne in south central France, he followed the family's martial tradition and was commissioned an officer at age 13. He became convinced that the American cause was noble in its revolutionary war, he traveled to the New World seeking glory in it, he was made a major general at age 19, but he was not given American troops to command. He was wounded during the Battle of Brandywine but still managed to organize an orderly retreat, he served with distinction in the Battle of Rhode Island. In the middle of the war, he sailed for home to lobby for an increase in French support.
He was given senior positions in the Continental Army. In 1781, troops under his command in Virginia blocked forces led by Cornwallis until other American and French forces could position themselves for the decisive Siege of Yorktown. Lafayette returned to France and was appointed to the Assembly of Notables in 1787, convened in response to the fiscal crisis, he was elected a member of the Estates General of 1789, where representatives met from the three traditional orders of French society: the clergy, the nobility, the commoners. After forming the National Constituent Assembly, he helped to write the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen with Thomas Jefferson's assistance; this document was inspired by the United States Declaration of Independence and invoked natural law to establish basic principles of the democratic nation-state. He advocated the end of slavery, in keeping with the philosophy of natural liberty. After the storming of the Bastille, he was appointed commander-in-chief of France's National Guard and tried to steer a middle course through the years of revolution.
In August 1792, radical factions ordered his arrest, he fled into the Austrian Netherlands. He was spent more than five years in prison. Lafayette returned to France after Napoleon Bonaparte secured his release in 1797, though he refused to participate in Napoleon's government. After the Bourbon Restoration of 1814, he became a liberal member of the Chamber of Deputies, a position that he held for most of the remainder of his life. In 1824, President James Monroe invited him to the United States as the nation's guest, he visited all 24 states in the union and met a rapturous reception. During France's July Revolution of 1830, he declined an offer to become the French dictator. Instead, he supported Louis-Philippe as king, but turned against him when the monarch became autocratic, he is buried in Picpus Cemetery in Paris, under soil from Bunker Hill. He is sometimes known as "The Hero of the Two Worlds" for his accomplishments in the service of both France and the United States. Lafayette was born on 6 September 1757 to Michel Louis Christophe Roch Gilbert Paulette du Motier, Marquis de La Fayette, colonel of grenadiers, Marie Louise Jolie de La Rivière, at the château de Chavaniac, in Chavaniac-Lafayette, near Le Puy-en-Velay, in the province of Auvergne.
Lafayette's lineage was one of the oldest and most distinguished in Auvergne and in all of France. Males of the Lafayette family enjoyed a reputation for courage and chivalry and were noted for their contempt for danger. One of Lafayette's early ancestors, Gilbert de Lafayette III, a Marshal of France, had been a companion-at-arms of Joan of Arc's army during the Siege of Orléans in 1429. According to legend, another ancestor acquired the crown of thorns during the Sixth Crusade, his non-Lafayette ancestors are notable. Lafayette's paternal uncle Jacques-Roch died on 18 January 1734 while fighting the Austrians at Milan in the War of the Polish Succession. Lafayette's father died on the battlefield. On 1 August 1759, Michel de Lafayette was struck by a cannonball while fighting a British-led coalition at the Battle of Minden in Westphalia. Lafayette became marquis and Lord of Chavaniac. Devastated by the loss of her husband, she went to live in Paris with her father and grandfather, leaving Lafayette to be raised in Chavaniac-Lafayette by his paternal grandmother, Mme de Chavaniac, who had brought the château into the family with her dowry.
In 1768, when Lafayette was 11, he was summoned to Paris to live with his mother and great-grandfather at the comte's apartments in Luxembourg Palace. The boy was sent to school at the Collège du Plessis, part of the University of Paris, it was decided that he would carry on the family martial tradition; the comte, the boy's great-grandfather, enrolled the boy in a program to train future Musketeers. Lafayette's mother and great-grandfather died, on 3 and 24 April 1770 leaving Lafayette an income of 25,000 livres. Upon the death of an uncle, the 12-year-old Lafayette inherited a handsome yearly income of 120,000 livres. In May 1771, aged less than 14, Lafayette was commissioned an officer in the Musketeers, with the rank of sous-lieutenant, his duties, which included marching in military parades and pr
René Trouin, Sieur du Gué called René Duguay-Trouin, was a famous Breton corsair of Saint-Malo. He had a brilliant privateering and naval career and became "Lieutenant-General of the Naval Armies of the King", a Commander in the Order of Saint-Louis. Ten ships of the French Navy were named in his honour, his family operated a shipping business in Saint Malo, a port favoured by corsairs. He first went to sea as a volunteer aboard the privateer Trinité, under Captain Legoux, on the 16 December 1690. Trinité subsequently captured François Seven Stars of Scotland. In 1692 his family provided him with command of a 14-gun lugger, Danycan. On 6 June 1692, King Louis XIV appointed Duguay-Truin to command of the forty-gun ship Hercule, he captured five ships at the entrance of the Channel. In 1694 Louis XIV awarded Duguay-Trouin with a sword of honour, made him a nobleman in 1709, with the motto Dedit haec insignia virtus. At the time, he had captured over 300 merchantmen from the English and Dutch. On 12 April 1694, Duguay-Trouin, aboard the ship Diligente, covered the escape of a convoy which he was escorting but was defeated by a six-ship squadron commanded by Admiral David Mitchell.
Diligente afloat and having lost most of her men, was forced to strike her colours and surrender and Duguay-Truin was taken as a prisoner to Plymouth. The English admiralty, upon learning that Trouin had fired upon Prince of Orange while flying the English flag, had him locked in an iron room. On 19 June 1694, he made an adventurous escape, by capturing a small boat that he had bought from a friendly Swedish captain whose ship was lying nearby, he was accompanied by Lieutenant Nicolas Thomas, surgeon Lhermite, Pierre Legendre and the quartermaster. After a series of raids on coastal towns in Ireland, Duguay-Truin returned to Saint-Malo. In 1697, the treaty of Ryswick put a halt to the privateers and Duguay-Trouin spent his time in Saint-Malo, he was involved in a duel with a gentleman, Charles Cognetz, who had cheated in a game of cards. Both were taken to M de Vauborel, who explicitly forbade any further violence. In 1702, as the War of the Spanish Succession broke out, Duguay-Trouin commanded Bellone and Railleuse.
He became an officer in the French Marine Royale. In 1704-1705 he commanded the ship Jason and captured the British ships of the line HMS Elizabeth and HMS Coventry. On 21 October 1707, together with Claude de Forbin, he achieved his greatest victory against a British squadron, in the Battle at the Lizard. In 1709 he captured the British ship of the line HMS Bristol. On 21 September 1711, in an 11-day battle, he captured Rio de Janeiro believed impregnable, with twelve ships and 6,000 men, in spite of the defence consisting of seven ships of the line, five forts, 12,000 men. Investors in this venture doubled their money, Duguay-Trouin earned a promotion to Lieutenant général de la Marine. In his late career, he commanded the fleet based in Saint-Malo the fleet based in Brest, the fleet for the East and Toulon harbour, he died after having written to Fleury to ask Louis XV to support his family. Duguay-Trouin is mentioned in Volume II, "Within A Budding Grove", of Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time.
The reference occurs in an interlude section of the work entitled "Place Names: the Place" juxtaposed with other Impressionistic images. This reference compares the brave image of the warrior's statue with the banal image of ordinary people eating sorbets in a bakery, illustrating that at the time, Duguay-Trouin's influence on French society was still so pervasive that statues of his form were commonplace. France Antarctique
Charles Antoine Coysevox, was a French sculptor in the Baroque and Style Louis XIV, best known for his sculpture decorating the gardens and Palace of Versailles and his portrait busts. The name is pronounced quazevo. Coysevox was born 29 September 1640 in Lyon, he was the son of a sculptor, from a family which had emigrated from Franche-Comté, a Spanish possession at the time. He made his first work of sculpture of the Madonna when he was only seventeen, Coysevox came to Paris in 1657 and joined the workshop of the sculptor Louis Lerambert He trained himself further by making copies in marble of Roman sculptures, including a Venus de Medici and the Castor and Pollux. In 1666, he married Lerambert's niece, who died a year after the marriage. In 1679 he married Claude Bourdict. In 1667 he was commissioned by the bishop of Strasbourg, Cardinal Fürstenberg, to statuary for his château at Saverne. In 1671, after four years spent working at Saverne, he returned to Paris. In 1676, his bust of the king's painter Charles Le Brun gained him admission to the Académie Royale He became part of the extraordinary team of sculptors and decorators, under the control of Le Brun, who between 1677 and 1685 produced the decoration of the Palace and Gardens of Versailles.
Between 1701 and 1709, when Lojis XIV built a new Château de Marly, where he could escape from the crowds and ceremony at Versailles. He provided several works for that site, Coysevox rose in the artistic hierarchy, he became a professor at the Royal Academy in 1678, its director in 1702, with an annual pension of four thousand livres. In this position, he guided the training of a generation of French sculptors, including his nephews Nicolas Coustou and Guillaume Coustou, who became important figures French sculpture of the early 18th century. Coysevox died in Paris on 10 October 1720. A large part of his work is found at the Palace of Versailles. One of his most famous works is the large stucco medallion of Louis XIV found in the Salon of War in the Palace; the King is portrayed as a Roman Emperor on horseback, trampling his enemies, like a modern Caesar, gazing ahead to the future, as a figure of Victory offers him a crown of laurels. He executed the River Garonne at Versailles. Among his works from Marly are the Mercury and the equestrian Fame and four groups commissioned for the "river" in the château's park.
Models in weather-resistant stucco were set up in 1699, replaced by marbles when they were finished in 1705. The groups were seized as biens nationaux in 1796 and dispersed: the Seine and Marne went to Saint-Cloud, the Neptune and Amphitrite went to Brest in 1801. Besides the works given above, he carved about a dozen funeral monuments, including those to Colbert, to Cardinal Mazarin, to the painter Le Brun. Between 1708 and 1710 Coysevox produced three further sculptures for Marly, a Pan, flanked by a Flora and a Dryad. A finished terracotta bozzetto or reduction of the Dryad and dated 1709, is in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. For the facade of the dome of the royal chapel of Les Invalides, he sculpted a bust of Charlemagne, a pendant to the statue of Louis XI by another royal sculptor, Nicolas Coustou. On the upper level of the same chapel he made a group of statues illustrating The Cardinal Virtues. Coysevox sculpted portrait busts of many of the celebrated women of his age; the faces of his busts were considered remarkably accurate.
His subjects included Louis XV, at Versailles. Geese, Section on Baroque sculpture in L'Art Baroque - Architecture - Sculpture - Peinture, H. F. Ulmann, Cologne, 2015. L. Benoist, Coysevox 1930. François Souchal. Contains the latest, revised biography and list of works. Web Gallery of Art Art Renewal Center Louvre Database Insecula Catholic Encyclopedia article Antoine Coysevox in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website