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Sakhalin is the largest island of the Russian Federation, situated in the North Pacific Ocean between 45°50' and 54°24' N. It is administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. Sakhalin, about one third the size of Honshu, is just off the Russian Pacific coast, just north of the Japanese island of Hokkaido; the population of Sakhalin island was 497,973 as of the 2010 census, made up of ethnic Russians and a smaller Korean community. The indigenous peoples of the island are the Ainu and Nivkhs. Sakhalin was claimed by both Japan over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries; these disputes sometimes involved military conflict and divisions of the island between the two powers. In 1875, Japan ceded its claims to Russia in exchange for the southern Kuril Islands. In 1905, following the Russo-Japanese War, the island was divided, with the south going to Japan. Russia has held all of the island since seizing the Japanese portion—as well as all the Kuril Islands—in the final days of World War II in 1945. Japan no longer claims any of Sakhalin.

Most Ainu on Sakhalin moved to Hokkaido, only 43 kilometres to the south, when the Japanese were displaced from the island in 1949. The island is known in Russian as Sakhalin. In Chinese, it is known as Kuye. In Japanese, it is known as Karafuto or, as Saharin; the spelling Saghalien may be found in historical texts. Choka is another name found in the early literature and seems to have been the name used by the islanders themselves, but it is not clear whether these were the Gilyak or the Ainu; the European names derive from misinterpretation of a Manchu name ᠰᠠᡥᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠨᡠᠯᠠ ᠠᠩᡤᠠᡥᠠᡩᠠ sahaliyan ula angga hada. Sahaliyan, the word, borrowed in the form of "Sakhalin", means "black" in Manchu, ula means "river" and sahaliyan ula is the proper Manchu name of the Amur River, its Japanese name, Karafuto comes from Ainu kamuy kar put ya mosir, which means "the island a god has created at the estuary". The name was used by the Japanese during their possession of its southern part. Sakhalin was inhabited in the Neolithic Stone Age.

Flint implements such as those found in Siberia have been found at Dui and Kusunai in great numbers, as well as polished stone hatchets similar to European examples, primitive pottery with decorations like those of the Olonets, stone weights used with fishing nets. A population familiar with bronze left traces in earthen walls and kitchen-middens on Aniva Bay. Among the indigenous people of Sakhalin are the Ainu in the southern half, the Oroks in the central region, the Nivkhs in the north. Chinese chronicled the Hezhe tribes, which had a way of life based on fishing; the Mongol Empire made some efforts to subjugate the native people of Sakhalin starting in about 1264 A. D. According to Yuanshi, the official history of the Yuan dynasty, the Mongols invaded Sakhalin and militarily subdued the Guwei, by 1308, all inhabitants of Sakhalin had submitted to the Yuan; the Nivkhs were subjugated earlier later. Following their subjugation, Gǔwéi elders made tributary visits to Yuan posts located at Wuleihe and Boluohe until the end of the Mongol Yuan dynasty in China.

In the early Ming dynasty, the tributary relationship was re-established. By the middle of the 15th century, following the introduction of Chinese political and commercial institutions in the Amur region, the Sakhalin Ainu were making frequent tributary visits to Chinese-controlled outposts. Chinese of the Ming dynasty knew the island as Kuyi or Kuwu, as Kuye, as it is known today. There is some evidence that the Ming eunuch Admiral Yishiha reached Sakhalin in 1413 during one of his expeditions to the lower Amur, granted Ming titles to a local chieftain. Under the Ming dynasty, commerce in Northeast Asia and Sakhalin was placed under the "system for subjugated peoples", or ximin tizhi; this suggests that the island was at least nominally under the administration of the Nurgan Regional Military Commission, established by Yishiha near today's village of Tyr on the Siberian mainland in 1411, continued operating until the mid-1430s. According to Wei Yuan's work Military history of the Qing dynasty, the Later Jin sent 400 troops to Sakhalin in 1616 in response to Japanese activity in the area, but withdrew, judging there to be no major threat to their control of the island.

In an early colonization attempt, a Japanese settlement was established at Ōtomari on Sakhalin's southern end in 1679. Cartographers of the Matsumae clan created a map of the island and called it "Kita-Ezo"; the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk between Russia and China, which defined the Stanovoy Mountains as their mutual border, made no explicit mention of the island. Local people were forced to pay tribute at Qing posts, Qing officials sometimes granted titles to local elders, entrusting them with the task of "keeping the peace". By the mid-18th century, Qing official

Joe Chindamo

Joe Chindamo is an Australian composer and pianist. He recorded his first album with violinist Zoë Black in 2012, it was followed by The New Goldberg Variations. In 2014 Chindamo's string quartet Tempesta was commissioned and performed by the Acacia Quartet and by the Australian String Quartet on their national tour in 2016, his Toccata for Solo Violin, commissioned by Australian violinist Sarah Curro, was performed by Ann Marie Johnson at the ABC Young Performers' Awards and recorded by Zoe Black for their album Symbiosis in 2017. In 2014 two of his Baroque re-imaginings for string orchestra were performed by ACO Collective, his other works include Palimpsest, performed as part of the QSO Maestro Series conducted by Muhai Tang. In 2017, Chindamo began a collaboration with librettist Steve Vizard, they created Vigil, a one-woman show starring Christie Whelan Browne, performed at the Adelaide Cabaret Festival and the Fairfax Studio. He arranged several songs for The Great American Song Book by James Morrison.

His arrangement of'Round Midnight was performed by Morrison and the BBC Orchestra at the BBC Proms in London. He was commissioned to compose a drum concerto for the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra, premiered at "The Last Night at the Proms" concert in March 2018 at Hamer Hall and was conducted by Andrew Davis. 2009 Jazz Work of the Year win for "Something Will Come to Light" and nomination for "Moments and Eternities" both written and performed by Joe Chindamo. The First Take with Ray Brown Reflected Journey with the Brecker Brothers Anyone Who Had a Heart: The Music of Burt Bacharach Good Little Ploy Tender Is the Night with Nina Ferro The Joy of Standards America! The Joy of Standards, Volume 2 Paradiso – The Joy of Film Music Joe Chindamo Solo - Live at Umbria Jazz'05, Italy Love Blues and Other Fiction with Graeme Lyall 2 x 2 with James Morrison Duende: The Romantic Project Puccini Project Another Place Some Other Time: Music from the Films of the Coen Brothers Reimaginings with Zoë Black Dido's Lament with Zoe Black Hush Collection 11: Luminous: Inspired By Mozart The New Goldberg Variations with Zoe Black Symbiosis with Zoe Black

The Fleet's Lit Up

The Fleet's Lit Up is a musical comedy first staged in London in 1938 with music and lyrics by Vivian Ellis and a book by Guy Bolton, Fred Thompson and Bert Lee. It ran for 191 performances at the London Hippodrome from August 1938 to February 1939; the original cast included Frances Day and Adele Dixon. It was directed by George Black; the title refers to the phrase used by BBC commentator Thomas Woodrooffe during a drunken broadcast for the 1937 Spithead Review. Wearing, J. P; the London Stage 1930-1939: A Calendar of Productions and Personnel. Rowman & Littlefield, 2014

Svetozar Džanić

Svetozar Džanić was a footballer who played for the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Independent State of Croatia national teams. He was known as Milan. Born during the latter part of World War I in a small Syrmian village, Đanić started playing football with Novi Sad outfit FK Slavija. At the age of 17, he moved to their more established crosstown rivals FK Vojvodina and established himself in the first team. Two years in 1936, together with brother Miran, he moved to Zagreb in pursuit of university studies. Parallel to studies he played football with HŠK Građanski, spending the 1936/37 season with them. Đanić's studies took him to Czechoslovakia for a year where he played one season for SK Židenice and one season for SK Viktoria Plzeň. Returning to Zagreb he continued playing for Građanski earning a callup to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia national team in 1940, his debut came on November 1940 versus Germany in Zagreb. He would only play in three matches before the Nazi Germany invasion and quick dismemberment of Yugoslavia put an end to Yugoslav football activities.

Đanić's last match in Yugoslavia jersey was Kingdom of Yugoslavia's last outing - a match versus Hungary on March 23, 1941 in Belgrade. Soon after the Royal Yugoslav Army defeat, the establishment of Croatian Nazi-puppet state under collaborationist Ustashe regime, Đanić was forced into the newly established Croatian national football team as one of only a handful of Serbs that were recruited into that team, which played all of its matches with other Nazi client states or Nazi Germany itself. Đanić appeared in four matches for NDH and scored one goal. His last match appearance took place in Vienna on June 1941 versus Nazi Germany. Upon returning to Zagreb, he was put on trial by Ustashe under the accusation that he collaborated with the communists. After a quick show trial, Đanić was executed three days on June 18, 1941. IZ MAKSIMIRSKE ŠUME, Jutarnji list, April 7, 2006 Svetozar Đanić Profile on Serbian Football Federation Site

Joss Naylor

Joss Naylor, MBE is an English fell runner who set many long-distance records, a sheep farmer, living in the English Lake District. As his achievements increased he became better known as the King of the Fells or the Iron Man. Naylor was born in 1936 in Middle Row Farm, Wasdale Head, attended school in Gosforth, leaving at 15 to work on the family farm. Injuries in his youth led to operations aged 19 to remove cartilage from his right knee and aged 22 to remove two disks from his back, he took up running in 1960 aged 24, winning his first race, the Mountain Trial, in 1966. In 1971, he completed the Bob Graham Round, only the sixth person to do so, continued to win races and set records through the 1970s and 1980s. In 1978, following medical advice that his back was deteriorating, he reduced his farming activities, took a job training apprentices at Windscale. In his seventies, he started spending winters in Spain, as cold weather caused circulation problems in his legs, he married Mary in 1963.

Their son, has now taken over the farm. His fell running achievements include successive peak bagging records within the scope of the Bob Graham Round: 1971: 61 peaks in 23h37m 1972: 63 peaks in 23h35m 1975: 72 peaks, claimed to involve over 100 miles and about 38,000 feet of ascent in 23h20m His other fell running achievements include: 1971: The National Three Peaks Challenge: 11 hours 54 minutes including driving time 1973: The Welsh 3000s - the 14 peaks of Snowdonia in 4 hours 46 minutes 1974: The Pennine Way: 3 days, 4 hours, 36 minutes 1976: Robin Hood Bay to St Bees: 41 hours 1979: The Lyke Wake Walk: 4 hours 53 minutes 1983: The Lakes and Waters circuit of 105 miles: 19 hours 20 minutes 1986: completed the Wainwrights in 7 days, 1 hour, 25 minutes 1997: ran 60 Lakeland fell tops in 36 hours 2006: ran 70 Lakeland fell tops, covering more than 50 miles and ascending more than 25,000 feet, in under 21 hours, he considered the 72 peak Lakeland circuit as his own greatest achievement, setting a record which stood unbroken for 13 years.

He was appointed an MBE for his services to sport and charity, is included as one of Britain’s top 100 sports personalities in the 2007 book Best of British: Hendo’s Sporting Heroes, by sports journalist Jon Henderson. Olympic Gold medal winner and co-founder of the London Marathon Chris Brasher described Joss Naylor as'The Greatest of Them All', a title he bestowed on Joss when he ran 72 Lake District mountains in 24 hours. Naylor completed some of his achievements in extreme weather conditions, he is noted for his ability to persevere despite pain and adversity, he is noted for his humility and his generosity towards less talented runners, in keeping with British fell-running traditions, he has provided support or pacing for other runners attempting the same or similar challenges. However, on occasion he has been less enthusiastic about runners who differ from his approach by setting records only in optimum conditions or who use more scientific methods such as use of spreadsheets for planning attempts.

He created his own fell-running challenge, the Joss Naylor Lakeland Challenge, open to over-fifties only. This runs 48 miles from Pooley Bridge to Greendale Bridge, traversing 30 summits, with climbing of 17,000 feet. Naylor is the subject of a biography by Keith Richardson, his fell running exploits are covered in detail in Steve Chilton's It's a hill, get over it: fell running's history and characters and in Richard Askwith's Feet in the Clouds. Bill Smith Billy Bland British orienteers List of orienteers List of orienteering events Munro/ "Munro Bagging"

Eyring Science Center

The Carl F. Eyring Science Center is one of the science buildings on the Brigham Young University campus in Provo, Utah, it was built in 1950 and named after Carl F. Eyring in 1954; the ESC houses the departments of Physics and Astronomy and Food Science and Nutrition. The Department of Chemistry has in the past been located at the ESC but is not headquartered there. In 1968 an underground physics research lab was added to the north end of the building. Research on plasma, atomic processes, high-pressure physics, nanotechnology and cold fusion have been conducted here, it is the home of two modern TEMs. The Royden G. Derrick Planetarium is in the building; this 119-seat facility with a 39-foot acoustically-treated dome was built in 2005 to replace the smaller, outdated Sarah Barrett Summerhays Planetarium. In the summer of 2006 a new dome was installed on the ESC's observatory to better allow for astronomical study on campus; the building has several acoustics labs including two anechoic chambers and two reverberation chambers for performing acoustics research.

The 5th and 6th floors of the ESC constitute the Orson Pratt Observatory. In the early years of the ESC, James A. Jensen's dinosaur displays were in the lobby. However, since the building of the BYU Earth Science Museum, dinosaur displays are less common; the main lobby of the building is noted for its Foucault pendulum. It houses a student-run restaurant, the Pendulum Court, during the fall and winter semesters; the ESC was the first building at BYU to have an elevator. List of Brigham Young University buildings