Doncaster, is a large market town in South Yorkshire, England. Together with its suburbs and settlements, the town forms part of the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster. The town itself has a population of 109,805, the Doncaster Urban Area had a population of 158,141 in 2011 and includes Doncaster and the neighbouring small village of Bentley as well as some other villages. Possibly inhabited by people, Doncaster grew up at the site of a Roman fort constructed in the 1st century at a crossing of the River Don. The 2nd century Antonine Itinerary and the early 5th century Notitia Dignitatum called this fort Danum, julius Agricola during the late 70s. Doncaster provided a direct land route between Lincoln and York. The main route between Lincoln and York was Ermine Street, which required parties to break into smaller units to cross the Humber in boats, as this was not always practical, the Romans considered Doncaster to be an important staging post. The Roman road through Doncaster appears on two recorded in the Antonine Itinerary.
The itinerary include the section of road between Lincoln and York, and list three stations along the route between these two coloniae. Routes 7 and 8 are entitled the route from York to London, several areas of known intense archaeological interest have been identified in the town, although many—in particular St Sepulchre Gate—remain hidden under buildings. The Roman fort is believed to have located on the site that is now covered by St Georges Minster. The Register names the unit as under the command of the Duke of the Britons, Doncaster is generally believed to be the Cair Daun listed as one of the 28 cities of Britain in the 9th century History of the Britons traditionally attributed to Nennius. It was certainly an Anglo-Saxon burh, during which period it received its present name, Don- from the Roman settlement, the settlement was mentioned in the 1003 will of Wulfric Spott. Shortly after the Norman Conquest, Nigel Fossard refortified the town, by the time of the Domesday Book, Hexthorpe in the wapentake of Strafforth was described as having a church and two mills.
The historian David Hey says that these represent the settlement at Doncaster. He suggests that the street name Frenchgate indicates that Fossard invited fellow Normans to trade in the town, as the 13th century approached, Doncaster matured into a busy town, in 1194 King Richard I granted it national recognition with a town charter. Doncaster had a fire in 1204, from which it slowly recovered. At the time, buildings were built of wood, and open fireplaces were used for cooking and heating, in 1248 a charter was granted for Doncaster Market to be held around the Church of St Mary Magdalene, built in Norman times
The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England, who speak the English language. The English identity is of medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn. Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD, England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England along with the Danes, Normans, in the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become closely aligned with British customs. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system and these and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire. The concept of an English nation is far older than that of the British nation, many recent immigrants to England have assumed a solely British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities.
Use of the word English to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their national identity. They found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as English and it is unclear how many British people consider themselves English. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to allow respondents to record their English, Scottish, another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words English and British to be used interchangeably, especially overseas. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say English, I mean British. He notes that this slip is made only by the English themselves and by foreigners. Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of Englands dominant position with the UK and it tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles.
In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago and it meant indiscriminately England and Wales, Great Britain, the United Kingdom, and even the British Empire. Foreigners used it as the name of a Great Power and indeed continue to do so, bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as Prime Minister of England Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of England except for a geographic area brings protests and this version of history is now regarded by many historians as incorrect, on the basis of more recent genetic and archaeological research. The 2016 study authored by Stephan Schiffels et al, the remaining portion of English DNA is primarily French, introduced in a migration after the end of the Ice Age
Battle of Agincourt
The Battle of Agincourt was a major English victory in the Hundred Years War. The battle took place on Friday,25 October 1415 in the County of Saint-Pol, Henry V led his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting. The French king of the time, Charles VI, did not command the French army himself as he suffered from severe psychotic illnesses with moderate mental incapacitation, the French were commanded by Constable Charles dAlbret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party. This battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in very large numbers, the battle is the centrepiece of the play Henry V by William Shakespeare. The Battle of Agincourt is well documented by at least seven contemporary accounts, the approximate location of the battle has never been in dispute and the place remains relatively unaltered even after 600 years. Two of the most frequently cited accounts come from Burgundian sources, one from Jean Le Fèvre de Saint-Remy, who was present at the battle, Henry V invaded France following the failure of negotiations with the French.
He initially called a Great Council in the spring of 1414 to discuss going to war with France, Henry would marry Princess Catherine, the young daughter of Charles VI, and receive a dowry of 2 million crowns. The French responded with what they considered the terms of marriage with Princess Catherine, a dowry of 600,000 crowns. By 1415, negotiations had ground to a halt, with the English claiming that the French had mocked their claims and ridiculed Henry himself. In December 1414, the English parliament was persuaded to grant Henry a double subsidy, on 19 April 1415, Henry again asked the Great Council to sanction war with France, and this time they agreed. The siege took longer than expected, the town surrendered on 22 September, and the English army did not leave until 8 October. The campaign season was coming to an end, and the English army had suffered many casualties through disease and he intended the manoeuvre as a deliberate provocation to battle aimed at the dauphin, who had failed to respond to Henrys personal challenge to combat at Harfleur.
The French had raised an army during the siege which assembled around Rouen and this was not strictly a feudal army, but an army paid through a system similar to the English. The French hoped to raise 9,000 troops, but the army was not ready in time to relieve Harfleur, after Henry V marched to the north, the French moved to block them along the River Somme. They were successful for a time, forcing Henry to move south, away from Calais, the English finally crossed the Somme south of Péronne, at Béthencourt and Voyennes and resumed marching north. Without a river obstacle to defend, the French were hesitant to force a battle and they shadowed Henrys army while calling a semonce des nobles, calling on local nobles to join the army. By 24 October, both faced each other for battle, but the French declined, hoping for the arrival of more troops. The two armies spent the night of 24 October on open ground, the English had very little food, had marched 260 miles in two and a half weeks, were suffering from sickness such as dysentery, and faced much larger numbers of well equipped French men at arms
Culture of England
The culture of England is defined by the idiosyncratic cultural norms of England and the English people. Owing to Englands influential position within the United Kingdom it can sometimes be difficult to differentiate English culture from the culture of the United Kingdom as a whole, since Anglo-Saxon times, England has had its own unique culture, apart from Welsh, Scottish or Irish culture. English architecture begins with the architecture of the Anglo-Saxons, at least fifty surviving English churches are of Anglo-Saxon origin, although in some cases the Anglo-Saxon part is small and much-altered. All except one timber church are built of stone or brick, almost no secular work remains above ground. Following the Norman Conquest Romanesque architecture superseded Anglo-Saxon architecture, there was a period of transition into English Gothic architecture, in early modern times there was an influence from Renaissance architecture until by the 18th century Gothic forms of architecture had been abandoned and various classical styles were adopted.
During the Victorian period Neo-Gothic architecture was preferred for many types of buildings, other buildings such as cathedrals and parish churches are associated with a sense of traditional Englishness, as is often the palatial stately home. Many people are interested in the English country house and the lifestyle, evidenced by the number of visitors to properties managed by English Heritage. Landscape gardening as developed by Capability Brown set a trend for the English garden. Gardening, and visiting gardens, are regarded as typically English pursuits, providing a walkway out to sea, the seaside pier is regarded among the finest Victorian architecture, and is an iconic symbol of the British seaside holiday. By 1914, more than 100 piers were located around the UK coast, today there are approximately 55 seaside piers in the UK. English art was dominated by imported artists throughout much of the Renaissance and it is considered to be typified by landscape painting, such as the work of J. M. W.
Portraitists like Thomas Gainsborough and Joshua Reynolds are significant, pictorial satirist William Hogarth pioneered Western sequential art, and political illustrations in this style are often referred to as Hogarthian. Following the work of Hogarth, political cartoons developed in England in the part of the 18th century under the direction of James Gillray. Since the early era, the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach, honesty of flavour. Traditional meals have ancient origins, such as bread and cheese and stewed meats and game pies, the 14th-century English cookbook, the Forme of Cury, contains recipes for these, and dates from the royal court of Richard II. Modern English cuisine is difficult to differentiate from British cuisine as a whole, there are some forms of cuisine considered distinctively English. The full English breakfast is a variant of the traditional British fried breakfast, black pudding can be added as well as fried leftover mashed potatoes called potato cakes or hash browns.
Tea and beer are typical and rather iconic drinks in England, High Tea would be had as a separate meal, instead of afternoon tea which was only found in some classes of society
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. It is notable for its association with the English and British royal family. The original castle was built in the 11th century after the Norman invasion of England by William the Conqueror, since the time of Henry I, it has been used by the reigning monarch and is the longest-occupied palace in Europe. Inside the castle walls is the 15th-century St Georges Chapel, considered by the historian John Martin Robinson to be one of the achievements of English Perpendicular Gothic design. Gradually replaced with stone fortifications, the castle withstood a siege during the First Barons War at the start of the 13th century. Edwards core design lasted through the Tudor period, during which Henry VIII and Elizabeth I made increasing use of the castle as a royal court and centre for diplomatic entertainment. Windsor Castle survived the period of the English Civil War, when it was used as a military headquarters for Parliamentary forces.
At the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, Charles II rebuilt much of Windsor Castle with the help of the architect Hugh May, Queen Victoria made a few minor changes to the castle, which became the centre for royal entertainment for much of her reign. Windsor Castle was used as a refuge for the family during the Luftwaffe bombing campaigns of the Second World War. It is a popular tourist attraction, a venue for hosting state visits, more than 500 people live and work in Windsor Castle, making it the largest inhabited castle in the world. Windsor Castle occupies 13 acres, and combines the features of a fortification, a palace, the present-day castle was created during a sequence of phased building projects, culminating in the reconstruction work after a fire in 1992. It is in essence a Georgian and Victorian design based on a medieval structure, since the 14th century, architecture at the castle has attempted to produce a contemporary reinterpretation of older fashions and traditions, repeatedly imitating outmoded or even antiquated styles.
Although there has some criticism, the castles architecture and history lends it a place amongst the greatest European palaces. At the heart of Windsor Castle is the Middle Ward, a formed around the motte or artificial hill in the centre of the ward. The motte is 50 feet high and is made from chalk originally excavated from the surrounding ditch, the Round Tower is in reality far from cylindrical, due to the shape and structure of the motte beneath it. The western entrance to the Middle Ward is now open, the eastern exit from the ward is guarded by the Norman Gatehouse. Wyatville redesigned the exterior of the gatehouse, and the interior was converted in the 19th century for residential use. The Upper Ward of Windsor Castle comprises a number of major buildings enclosed by the bailey wall
Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor, known as Saint Edward the Confessor, was among the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England, and usually considered the last king of the House of Wessex, ruling from 1042 to 1066. When Edward died in 1066, he was succeeded by Harold Godwinson, Edgar the Ætheling, who was of the House of Wessex, was proclaimed king after the Battle of Hastings in 1066, but never ruled and was deposed after about eight weeks. As discussed below, historians disagree about Edwards fairly long reign and his nickname reflects the traditional image of him as unworldly and pious. Confessor reflects his reputation as a saint who did not suffer martyrdom, some portray this kings reign as leading to the disintegration of royal power in England and the advance in power of the House of Godwin, because of the infighting after his heirless death. About a century later, in 1161, Pope Alexander III canonised the late king, Saint Edward was one of Englands national saints until King Edward III adopted Saint George as the national patron saint c.
His feast day is 13 October, celebrated by both the Church of England and the Catholic Church in England and Wales, Edward was the seventh son of Æthelred the Unready, and the first by his second wife, Emma of Normandy. Edward was born between 1003 and 1005 in Islip, and is first recorded as a witness to two charters in 1005 and he had one full brother, and a sister, Godgifu. In charters he was always listed behind his older half-brothers, showing that he ranked behind them, during his childhood England was the target of Viking raids and invasions under Sweyn Forkbeard and his son, Cnut. Following Sweyns seizure of the throne in 1013, Emma fled to Normandy, followed by Edward and Alfred, Sweyn died in February 1014, and leading Englishmen invited Æthelred back on condition that he promised to rule more justly than before. Æthelred agreed, sending Edward back with his ambassadors, Æthelred died in April 1016, and he was succeeded by Edwards older half-brother Edmund Ironside, who carried on the fight against Sweyns son, Cnut.
According to Scandinavian tradition, Edward fought alongside Edmund, as Edward was at most thirteen years old at the time, Edmund died in November 1016, and Cnut became undisputed king. Edward again went into exile with his brother and sister, in the same year Cnut had Edwards last surviving elder half-brother, executed, leaving Edward as the leading Anglo-Saxon claimant to the throne. Edward spent a quarter of a century in exile, probably mainly in Normandy and he probably received support from his sister Godgifu, who married Drogo of Mantes, count of Vexin in about 1024. In the early 1030s Edward witnessed four charters in Normandy, signing two of them as king of England, Edward was said to have developed an intense personal piety during this period, but modern historians regard this as a product of the medieval campaign for his canonisation. In Frank Barlows view in his lifestyle would seem to have been that of a member of the rustic nobility. He appeared to have a slim prospect of acceding to the English throne during this period, Cnut died in 1035, and Harthacnut succeeded him as king of Denmark.
It is unclear whether he was intended to have England as well and it was therefore decided that his elder half-brother Harold Harefoot should act as regent, while Emma held Wessex on Harthacnuts behalf. In 1036 Edward and his brother Alfred separately came to England, Alfred was captured by Godwin, Earl of Wessex who turned him over to Harold Harefoot
Edmund the Martyr
Edmund the Martyr was king of East Anglia from about 855 until his death. Almost nothing is known about Edmund and he is thought to have been of East Anglian origin and was first mentioned in an annal of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, written some years after his death. The kingdom of East Anglia was devastated by the Vikings, who destroyed any evidence of his reign. Later writers produced fictitious accounts of his life, asserting that he was born in 841, the son of Æthelweard, an obscure East Anglian king, whom it was said Edmund succeeded when he was fourteen. Later versions of Edmunds life relate that he was crowned on 25 December 855 at Burna, which at that time functioned as the capital. In 869, the Great Heathen Army advanced on East Anglia and killed Edmund. According to one legend, his head was thrown into the forest. Commentators have noted how Edmunds death bears resemblance to the fate suffered by St Sebastian, St Denis, a coinage commemorating Edmund was minted from around the time East Anglia was absorbed by the kingdom of Wessex and a popular cult emerged.
In about 986, Abbo of Fleury wrote of his life, the saints remains were temporarily moved from Bury St Edmunds to London for safekeeping in 1010. His shrine at Bury was visited by kings, including Canute, who was responsible for rebuilding the abbey. During the Middle Ages, when Edmund was regarded as the saint of England and its magnificent abbey grew wealthy. Edmund is first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle annal for 870, by tradition, Edmund is thought to have been born in 841 and to have acceded to the East Anglian throne in around 855. Nothing is known of his life or reign, as no contemporary East Anglian documents from this period have survived, medieval chroniclers have provided dubious accounts of his life, in the absence of any real details. The most credible theory for Edmund’s parentage suggests Ealhhere, brother-in-law to King Æthelstan of Kent, as Edmund’s father, Edmund cannot be placed within any ruling dynasty. Numismatic evidence suggests he succeeded Æthelweard and it is known that a variety of different coins were minted by Edmunds moneyers during his reign.
The letters AN, standing for Anglia, only appear on the coins of Edmund and Æthelstan of East Anglia, specimens read + EADMUND REX and so it is possible for his coins to be divided chronologically. Otherwise, no chronology for his coins has been confirmed and it relates that Her rad se here ofer Mierce innan East Engle and wiñt setl namon. And þy wint Eadmund cying him wiþ feaht. and þa Deniscan sige naman þone cyning ofslogon. by tradition the leaders who slew the king were Ivar the Boneless and his brother Ubba
Palm Sunday is a Christian moveable feast that falls on the Sunday before Easter. The feast commemorates Jesus triumphal entry into Jerusalem, an event mentioned in each of the four canonical Gospels, the difficulty of procuring palms in unfavorable climates led to their substitution with branches of native trees, including box, olive and yew. The Sunday was often named after these trees, as in Yew Sunday. In the accounts of the four canonical Gospels, Jesus triumphal entry into Jerusalem takes place about a week before his Resurrection and it suggests that Jesus was declaring he was the King of Israel to the anger of the Sanhedrin. Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord and we bless you from the house of the Lord. The symbolism of the donkey may refer to the Eastern tradition that it is an animal of peace, versus the horse, a king would have ridden a horse when he was bent on war and ridden a donkey to symbolize his arrival in peace. Jesus entry to Jerusalem would have thus symbolized his entry as the Prince of Peace, not as a war-waging king.
In Luke 19,41 as Jesus approaches Jerusalem, he looks at the city and weeps over it, in many lands in the ancient Near East, it was customary to cover in some way the path of someone thought worthy of the highest honour. The Hebrew Bible reports that Jehu, son of Jehoshaphat, was treated this way, both the Synoptic Gospels and the Gospel of John report that people gave Jesus this form of honour. In the synoptics the people are described as laying their garments and cut rushes on the street, in Jewish tradition, the palm is one of the Four Species carried for Sukkot, as prescribed for rejoicing at Leviticus 23,40. In the Greco-Roman culture of the Roman Empire, which strongly influenced Christian tradition and it became the most common attribute of the goddess Nike or Victory. Although the Epistles of Paul refer to Jesus as triumphing, the entry into Jerusalem may not have been pictured as a triumphal procession in this sense before the 13th century. In ancient Egyptian religion, the palm was carried in funeral processions, the palm branch was used as a symbol of Christian martyrs and their spiritual victory or triumph over death.
In Revelation 7,9, the white-clad multitude stand before the throne, Palm Sunday, or the Entry of the Lord into Jerusalem, as it is often called in some Orthodox Churches, is one of the Twelve Great Feasts of the liturgical year. The day before Palm Sunday, Lazarus Saturday, believers often prepare palm fronds by knotting them into crosses in preparation for the procession on Sunday, the hangings and vestments in the church are changed to a festive colour—gold in the Greek tradition, and green in the Slavic tradition. Wherefore, we like children, carry the banner of triumph and victory, blessed is He that cometh in the Name of the Lord. There is no requirement as to what kind of branches must be used. Whatever the kind, these branches are blessed and distributed together with candles either during the All-Night Vigil on the Eve of the Feast, the faithful take these branches and candles home with them after the service, and keep them in their icon corner as an evloghia
Edward III of England
Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. Edward was crowned at age fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, at age seventeen he led a successful coup against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign. After a successful campaign in Scotland he declared himself heir to the French throne in 1337. This started what would become known as the Hundred Years War, following some initial setbacks the war went exceptionally well for England, victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny. Edwards years, were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity, Edward III was a temperamental man but capable of unusual clemency. He was in ways a conventional king whose main interest was warfare. Admired in his own time and for centuries after, Edward was denounced as an adventurer by Whig historians such as William Stubbs.
This view has been challenged recently and modern historians credit him with some significant achievements, Edward was born at Windsor Castle on 13 November 1312, and was often referred to as Edward of Windsor in his early years. The reign of his father, Edward II, was a problematic period of English history. One source of contention was the inactivity, and repeated failure. Another controversial issue was the kings patronage of a small group of royal favourites. The birth of an heir in 1312 temporarily improved Edward IIs position in relation to the baronial opposition. To bolster further the independent prestige of the prince, the king had him created Earl of Chester at only twelve days of age. In 1325, Edward II was faced with a demand from his brother-in-law, Charles IV of France, Edward was reluctant to leave the country, as discontent was once again brewing domestically, particularly over his relationship with the favourite Hugh Despenser the Younger. Instead, he had his son Edward created Duke of Aquitaine in his place, the young Edward was accompanied by his mother Isabella, who was the sister of King Charles, and was meant to negotiate a peace treaty with the French.
While in France, Isabella conspired with the exiled Roger Mortimer to have Edward deposed, to build up diplomatic and military support for the venture, Isabella had Prince Edward engaged to the twelve-year-old Philippa of Hainault. An invasion of England was launched and Edward IIs forces deserted him completely, the king was forced to relinquish the throne to his son on 25 January 1327. The new king was crowned as Edward III on 1 February 1327 and it was not long before the new reign met with other problems caused by the central position at court of Roger Mortimer, who was now the de facto ruler of England
William Shakespeare was an English poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the worlds pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called Englands national poet, and the Bard of Avon and his extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 38 plays,154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright, Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children and twins Hamnet and Judith. Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a career in London as an actor, writer. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613, at age 49, Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were primarily comedies and histories, which are regarded as some of the best work ever produced in these genres.
He wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, in his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights. Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and it was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Shakespeare is hailed, presciently, as not of an age, but for all time. In the 20th and 21st centuries, his works have been adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship. His plays remain highly popular and are studied, performed. William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover originally from Snitterfield, and Mary Arden and he was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April. This date, which can be traced back to an 18th-century scholars mistake, has proved appealing to biographers because Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616 and he was the third child of eight and the eldest surviving son.
At the age of 18, Shakespeare married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway, the consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582. The next day, two of Hathaways neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed almost two years and were baptised 2 February 1585. Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596, after the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592. The exception is the appearance of his name in the bill of a law case before the Queens Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589
Book of Common Prayer
The original book, published in 1549, in the reign of Edward VI, was a product of the English Reformation following the break with Rome. Prayer books, unlike books of prayers, contain the words of structured services of worship, the work of 1549 was the first prayer book to include the complete forms of service for daily and Sunday worship in English. It set out in full the propers, the collects, the 1549 book was soon succeeded by a more reformed revision in 1552 under the same editorial hand, that of Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury. It was used only for a few months, as after Edward VIs death in 1553, in 1604, James I ordered some further changes, the most significant of these being the addition to the Catechism of a section on the Sacraments. Following the tumultuous events leading to and including the English Civil War, a Book of Common Prayer with local variations is used in churches inside and outside the Anglican Communion in over 50 different countries and in over 150 different languages.
In many parts of the world, other books have replaced it in weekly worship. Like the King James Version of the Bible and the works of Shakespeare, many words, the forms of parish worship in the late medieval church in England, which followed the Latin Roman Rite, varied according to local practice. By far the most common form, or use, found in Southern England was that of Sarum. There was no book, the services that would be provided by the Book of Common Prayer were to be found in the Missal, the Breviary, Manual. The chant for worship was contained in the Roman Gradual for the Mass, in his early days Cranmer was somewhat conservative, an admirer, if a critical one, of John Fisher. It may have been his visit to Germany in 1532 which began the change in his outlook, in 1538, as Henry began diplomatic negotiations with Lutheran princes, Cranmer came face to face with a Lutheran embassy. The Exhortation and Litany, the earliest English-language service of the Church of England, was the first overt manifestation of his changing views.
It was no mere translation from the Latin, its Protestant character is made clear by the reduction of the place of saints. It was only on Henrys death in 1547 and the accession of Edward VI that revision could proceed faster. Cranmer finished his work on an English Communion rite in 1548, the ordinary Roman Rite of the Mass had made no provision for any congregation present to receive communion in both species. So, Cranmer composed in English an additional rite of congregational preparation and communion, to be undertaken immediately following the communion, although the work is commonly attributed to Cranmer, its detailed origins are obscure. A group of bishops and divines met first at Chertsey and at Windsor in 1548, Cranmer collected the material from many sources, even the opening of Preface was borrowed. He borrowed much from German sources, particularly from work commissioned by Hermann von Wied, Archbishop of Cologne, the Church Order of Brandenberg and Nuremberg was partly the work of the latter
Royal Arms of England
The Royal Arms of England are the armorials first adopted in a fixed form at the start of the age of heraldry as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154. In the popular mind they have come to symbolise the nation of England, although according to heraldic usage nations do not bear arms, although the tincture azure of tongue and claws is not cited in many blazons, they are historically a distinguishing feature of the Arms of England. Without doubt the same animal was intended, but different names were given according to the position, Royal emblems depicting lions were first used by the Norman dynasty, a formal and consistent English heraldry system emerged at the end of the 12th century. In 1340, King Edward III of England laid claim to the throne of France, and thus adopted the Royal arms of France which he quartered with his paternal arms, the Royal Arms of England. Significantly he placed the French arms in the 1st and 4th quarters of greatest honour and this quartering was adjusted and restored intermittently throughout the Middle Ages as the relationship between England and France changed.
When the French king altered his arms from semée of fleur-de-lys and it appears in a similar capacity to represent England in the Arms of Canada and on the Queens Personal Canadian Flag. King Henry II of England had used a coat with a lion on it, his children experimented with different combinations of lions. Although King John had a seal in 1177, with two lions passant guardant, the three lions passant or on a field gules were used as the Royal Arms by Kings John, Henry III, Edward I, and Edward II. In 1340, following the death of King Charles IV of France, in addition to initiating the Hundred Years War, Edward III expressed his claim in heraldic form by quartering the royal arms of England with the Arms of France. This quartering continued until 1801, with intervals in 1360–1369 and 1420–1422, as a consequence, the Royal Arms of England and Scotland were combined in the kings new personal arms. On 1 May 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to form that of Great Britain, the claim to the French throne continued, albeit passively, until it was mooted by the French Revolution and the formation of the French First Republic in 1792.
The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain, English heraldry flourished as a working art up to around the 17th century, when it assumed a mainly ceremonial role. The Royal Arms of England continued to embody information relating to English history, for instance, the coats of arms of both The Football Association and the England and Wales Cricket Board have a design featuring three lions passant, based on the historic Royal Arms of England. In 1997, the Royal Mint issued a British one pound coin featuring three lions passant to represent England, to celebrate St Georges Day, in 2001, Royal Mail issued first– and second-class postage stamps with the Royal Crest of England, and the Royal Arms of England respectively. Various accessories to the escutcheon were added and modified by successive English monarchs and these included a crest, supporters, a motto, and the insignia of an order of knighthood. These various components made up the achievement of arms.
The first addition to the shield was in the form of a crest borne above the shield and it was during the reign of Edward III that the crest began to be widely used in English heraldry. The design underwent minor variations until it took on its present form in the reign of Henry VIII, The Royal Crown proper, thereon a lion statant guardant Or, the exact form of crown used in the crest varied over time