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Bagan (federal constituency)

Bagan is a federal constituency in Penang, represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1959. The federal constituency was created in the 1958 redistribution and is mandated to return a single member to the Dewan Rakyat under the first past the post voting system, it was abolished in 1974. It was re-created in 1984. 2004–2016: The constituency contains the polling districts of Bagan Ajam, Permatang Tengah, Sungai Puyu, Kampong Bahru, Bagan Lalang, Taman Merbau, Taman Dedap, Taman Bunga Tanjung, Bagan Jermal, Kubang Buaya, Kampong Gajah, Jalan Mengkuang, Kampong Simpa, Mak Mandin, Taman Sukaria, Taman Melor, Taman Cantik, Bagan Luar, Telaga Ayer, Taman Bagan, Kampong Acham, Sekolah St. Marks, Bagan Dalam, Jalan Assumption. 2016–present: The constituency contains the polling districts of Bagan Ajam, Permatang Tengah, Sungai Puyu, Kampong Bahru, Bagan Lalang, Taman Merbau, Taman Dedap, Taman Bunga Tanjung, Bagan Jermal, Kubang Buaya, Kampong Gajah, Jalan Mengkuang, Kampong Simpa, Mak Mandin, Taman Sukaria, Taman Melor, Taman Cantik, Bagan Luar, Telaga Ayer, Taman Bagan, Kampong Acham, Sekolah St. Marks, Bagan Dalam, Jalan Assumption.

"Keputusan Pilihan Raya Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya". Election Commission of Malaysia. Retrieved 2018-08-12

Quintin McKinnon

Quintin McPherson McKinnon, was a Scottish New Zealand explorer and tour guide. McKinnon emigrated to New Zealand sometime in the 1870s. In 1879 he married Barbara Sinclair in Dunedin, they had Robert Daniel McKinnon. Although he spelt his name Quintin McKinnon, he is referred to in both official documents and newspaper reports variously as Quintin, MacKinnon, Mackinnon and McKinnon. McKinnon explored the west coast of the South Island of New Zealand, his name has been applied to various landmarks and geographical features in the Milford and Fiordland area including Mackinnon Pass, Lake Mackinnon, the Quintin Huts on Milford Track, the St. Quintin Falls in Clinton Valley. In 1887 McKinnon was employed by the Otago Survey Department to try to find a tourist route into Milford Sound, he was hopeful that a pass could be discovered. In 1888 the Otago Survey Department again employed this time with Ernest Mitchell, they were instructed to cut a track up the river and to find a pass while C. W. Adams, the chief surveyor, took a party to survey the country fringing Milford Sound.

Included in the party were Thomas Mackenzie, William Soltau Pillans, the commercial photographer, Fred Muir. McKinnon discovered a passage between the head of Lake Te Anau and Milford Sound, he and Mitchell joined the surveying party on the other side. The pass was named Mackinnon Pass; the route became known as the Milford Track and this was the first practicable overland route across the South Island. After the discovery of the pass McKinnon spent time improving the track and taking regular parties of sightseers and tourists through the area, he offered a guided tour from Lake Te Anau to Sutherland Falls. He was contracted to carry the mail between Te Anau and Milford Sound. On 29 November 1892 McKinnon departed to cross Lake Te Anau to go to Milford but never arrived, he was last seen sailing with a fair wind on Lake Te Anau by a hand from the Te Anau station. A search party did not find any trace of him, his wrecked boat and belongings were discovered but his body was never recovered. He was presumed drowned in Lake Te Anau.

A public subscription was raised to build the Quintin MacKinnon Memorial Cairn which stands at the summit of Mackinnon Pass. Photograph of Quintin McKinnon in 1888 after finding McKinnon Pass. 1888 photograph of Quintin McKinnon and Ernest Mitchell

Mora (linguistics)

A mora is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing. The definition of a mora varies. In 1968, American linguist James D. McCawley defined it as "something of which a long syllable consists of two and a short syllable consists of one"; the term comes from the Latin word for "linger, delay", used to translate the Greek word chronos in its metrical sense. Monomoraic syllables have one mora, bimoraic syllables have two, trimoraic syllables have three, although this last type is rare. In general, morae are formed as follows: A syllable onset does not represent any mora; the syllable nucleus represents one mora in the case of a short vowel, two morae in the case of a long vowel or diphthong. Consonants serving as syllable nuclei represent one mora if short and two if long. Slovak is an example of a language that has both short consonantal nuclei. In some languages, the coda represents one mora, in others it does not. In English, the codas of stressed syllables represent a mora, but for unstressed syllables it is not clear whether this is true.

In some languages, a syllable with a long vowel or diphthong in the nucleus and one or more consonants in the coda is said to be trimoraic. In general, monomoraic syllables are called "light syllables", bimoraic syllables are called "heavy syllables", trimoraic syllables are called "superheavy syllables"; some languages, such as Old English and present-day English, can have syllables with up to four morae. A prosodic stress system in which moraically heavy syllables are assigned stress is said to have the property of quantity sensitivity. For the purpose of determining accent in Ancient Greek, short vowels have one mora, long vowels and diphthongs have two morae, thus long ē can be understood as a sequence of two short vowels: ee. Ancient Greek pitch accent is placed on only one mora in a word. An acute represents high pitch on the last mora of a long vowel. A circumflex represents high pitch on the first mora of a long vowel. In Old English, short diphthongs and monophthongs were monomoraic, long diphthongs and monophthongs were bimoraic, consonants ending a syllable were each a mora, geminate consonants added a mora to the preceding syllable.

In Modern English, the rules are similar. In English, also in Old English, syllables cannot have more than four morae, with loss of sounds occurring if a syllable would have more than 4 otherwise. From the Old English period through to today, all content words must be at least two morae long. In Luganda, a short vowel constitutes one mora. A simple consonant has no morae, a doubled or prenasalised consonant has one. No syllable may contain more than three morae; the tone system in Luganda is based on morae. See Luganda tones. Gilbertese, an Austronesian language spoken in Kiribati, is a trimoraic language; the typical foot in Gilbertese contains three morae. These trimoraic constituents are units of stress in Gilbertese; these "ternary metrical constituents of the sort found in Gilbertese are quite rare cross-linguistically, as far as we know, Gilbertese is the only language in the world reported to have a ternary constraint on prosodic word size." In Hawaiian, both syllables and morae are important.

Stress falls on the penultimate mora, though in words long enough to have two stresses, only the final stress is predictable. However, although a diphthong, such as oi, consists of two morae, stress may fall only on the first, a restriction not found with other vowel sequences such as io; that is, there is a distinction between oi, a bimoraic syllable, io, two syllables. Most dialects of Japanese, including the standard, use morae, known in Japanese as haku or mōra, rather than syllables, as the basis of the sound system. Writing Japanese in kana is said by those scholars who use the term mora to demonstrate a moraic system of writing. For example, in the two-syllable word mōra, the ō is counts as two morae; the word is written in モーラ, corresponding here to mo/o/ra, each containing one mora. Such scholars argue that the 5/7/5 pattern of the haiku in modern Japanese is of morae rather than syllables; the Japanese syllable-final n is said to be moraic, as is the first part of a geminate consonant.

For example, the Japanese name for "Japan", 日本, has two different pronunciations, one with three morae and one with four. In the hiragana spelling, the three morae of Ni-ho-n are represented by three characters, the four morae of Ni-p-po-n need four characters to be written out as にっぽん; the names Tōkyō, Ōsaka, Nagasaki all have four morae though, on this analysis, they can be said to have two and four syllables, respectively. The number of morae in a word is not always equal to the number of graphemes. In India, the mora was an acknowledged phenomenon well over two millennia ago in ancient Indian linguistics schools studying the dominant scholarly and religious

Adam Ingram (SNP politician)

Adam Hamilton Ingram is a Scottish politician, a Scottish National Party Member of the Scottish Parliament from 1999 to 2016. He was first a MSP for the South of Scotland region from 1999 to 2011 the MSP for the Carrick and Doon Valley constituency from 2011 to 2016. Ingram was born on 1 May 1951 in Scotland, he was an economist before becoming a parliamentarian, had been the SNP's national organiser. Ingram stood as a candidate in the Carrick and Doon Valley constituency in the first four Scottish Parliament elections. In the first three elections he lost to Labour's Cathy Jamieson but was elected as a list MSP for the South of Scotland region each time in 1999, 2003 and 2007, he was elected to the constituency in the 2011 election with a majority of 2,581 votes over his nearest rival, Richard Leonard, future Leader of the Scottish Labour Party. Ingram was a shadow deputy minister from 2000 onwards, with responsibility for Children and Early Education from 2004. After the SNP formed a minority government in 2007, Ingram was the Scottish Government's Minister for Children and Early Years until 2011.

MSP website Scottish Parliament page SNP website

Indie folk

Indie folk is a music genre that arose in the 1990s among musicians from indie rock scenes influenced by folk music. Indie folk hybridizes the acoustic guitar melodies of traditional folk music with contemporary instrumentation; the genre has its earliest origins in 1990s folk artists who displayed alternative rock influences in their music, such as Ani DiFranco and Dan Bern, acoustic artists such as Elliott Smith and Will Oldham. In the following decade, labels such as Saddle Creek, Barsuk and Sub Pop helped to provide support to indie folk. Artists of note include the Decemberists, Fleet Foxes, the Cave Singers, Loch Lomond, Bon Iver, Or, The Whale, Great Lake Swimmers, Blind Pilot