Sable Island "island of sand", is a small Canadian island situated 300 km southeast of Halifax, Nova Scotia, about 175 km southeast of the closest point of mainland Nova Scotia in the Atlantic Ocean. The island is staffed year round by four federal government staff, rising during summer months when research projects and tourism increase. Notable for its role in early Canadian history and the Sable Island horse, the island is protected and managed by Parks Canada, which must grant permission prior to any visit. Sable Island is part of District 7 of the Halifax Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia. However, the Constitution of Canada names the island as being under the authority of the federal government; the island is a protected National Park Reserve. The expedition of Portuguese explorer João Álvares Fagundes explored this region in 1520–1521 and they were among the first Europeans to encounter the island, it is that he named the island "Fagunda" after himself. An island called Fagunda appears on Portuguese maps placed to the southeast of Cape Breton near its present location, however the identification of Sable Island with Fagunda is not certain.
On the other hand, 16th century Portuguese sources describe a fishing colony founded by the navigator in Cape Breton Island, further north. It is possible that Fagundes sighted the island while heading southwest, reaching the Bay of Fundy, as the 1558 map of Diogo Homem and Samuel de Champlain suggested, but this is unclear; the island was inhabited sporadically by sealers, shipwreck survivors, salvagers known as "wreckers." The Marquis de la Roche attempted to colonize the new world with convicts in 1578. When the convicts mutinied, they were left on the stone-less Sable Island, they managed to survive in mud dwellings for 25 years before being returned to France by passing fishermen in 1603. Sable Island is famous for its large number of shipwrecks. An estimated 350 vessels are believed to have fallen victim to the island's sand bars. Thick fogs, treacherous currents, the island's location in the middle of a major transatlantic shipping route and rich fishing grounds account for the large number of wrecks.
The first recorded wreck was the English ship Delight in 1583, part of Humphrey Gilbert's Newfoundland expedition. There were at least three incidents of ship-wrecks in the 1700's. In 1736, a well known preacher, Rev. Robert Dunlap wrecked on the island. Decades there were two major shipwrecks: In November 1760 MAjor Elliot of the 43rd regiment was shipwrecked on Sable island-he was rescued in January 1761. En route to Prince Edward Island under the command of Major Timothy Hierlihy, Lieutenant Kennedy and 25 men wrecked on the island in November 1778; the crew was stranded on the island for the winter. Two died and the remainder were rescued and transported to Halifax the following April, it is that the construction of lighthouses on each end of the island in 1873 contributed to the decrease in shipwrecks. The last major shipwreck was the steamship Manhasset in 1947, her crew were all saved, the last significant rescue of the Sable lifesaving station. After the 1991 Perfect Storm, the commercial fishing vessel Andrea Gail's emergency position-indicating radio beacon was discovered on the shore of Sable Island on November 6, 1991, nine days after the last transmission from the crew.
Other items found were fuel drums, a fuel tank, an empty life raft, some other flotsam. All crew members were never found. No further wrecks occurred until 1999 when the three crew members of the yacht Merrimac survived after their sloop ran aground due to a navigational error. Few of the wrecks surrounding the island are visible, as they are crushed and buried by the sand. A series of life-saving stations were established on Sable Island by the governor of Nova Scotia, John Wentworth, in 1801; the rescue station began the continuous human presence on the island. Wentworth appointed James Morris, a Nova Scotian veteran of the British Royal Navy as the first superintendent of the island. Morris settled on the island in October 1801 with his family. By the time Morris died on the island in 1809, he had built up the humanitarian settlement to include a central station, two rescue boat stations, several lookout posts and survivor shelters; the station's rescue equipment was upgraded in 1854 with the latest generation of self-bailing lifeboats and life cars through the fundraising efforts of social reformer Dorothea Dix who had visited the island in the previous year.
The Canadian government took over administration of the station with Confederation in 1867 and added two lighthouses in 1872, Sable Island East End Light on the eastern tip and Sable Island West End Light on the western end. Until the advent of modern ship navigation, Sable Island was home to the families of the life-saving crews and the lighthouse keepers. In the early 20th century, the Marconi Company established a wireless station on the island and the Canadian government established a weather station. Several generations of island staff were born and raised families of their own on the island, although a decline in shipwrecks reduced the size of the lifesaving community. Only two people have been born on Sable Island since 1920. Improvements in navigation led to a dramatic drop in shipwrecks by the mid 20th century; as such, the rescue station on Sable was reduced and closed in 1958. The Canadian Coast Guard first automated and decommissioned the light stations. However, during this period, the island's role in science grew, first in weather research.
The Canadian government expanded the collection of weather data started by the rescue station i
Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons
Pierre Dugua de Mons was a French merchant and colonizer. A Calvinist, he was born in the Château de Mons, in Royan and founded the first permanent French settlement in Canada, he travelled to northeastern North America for the first time in 1599 with Pierre de Chauvin de Tonnetuit. Pierre Du Gua de Mons was born about 1558 in Saintonge, France to Claire Goumard Du Gua, he fought for the cause of Henri IV during the religious wars in France. The king awarded him an annual pension of 1,200 crowns and the governorship of the town of Pons in Saintonge in recognition of his outstanding service. De Mons seems to have made several voyages to Canada including in 1600, with Pierre de Chauvin de Tonnetuit to Tadoussac. In 1603, King Henry granted Du Gua exclusive right to colonize lands in North America between 40°–60° North latitude; the King gave Du Gua a monopoly in the fur trade for these territories and named him Lieutenant General for Acadia and New France. In return, Du Gua promised to bring 60 new colonists each year.
In 1604, Du Gua organized an expedition, underwritten by merchants in Rouen, Saint-Malo, La Rochelle, left France with 79 settlers including François Gravé Du Pont as senior officer, Royal cartographer Samuel de Champlain, the Baron de Poutrincourt, apothecary Louis Hébert, a priest Nicolas Aubry, Mathieu de Costa: a legendary linguist, the first registered black man to set foot in North America, a Protestant member of the clergy. Entering Baie Française in June 1604, he and his settlers founded a colony on St. Croix Island. Numerous settlers succumbed to the harsh winter climate and malnutrition disease as they exhausted the limited natural resources on the island; the colony moved to better land on the south shore of Baie Française at Port-Royal in 1605. Following the disaster of the Saint Croix settlement in the winter of 1604-1605, the French began to look for a more hospitable location for a colony. During this time, they encountered Native Americans along the northeastern coast of the continent, had a pair of Native guides in their party, the man, named as Panounias, his wife who came from the part of the country they were exploring.
Traveling along the coast, Samuel de Champlain is given to have recounted their meetings with the natives, noting when the languages between the groups began to vary. It was noted that the Natives who lived in this area practiced cultivation methods of farming that were new to the French explorers, it was from these signs and the trading that occurred between the French and the natives that the explorers felt as though they were on the correct track, for if the Natives were living off of this land, this area offered far more hope than Saint Croix Island did. In 1606, Hendrick Lonck, the Dutch West India Company sea captain boarded two of Du Gua's boats, pillaged them for furs and munitions; the Port-Royal settlement survived and prospered somewhat until 1607 when other merchants protested the monopoly, which the King had to revoke. As a consequence, Du Gua and the settlers had to return to France. Du Gua turned his attention to the colony of Nouvelle-France in the St. Lawrence River valley, after ceding Port-Royal to Poutrincourt.
He never came back to the New World but he sent Champlain to open a colony at Quebec in 1608, thus playing a major role in the foundation of the first permanent French colony in North America. Henry IV appointed him as Governor of the Protestant city of Pons, Charente-Maritime from 1610 to 1617, when he retired, he oversaw the construction of the monumental grand staircase along the ramparts near the Keep of Pons. This 6 level staircase connected the once segregated upper city to the lower city, he died in the nearby Château d'Ardenne in Fléac-sur-Seugne. Order of Good Cheer
Bay of Fundy
The Bay of Fundy is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine. It has an high tidal range. Portions of the Bay of Fundy, Shepody Bay and Minas Basin, form one of six Canadian sites in the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, are classified as a Hemispheric site, it is administered by the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the Canadian Wildlife Service, is managed in conjunction with Ducks Unlimited Canada and the Nature Conservancy of Canada. Some sources believe the name "Fundy" is a corruption of the French word Fendu, meaning "split", while others believe it comes from the Portuguese funda, meaning "deep"; the bay was named Baie Française by Samuel de Champlain during a 1604 expedition to St. Croix Island; the Bay of Fundy has a high tidal range. Oceanographers attribute it to tidal resonance resulting from a coincidence of timing: the time it takes a large wave to go from the mouth of the bay to the inner shore and back is the same as the time from one high tide to the next.
During the 12.4-hour tidal period, 115 billion tonnes of water flow out of the bay. According to the Canadian Hydrographic Service, there is a 16.8-metre tidal range in Leaf Basin for Ungava Bay and 17 metres at Burntcoat Head for the Bay of Fundy. The range at Leaf Basin is higher on average than at Minas Basin; the highest water level recorded in the Bay of Fundy system occurred at the head of the Minas Basin on the night of October 4–5, 1869 during a tropical cyclone named the "Saxby Gale". The water level of 21.6 metres resulted from the combination of high winds, abnormally low atmospheric pressure, a spring tide. The tides in the Bay of Fundy are semidiurnal, which means that they have two highs and two lows each day; the height that the water rises and falls to each day during these tides are equal. There are six hours and thirteen minutes between each high and low tide. Alternative forms of energy are being explored in depth in a number of unique areas. Tidal energy harnesses the movement of ocean water to generate electricity through a number of mechanisms.
A process of gathering tidal energy called "In-stream turbine technology" is being tested in the Minas Passage, Nova Scotia. This project is being spearheaded by the Fundy Ocean Research Centre for Energy or FORCE. In-stream tidal turbine technology is a simple design. An elevated turbine is submerged under water in a location that enables its movement with tidal cycles; as the blades of the turbine move, they create energy. From here the power travels to a cable attached to the seafloor and back to an offsite facility, where it can be added to the power grid. While this technology has shown to be successful in its early stages of testing, FORCE has not begun the process for energy collection. However, the installation of the undersea cable in December 2013 indicates that the project is moving along swiftly. A megawatt-scale turbine was installed at Cape Sharp near Partridge Island in November 2016, its owner, Open Hydro, went into insolvency in August 2018. The Bay of Fundy lies in a rift valley called the Fundy Basin.
These flood basalts poured out over the landscape. Sections of the flood basalts have been eroded away, but still form a basaltic mountain range known as North Mountain; as a result, much of the basin floor is made of tholeiitic basalts giving its brown colour. The rift valley failed as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge continued to separate North America and Africa; the upper part of the bay splits into Chignecto Bay in the northeast and the Minas Basin in the east. Chignecto Bay is further subdivided into Cumberland Basin and Shepody Bay and the extreme eastern portion of Minas Basin is called Cobequid Bay; some of these upper reaches exhibit exposed red bay muds. Cape Chignecto defines Chignecto Bay whereas Cape Split defines the Minas Channel, leading to the Minas Basin; the Minas Channel connects the Minas Basin with the main body of the bay. The channel is 5.6 kilometres across and 106.7 metres deep. The tides that flow through the channel are powerful, they are as powerful as 25 million horses. Facing Cape Split at the entrance to the Minas Channel are the basalt cliffs of Cape d'Or.
The lower part of the bay is home to four important sub-basins: Passamaquoddy Bay and Back Bay on the New Brunswick shore, Cobscook Bay on the Maine shore, the Annapolis Basin on the Nova Scotia shore. The bay is home to several islands, the largest of, Grand Manan at the boundary with the Gulf of Maine. Other important islands on the north side of the bay include Campobello Island, Moose Island, Deer Island in the Passamaquoddy Bay area. Brier Island and Long Island can be found on the south side of the bay while Isle Haute is in the upper bay off Cape Chignecto. Smaller islands and islets exist in Passamaquoddy Bay, Back Bay, Annapolis Basin; the Five Islands, in the Minas Basin, are scenic. The Bay of Fundy is home to another interesting geologic feature, the Hopewell Rocks formation; this formation is where the "famous flower-pot rocks" are l
Acadia National Park
Acadia National Park is an American national park located in the state of Maine, southwest of Bar Harbor. The park preserves about half of Mount Desert Island, many adjacent smaller islands, part of the Schoodic Peninsula on the coast of Maine. Acadia was designated Sieur de Monts National Monument by proclamation of President Woodrow Wilson in 1916. Sieur de Monts was renamed and redesignated Lafayette National Park by Congress in 1919—the first national park in the United States east of the Mississippi River and the only one in the Northeastern United States; the park was renamed Acadia National Park in 1929. More than 3.5 million people visited the park in 2018. Native Americans of the Algonquian nations have inhabited the area called Acadia for at least 12,000 years, they traded furs for European goods when French and Dutch ships began arriving in the early 17th century. The Wabanaki Confederacy has held an annual Native American Festival in Bar Harbor since 1989. Samuel de Champlain named the island Isle des Monts Deserts in 1604.
The island was granted to Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac by Louis XIV of France in 1688 ceded to England in 1713. Summer visitors, nicknamed rusticators, arrived in 1855, followed by wealthy families, nicknamed cottagers as their large houses were quaintly called cottages. Charles Eliot is credited with the idea for the park. George B. Dorr, the "Father of Acadia National Park," along with Eliot's father Charles W. Eliot, supported the idea through donations of land, advocacy at the state and federal levels. John D. Rockefeller Jr. financed the construction of carriage roads from 1915 to 1940. A wildfire in 1947 burned much of the park and destroyed 237 houses, including 67 of the millionaires’ cottages; the park includes mountains, an ocean coastline and deciduous woodlands, lakes and wetlands encompassing a total of 49,075 acres as of 2017. Key sites on Mount Desert Island include Cadillac Mountain—the tallest mountain on the eastern coastline and one of the first places in the United States where one can watch the sunrise—a rocky coast featuring Thunder Hole where waves crash loudly into a crevasse around high tides, a sandy swimming beach called Sand Beach, numerous lakes and ponds.
Jordan Pond features the glacially rounded North and South Bubbles at its northern end, while Echo Lake has the only freshwater swimming beach in the park. Somes Sound is a five-mile long fjard formed during a glacial period that reshaped the entire island to its present form, including the U-shaped valleys containing the many ponds and lakes; the Bass Harbor Head Light is situated above a steep, rocky headland on the southwest coast—the only lighthouse on the island. The park protects the habitats of 37 mammalian species including black bears and white-tailed deer, seven reptilian species including milk snakes and snapping turtles, eleven amphibian species including wood frogs and spotted salamanders, 33 fish species including rainbow smelt and brook trout, as many as 331 birds including various species of raptors and waterfowl. In 1991, peregrine falcons had a successful nesting in Acadia for the first time since 1956. Falcon chicks are banded to study migration, habitat use, longevity; some trails may be early summer to avoid disturbance to falcon nesting areas.
Recreational activities from spring through autumn include car and bus touring along the park's paved loop road. Winter activities include cross-country skiing, snowshoeing and ice fishing. Two campgrounds are located on Mount Desert Island, another campground is on the Schoodic Peninsula, five lean-to sites are on Isle au Haut; the main visitor center is at Hulls Cove, northwest of Bar Harbor. Native Americans have inhabited the area called Acadia for at least 12,000 years, including the coastal areas of Maine and adjacent islands; the Wabanaki Confederacy consists of five related Algonquian nations—the Maliseet, Mi'kmaq, Passamaquoddy and Penobscot. Some of the nations call Mount Desert Island Pemetic, which has remained at the center of the Wabanaki traditional ancestral homeland and territory of traditional stewardship responsibility to the present day; the etymology of the park's name begins with the Mi'kmaq term akadie, rendered as l'Acadie by French explorers, translated into English as Acadia.
The Wabanaki traveled to the island in birch bark canoes to hunt, gather berries, harvest clams and basket-making resources like sweetgrass, to trade with other Wabanakis. They camped near places like Somes Sound. In the early 17th century, Asticou was the chieftain of the greater Mount Desert Island area, one district of an intertribal confederacy known as Mawooshen led by the grandchief Bashaba. Castine was the grandchief's favored rendezvous site for the Wabanaki tribes; the site is located just west of Mount Desert Island at the mouth of the Bagaduce River in eastern Penobscot Bay. From 1615, Castine developed into a major fur trading post where French and Dutch traders all fought for control. Sealskins, moose hides, furs were traded by the Wabanakis for European commodities. By the early 1620s, warfare and introduced diseases, including smallpox and influenza, had decimated the tribes from Mount Desert Island southward to Cape Cod, leaving about 10 percent of the original population
Sir Samuel Argall was an English adventurer and naval officer. As a sea captain, in 1609, Argall was the first to determine a shorter northern route from England across the Atlantic Ocean to the new English colony of Virginia, based at Jamestown, made numerous voyages to the New World, he captained one of Lord De La Warr's ships in the successful rescue mission to Virginia in 1610 which saved the colony from starvation. As a sea warrior, he is best known for his successful diplomacy with the Powhatan Confederacy, he abducted the Chief's daughter and held her as a captive at Henricus as security against the return of English captives and property held by Powhatan on 13 April 1613. Pocahontas had long been a friend of the English and was treated with great respect according to her rank, in the eyes of the English, as an Algonquian Princess; this action resulted in the restoration of peace and trade relations between the English and the Powhatan Confederacy when English Planter John Rolfe of nearby Varina Plantation met and married Pocahontas.
Argall was successful in his actions against French efforts at colonisation in Acadia and North Africa which were upheld in London as violations of the Charter of the Virginia Company. Knighted by King James I, Argall was accused of having been excessively stern in his term as Governor of Virginia and not having the best interests of the planters at heart, but the examinations of his conduct in London and the opinion of some modern historians have questioned these charges. Samuel Argall, baptized 4 December 1580, was the fourth son of Richard Argall of East Sutton, Kent, by his third wife, Mary Scott, the daughter of Sir Reginald Scott of Scot's Hall, one of the foremost houses in Kent, by his second wife, Mary Tuke, the daughter of Sir Bryan Tuke of Layer Marney, secretary to Cardinal Wolsey. In 1609, Argall, as an English ship's captain employed by the Virginia Company of London, was the first to develop a shorter, more northerly route for sailing from England across the Atlantic Ocean to the Virginia Colony and its primary port and seat of government at Jamestown.
Rather than following the normal practice of going south to the tropics and west with the trade winds, Captain Argall sailed west from the Azores to Bermuda and almost due west to the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. His voyage took six days, including two weeks becalmed; this new route enabled the English to save on provisions. Upon his arrival at Jamestown, Captain Argall found the colonists in dire straits. Argall resupplied them with all the food he could spare and returned to England at the end of the summer; the help came to the colony at one of the most critical moments in its history, as it began the Starving Time, during which fewer than one in five survived. However, without the provisions Argall had left, the colony may have been destroyed. Argall's voyage prevented the Spanish from gaining knowledge of the weakness of the Jamestown colony. In July 1609, Argall encountered a Spanish reconnaissance ship, La Asunción de Cristo under the command of Francisco Fernández de Écija, sent from St. Augustine by governor Pedro de Ibarra to survey the activities of the Jamestown colonists.
Argall's larger ship and John, stationed at Cape Henry, chased the Spanish ship and denied it entrance into the Chesapeake Bay. Argall arrived back at the Colony in the summer of 1610, when Royal Governor Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr reinforced the defences of the English against the sometimes hostile Native Americans in Virginia. De La Warr, became so ill that in the spring of 1611 he sailed home to England, Sir Thomas Dale took his place as Deputy Governor in charge of the Virginia Colony; when he returned to England, Lord de la Warr wrote a book, The Relation of the Right Honourable the Lord De-La-Warre, of the Colonie, Planted in Virginia, remained nominally the Royal Governor until his death in 1618. Serving under Dale, in March 1613, looking for food for the settlement, sailed up the Potomac River. There, he traded with a Native American tribe, they lived at the village of Passapatanzy. When two English colonists began trading with the Patawomecks, they discovered the presence of Pocahontas, the daughter of Wahunsonacock, Chief of the Powhatan Confederacy.
According to a book by Captain John Smith, she had been there for around three months. As soon as he heard this, Argall resolved to capture Pocahontas. Sending for the local chief, Argall told him he must bring her on board his ship, suggested luring her with the present of a copper kettle. With the help of Japazaws, they tricked Pocahontas into captivity, their purpose, as they explained in a letter, was to ransom her for some English prisoners held by Chief Powhatan, along with various weapons and farming tools that the Powhatans had stolen. Powhatan returned the prisoners but failed to satisfy the colonists with the amount of weapons and tools he returned, a long standoff ensued. Argall commanded the ship that took Pocahontas, her half-sister Matachanna, Matachanna's husband, Uttamatomakkin, to England in 1616, as well as the ship, in the Thames Estuary about to carry Pocahontas home to Virginia when she died suddenly. After the capture of Pocahontas in 1613, under orders from London, Argall began to raid Acadia.
First he eradicated the French Jesuit colony of Saint-Sauveur on Mount Desert Island. After the first of two trips to accomplish this, he carried fourteen prisoners back to Jamestown, he went on to burn the settlement and the restant structures of an earlier one on Sainte-Croix and the occupied site of Port Royal. O
A visitor center or centre, visitor information center, tourist information center, is a physical location that provides tourist information to visitors. A visitor center may be: A visitor center at a specific attraction or place of interest, such as a landmark, national park, national forest, or state park, providing information and in-depth educational exhibits and artifact displays. A film or other media display is used. If the site has permit requirements or guided tours, the visitor center is the place where these are coordinated. A tourist information center, providing visitors to a location with information on the area's attractions, lodgings and other items relevant to tourism; these centers are operated at the airport or other port of entry, by the local government or chamber of commerce. A visitor center is called an information center. A corporate visitor center, provides visitors with an accessible window into the corporation. Visitor centers used to provide basic information about the place, corporation or event they are celebrating, acting more as the entry way to a place.
The role of the visitor center has been evolving over the past 10 years to become more of an experience and to tell the story of the place or brand it represents. Many have become experiences in their own right. In the United Kingdom, there is a nationwide network of Tourist Information Centres run by the British Tourist Authority, represented online by the VisitBritain website and public relations organisation. Other TICs are run by local authorities or through private organisations such as local shops in association with BTA. In England, VisitEngland promotes domestic tourism. In Wales, the Welsh Government supports TICs through Visit Wales. In Scotland, the Scottish Government supports VisitScotland, the official tourist organisation of Scotland, which operates Tourist Information Centres across Scotland. In Poland there are special tables giving free information about tourist attractions. Offices are situated in interesting places in popular tourists' destinations and tables stay near monuments and important culture In North America, a welcome center is a rest area with a visitor center, located after the entrance from one state or province to another state or province or in some cases another country along an Interstate Highway or other freeway.
These information centers are operated by the state. The first example opened on 4 May 1935, next to US 12 in New Buffalo, near the Indiana state line. Many United States cities, such as Houston and Boca Raton, Florida, as well as counties and other areas smaller than states operate welcome centers, though with less facilities than state centers have. In Ontario, there are 11 Ontario Travel Information Centres located along 400-series highways. Peru features Iperú, Tourist Information and Assistance, a free service that provides tourist information for domestic and foreign travelers, the information covers destinations, recommended routes and licensed tourism companies in Peru, it provides assistance on various procedures or where tourists have problems of various kinds. Iperú receives suggestions for destinations and tourism companies operating in Peru. Iperú, Tourist Information and Assistance has a nationwide network represented online by the Peru.travel website, the 24/7 line 5748000, 31 local offices in 13 regions in all over Peru: Lima-Callao, Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Arequipa, Puno, Cusco and Iquitos.
The official tourist organization or national tourist board of Peru is PromPerú, a national organization that promotes both tourism and international commerce of this country worldwide. In Australia, most visitor centres are local or state government-run, or in some cases as an association of tourism operators on behalf of the government managed by a board or executive; those that comply with a national accreditation programme use the italic "i" as pictured above. These visitor information centres provide information on the local area, perform services such as accommodation and tour bookings, flight/bus/train/hire car options, act as the first point of contact a visitor has with the town or region. Heritage center Heritage interpretation Interpretation center Nature center United States Capitol Visitor Center Communicating with visitors – 16 tips for visitor centers
Jacques Cartier was a Breton explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France. Jacques Cartier was the first European to describe and map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named "The Country of Canadas", after the Iroquois names for the two big settlements he saw at Stadacona and at Hochelaga. Jacques Cartier was born in 1491 in the port on the north-west coast of Brittany. Cartier, a respectable mariner, improved his social status in 1520 by marrying Mary Catherine des Granches, member of a leading family, his good name in Saint-Malo is recognized by its frequent appearance in baptismal registers as godfather or witness. In 1534, two years after the Duchy of Brittany was formally united with France in the Edict of Union, Cartier was introduced to King Francis I by Jean Le Veneur, bishop of Saint-Malo and abbot of Mont Saint-Michel, at the Manoir de Brion; the king had invited the Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano to explore the eastern coast of North America on behalf of France in 1524.
Le Veneur cited voyages to Newfoundland and Brazil as proof of Cartier's ability to "lead ships to the discovery of new lands in the New World". On April 20, 1534, Cartier set sail under a commission from the king, hoping to discover a western passage to the wealthy markets of Asia. In the words of the commission, he was to "discover certain islands and lands where it is said that a great quantity of gold and other precious things are to be found", it took him twenty days to sail across the ocean. Starting on May 10 of that year, he explored parts of Newfoundland, areas that now comprise the Canadian Atlantic provinces and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. During one stop at Îles aux Oiseaux, his crew slaughtered around 1000 birds, most of them great auks. Cartier's first two encounters with aboriginal peoples in Canada on the north side of Chaleur Bay, most the Mi'kmaq, were brief, his third encounter took place on the shores of Gaspé Bay with a party of St. Lawrence Iroquoians, where on July 24, he planted a cross to claim the land for France.
The 10-meter cross bearing the words "Long Live the King of France" took possession of the territory in the name of the king. The change in mood was a clear indication. Here he kidnapped the two sons of their captain. Cartier wrote that they told him this region where they were captured was called by them Honguedo; the natives' captain at last agreed that they could be taken, under the condition that they return with European goods to trade. Cartier returned to France in September 1534. Jacques Cartier set sail for a second voyage on May 19 of the following year with three ships, 110 men, his two Iroquoian captives. Reaching the St. Lawrence, he sailed up-river for the first time, reached the Iroquoian capital of Stadacona, where Chief Donnacona ruled. Cartier left his main ships in a harbour close to Stadacona, used his smallest ship to continue on to Hochelaga, arriving on October 2, 1535. Hochelaga was far more impressive than the small and squalid village of Stadacona, a crowd of over a thousand came to the river edge to greet the Frenchmen.
The site of their arrival has been confidently identified as the beginning of the Sainte-Marie Sault – where the bridge named after him now stands. The expedition could proceed no further. So certain was Cartier that the river was the Northwest Passage and that the rapids were all, preventing him from sailing to China, that the rapids and the town that grew up near them came to be named after the French word for China, La Chine: the Lachine Rapids and the town of Lachine, Quebec. After spending two days among the people of Hochelaga, Cartier returned to Stadacona on October 11, it is not known when he decided to spend the winter of 1535–1536 in Stadacona, it was by too late to return to France. Cartier and his men prepared for the winter by strengthening their fort, stacking firewood, salting down game and fish. From mid-November 1535 to mid-April 1536, the French fleet lay frozen solid at the mouth of the St. Charles River, under the Rock of Quebec. Ice was over a fathom thick with snow four feet deep ashore.
To add to the misery, scurvy broke out – first among the Iroquoians, among the French. Cartier estimated the number of dead Iroquoians at 50. On a visit by Domagaya to the French fort, Cartier inquired and learned from him that a concoction made from a tree known as annedda Spruce beer, or arbor vitae, would cure scurvy; this remedy saved the expedition from destruction, allowing 85 Frenchmen to survive the winter. In his journal, Cartier states that by mid-February, "out of 110 that we were, not ten were well enough to help the others, a pitiful thing to see"; the Frenchmen used up the bark of an entire tree in a week on the cure, the dramatic results prompted Cartier to proclaim it a Godsend, a miracle. Ready to return to France in early May 1536, Cartier decided to kidnap Chief Donnacona and take him to France, so that he might tell the tale of a country further north, called the "Kingdom of Saguenay", said to be full of gold and other treasures. After an arduous trip down the St. Lawrence and a three-week Atlantic crossing and his men arrived in Saint-Malo on July 15, 1536, concluding the second, 14-mo