The Saint Patrick's Battalion and led by John Riley, was a unit of 175 to several hundred immigrants and expatriates of European descent who fought as part of the Mexican Army against the United States in the Mexican–American War of 1846–48. Most of the battalion's members defected from the United States Army; the battalion served as an artillery unit for much of the war. Despite being formally designated as two infantry companies, it still retained artillery pieces throughout the conflict. In many ways, the battalion acted as the sole Mexican counterbalance to the recent U. S. innovation of horse artillery. The San Patricios were responsible for the toughest battles encountered by the United States in its invasion of Mexico, with Ulysses S. Grant remarking that "Churubusco proved to be about the severest battle fought in the valley of Mexico". Composed of Catholic Irish immigrants, the battalion included Germans, English, Italians, Scots, Spaniards and Mexicans, many of whom were members of the Catholic Church.
Disenfranchised Americans were in the ranks, including escaped slaves from the Southern United States. Only a few members of the Saint Patrick's Battalion were actual U. S. citizens. The Mexican government printed propaganda in different languages to entice immigrants in the U. S. Army to switch sides and offered incentives to foreigners who would enlist in its army including granting them citizenship, paying higher wages than the U. S. Army, generous land grants. U. S. Army regiments from which members are known to have deserted include: the 1st Artillery, the 2nd Artillery, the 3rd Artillery, the 4th Artillery, the 2nd Dragoons, the 2nd Infantry, the 3rd Infantry, the 4th Infantry, the 5th Infantry, the 6th Infantry, the 7th Infantry, the 8th Infantry; the San Patricios are honored in both Ireland. For Mexicans of the generation that fought the Mexican–American War, generations to come, the San Patricios were heroes who came to their aid in an hour of need. For Americans of that generation, the San Patricios were considered traitors.
Successive Mexican presidents have praised the San Patricios. A brave group of Irish soldiers... in a heroic gesture, decided to fight against the foreign ground invasion", Mexican president Ernesto Zedillo stated "Members of the St. Patrick's Battalion were executed for following their consciences, they were martyred for adhering to the highest ideals... we honor their memory. In the name of the people of Mexico, I salute today the people of Ireland and express my eternal gratitude"; the great majority of these men were recent immigrants who had arrived at northeastern U. S. ports, part of the Irish diaspora escaping the Great Irish Famine and poor economic conditions in Ireland, part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland at the time. The U. S. Army recruited Irishmen and other immigrants into military service shortly or sometimes after arrival in America in coffin ships, with promises of salaries and land after the war. Numerous theories have been proposed as to their motives for desertion, including cultural alienation, mistreatment of immigrant soldiers by nativist soldiers and senior officers, brutal military discipline and dislike of service in the U.
S. military, being forced to attend Protestant church services and being unable to practice their Catholic religion as well as religious ideological convictions, the incentive of higher wages and land grants starting at 320 acres offered by Mexico, viewing the U. S. invasion of Mexico as unjust. It is believed primary motivations were shared religion with the Mexicans and sympathy for the Mexican cause based on similarities between the situations in Mexico and Ireland; this hypothesis is based on evidence of the number of Irish Catholics in the battalion, the letters of John Riley, the field entries of senior officers. Another hypothesis is that the members of the Saint Patrick's Battalion had been unhappy with their treatment in the U. S. Army. Ballentine stated that while "there was a portion of truth" in the view—commonly assigned by officers—that the deserters joined the Mexican army due to their Catholicism, "I have good reason to believe, in fact in some cases I know, that harsh and unjust treatment by their officers operated far more than any other consideration to produce the deplorable result," describing how he found the punishments used for "trivial offensives" to be "revolting and disgusting".
Another theory some historians hold is that the soldiers were attracted by the incentives offered by the Mexican government: safe passage throughout Mexico for deserters, generous land grants, the offer of potential military commissions. For poor people coming from famine conditions, economics was an important incentive. Mexican author José Raúl Conseco noted that many Irish lived in northern Texas, were forced to move south due to regional insecurity. Irish settlers from San Patricio, had sided with Mexican forces against Texan rebels at the Battle of Lipantitlán in the Texan Revolution. Irish expatriates had a long tradition of serving in military forces of Catholic countries, for instance, serving with Spain and France in groups of young men who had left Ireland during what would become known as the Flight of the Wild Geese in the 17th century. In addition, many Irish fought as sold
Rehabilitation Psychology is a specialty area of psychology aimed at maximizing the independence, functional status and social participation of individuals with disabilities and chronic health conditions. Assessment and treatment may include the following areas: psychosocial, cognitive and functional status, self-esteem, coping skills, quality of life; as the conditions experienced by patients vary rehabilitation psychologists offer individualized treatment approaches. The discipline takes a holistic approach, considering individuals within their broader social context and assessing environmental and demographic factors that may enhance or impede progress. In addition to clinical practice, rehabilitation psychologists engage in consultation, program development, training, public policy, advocacy. Aspects of Rehabilitation Psychology overlap with the specialties of clinical neuropsychology, counseling psychology, health psychology. Rehabilitation psychologists work as advocates with persons with disabilities to eliminate attitudinal and physical barriers, to emphasize employment, environmental access, social role and community integration.
Rehabilitation psychologists provide clinical services in varied healthcare settings, including acute care hospitals and outpatient rehabilitation centers, assisted living centers, long-term care facilities, specialty clinics, community agencies. They work in interdisciplinary teams including a physiatrist, physical therapist, occupational therapist, speech therapist. A nurse, social worker, prosthetist and case manager may be included depending on individual needs. Members of the team work together to create a treatment plan, set goals, educate both the patient and their support network, facilitate discharge planning. In the United States, the specialty of Rehabilitation Psychology is overseen by the Rehabilitation Psychology Specialty Council, which comprises five professional organizations that represent the major constituencies in Rehabilitation Psychology: Division 22 of the American Psychological Association, the American Board of Rehabilitation Psychology, the Foundation for Rehabilitation Psychology, the Council of Rehabilitation Psychology Postdoctoral Training Programs, the Academy of Rehabilitation Psychology.
RPSC represents the specialty to the Council of Specialties in Professional Psychology. Rehabilitation Psychology is its official journal. Rehabilitation Psychology is certified as one of 14 specialty competencies by the American Board of Professional Psychology; the specialty of rehabilitation psychology was established well before psychologists were involved in healthcare settings. In the 1940s and 1950s, psychologists became involved in caring for persons with disabilities the result of combat injuries. Advances in technology had led to an increased number of people surviving injuries and illnesses that would have been fatal in previous generations. Individuals living with disabilities and chronic health conditions needed help to adjust, rehabilitation psychology emerged to meet these needs using psychological knowledge to help maximize independence and welfare. In 1954, the Vocational Rehabilitation Act was passed, providing grant funding for research and program development; as a result of this act, many universities opened vocational rehabilitation counseling programs within their graduate schools.
In 1958, Rehabilitation Psychology was established as Division 22 of the American Psychological Association, as an organization of psychologists concerned with the psychological and social consequences of disability, with the development of ways to prevent and resolve problems associated with disability. By the 1960s, rehabilitation psychology was considered a mature specialty and was prominent throughout the United States. However, it was not until 1997 that the American Board of Professional Psychology approved the establishment of the American Board of Rehabilitation Psychology. Theoretical models are important in rehabilitation psychology for understanding and explaining impairments, aiding treatment planning, facilitating the prediction of outcomes. Models help organize, understand and predict phenomena; the models used integrate information from a number of disciplines, such as biology and sociology. A wide array of models is needed because of the diverse problems and concerns faced by individuals with disabilities and chronic health conditions.
More than one model must be applied to properly understand an individual's condition. Biopsychosocial model: The biopsychosocial model examines the interaction of medical conditions, psychological stressors, the environment, personal factors to understand an individual's adaptation to disability; this interdisciplinary model is an acknowledgement that disability only can be understood within a larger context, reflects the longstanding belief of rehabilitation psychologists that cultural attitudes and environmental barriers influence an individual's adaptation and accentuate disability. Notably, the tenets of this model are reflected in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning and Health; the framework is holistic and to apply it providers must learn about the disabled person's home life and broader social context. Psychoanalyt
Valentinas Mazuronis is a Lithuanian politician and a member of the European Parliament. Valentinas Mazuronis was born in Molėtai. After graduating from high school in Utena in 1971, he studied in Lithuanian state institute of arts, attaining a degree in architecture in 1976. After the independence, Mazuronis worked as an architect between 1991 and 2004 under sole proprietorship "Valentino Mazuronio projektavimo biuras". Between 1991 and 2002 Mazuronis was a member of Šiauliai city council; until 2001, he was the member of the Lithuanian Liberal Union. Upon the split in the party in 2001, Mazuronis joined the Liberal Democratic Party, becoming its chairman in 2002. In 2004, he was elected to the Seimas under the electoral list of the coalition "for the order and justice", headed by Rolandas Paksas. Mazuronis led the Liberal Democratic parliamentary group, he was the leader of the opposition. In 2012, Mazuronis was elected to the Seimas for a third term, under the electoral list of Order and Justice party.
In December 2012 he was appointed the Minister of Environment. In 2014 Mazuronis was elected as a member of the European Parliament, resigning from his position in the cabinet. In April 2015, Mazuronis joined the ranks of Labour Party, he was appointed the chairman of the party in May 2015, but resigned after the disappointing performance by the party in the first round of Seimas elections in 2016
Charles Henry Carter was a Baptist missionary to Ceylon. Son of Thomas Carter, a stonemason, his wife Anne, Charles Carter was raised near Leicester, UK. While working as a miller for an uncle, Carter was converted to Christianity, he was baptised at Arnesby by the Rev M. Davis, he began preaching and gaining acceptance amongst the Baptists of Leicestershire. He enrolled himself at Horton College in 1849 and applied himself with zeal to the study of Hebrew and logic; such was his academic prowess. He volunteered for service in India but his destination was altered to Ceylon; the change in plans was considered providential. His replacement for India perished in Delhi during the Great Mutiny.. In addition to his Hebrew and Greek, Carter would become fluent in Sanskrit, Bengali and Pali, his passion however, would always be Sinhalese. Upon his arrival at Point de Galle on 23 September that year, Carter set about learning Sinhalese from a 12-year-old native boy; such was his command of the language Carter was preaching to the natives in Singalese in four months.
Bishop Coppelstone, Anglican Primate of India is said to have described Carter as the "foremost Sinhalese scholar of this age".. In 1855 Carter entered upon his work in Kandy acting as Pastor of the Kandy Church, he took upon missioning to the surrounding villages and coffee estates. While in service there Carter began work on a Sinhalese New Testament. In 1862 Carter was forced to New Zealand to recuperate from a throat condition. By this time his New Testament had been completed and by 1869 he had returned to Ceylon and had turned his attention to the Old Testament. By 1881 his health deteriorated again and he was forced to return to New Zealand. Extraordinarily Carter translated from the Greek and Hebrew texts, not the English; the Sinhalese work was done in vernacular language, that it could embody the divine message in a dialect, understood by the people everywhere. His works include: Sinhalese New Testament 1855 Sinhalese Book of Psalms 1863 Sinhalese Old Testament 1869 English – Sinhalese Dictionary 1881 Sinhalese – English Dictionary 1889 Upon his retirement from missionary life, Carter became Pastor of the Ponsonby Baptist Church in New Zealand.
He was the first president of the Baptist Union of New Zealand. While in retirement he compiled a Sinhalese – English dictionary and made the third revision of his Sinhalese bible, alleged by some to be one of the finest biblical translations of the day, he became a student of hymnology. Carter married Hannah Morton on 16 June 1853, they had a gaggle of grandchildren. A dedicated family man, Carter delighted in his grandchildren, instilled in them a sense of Christian duty. Charles Carter. A Sinhalese-English dictionary. Colombo: The "Ceylon Observer" Printing Works. Carter C, A Sinhalese-English Bible ISBN 81-206-1174-8; the New Zealand Baptist, 1914 p 153 The New Zealand Baptist, 1914 p 153 Lapham, H. A. Public Speech to Bible Translation Society 27 April 1903 The New Zealand Baptist, 1914 p 152
George Lowe was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1640 and 1679. He was an equivocal supporter of the Royalist cause in the English Civil War. Lowe was the second surviving son of Richard Lowe, a barrister of Shrewsbury and Calne and his second wife Mary Wootton, daughter of Charles Wotton, merchant, of Salisbury and widow of John Vennard of Salisbury, his father was MP for Calne in 1614 and his uncle George Lowe, a London merchant, represented the town from 1625 to 1629. He came into his mother's property at Calne in 1640. In November 1640, Lowe was elected Member of Parliament for Calne in the Long Parliament. During the Civil War he sat at the parliament in Oxford, he claimed that he acted under duress, that he was not party to the vote declaring the Parliamentarian members at Westminster to be traitors. He was disabled from sitting at Westminster on 5 February 1644, but as a result of his voluntary and early surrender to Edward Massey, he was treated leniently by the committee for compounding and was fined at a tenth instead of a third of his estate.
On release in 1646 he became a J. P. for Oxfordshire until 1653. He was commissioner for assessment for Oxfordshire from 1649 to 1652. After the Restoration, Lowe became J. P. for Wiltshire from July 1660 and commissioner for assessment for Wiltshire from August 1660, holding both roles until 1663. He was commissioner for assessment for Oxford from 1661 to 1679. In 1661 he was elected MP for Calne again in the Cavalier Parliament, he was commissioner for corporations for Wiltshire from 1662 to 1663. In 1665, he served as assistant bailiff from 1666 until his death, he was Clerk of petty bag from 1666 to 1680. In 1673 he became commissioner for assessment for Wiltshire until 1680 and commissioner for assessment for Salisbury for a year, he was commissioner for recusants for Wiltshire in 1675. Lowe died at the age of 88 according to his memorial in St Aldate's Church, which has the inscription "he exerted himself for forty years, more or less, in the illustrious court of senators no less to the approbation of individuals than to the advantage of the public" Lowe married twice, having no children from his first wife.
He married secondly in about 1651 Jane Drake widow of Acton Drake of Shorthampton Lodge, Charlbury and daughter of Martin Wright, goldsmith of Oxford. She died on 9 September 1655 after the birth of a son, he bequeathed his houses in Oxford and Salisbury to his nephew Sir Edward Lowe, master in Chancery
Rikuzen-Ono Station is a railway station in the city of Higashimatsushima, Miyagi Prefecture, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Rikuzen-Ono Station is served by the Senseki Line, it is located 36.0 rail kilometers from the terminus of the Senseki Line at Aoba-dōri Station. Rikuzen-Ono Station has one island platform serving two tracks, connected to the station building by a level crossing. Rikuzen-Ono Station opened on April 1928, as a station on the Miyagi Electric Railway; the Miyagi Electric Railway was nationalized on May 1, 1944. The station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of JNR on April 1, 1987; the station was closed from March 11, 2011 due to damage to the line associated with the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, services were replaced by provisional bus services. The station reopened on March 17, 2012, in the direction of Yamoto and Ishinomaki and a new station building was inaugurated on that date. Services in the direction of Sendai were resumed on May 30, 2015.