An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin, was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. A Sunni Muslim of Kurdish ethnicity, Saladin led the Muslim military campaign against the Crusader states in the Levant. At the height of his power, his sultanate included Egypt, Upper Mesopotamia, the Hejaz and other parts of North Africa, he was sent to Fatimid Egypt in 1164 alongside his uncle Shirkuh, a general of the Zengid army, on the orders of their lord Nur ad-Din to help restore Shawar as vizier of the teenage Fatimid caliph al-Adid. A power struggle ensued between Shawar after the latter was reinstated. Saladin, climbed the ranks of the Fatimid government by virtue of his military successes against Crusader assaults against its territory and his personal closeness to al-Adid. After Shawar was assassinated and Shirkuh died in 1169, al-Adid appointed Saladin vizier, a rare nomination of a Sunni Muslim to such an important position in the Isma'ili Shia caliphate.
During his tenure as vizier, Saladin began to undermine the Fatimid establishment and, following al-Adid's death in 1171, he abolished the Fatimid Caliphate and realigned the country's allegiance with the Sunni, Baghdad-based Abbasid Caliphate. In the following years, he led forays against the Crusaders in Palestine, commissioned the successful conquest of Yemen, staved off pro-Fatimid rebellions in Upper Egypt. Not long after Nur ad-Din's death in 1174, Saladin launched his conquest of Syria, peacefully entering Damascus at the request of its governor. By mid-1175, Saladin had conquered Hama and Homs, inviting the animosity of other Zengid lords, the official rulers of Syria's various regions. Soon after, he defeated the Zengid army at the Battle of the Horns of Hama and was thereafter proclaimed the "Sultan of Egypt and Syria" by the Abbasid caliph al-Mustadi. Saladin made further conquests in northern Syria and Jazira, escaping two attempts on his life by Assassins, before returning to Egypt in 1177 to address issues there.
By 1182, Saladin had completed the conquest of Muslim Syria after capturing Aleppo, but failed to take over the Zengid stronghold of Mosul. Under Saladin's command, the Ayyubid army defeated the Crusaders at the decisive Battle of Hattin in 1187, thereafter wrested control of Palestine—including the city of Jerusalem—from the Crusaders, who had conquered the area 88 years earlier. Although the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem continued to exist until the late 13th century, its defeat at Hattin marked a turning point in its conflict with the Muslim powers of the region. Saladin died in Damascus in 1193, he is buried in a mausoleum adjacent to the Umayyad Mosque. Saladin has become a prominent figure in Muslim, Arab and Kurdish culture, he has been described as being the most famous Kurd in history. Saladin was born in Tikrit in modern-day Iraq, his personal name was "Yusuf". His family was most of Kurdish ancestry, had originated from the village of Ajdanakan near the city of Dvin in central Armenia.
The Rawadiya tribe he hailed from had been assimilated into the Arabic-speaking world by this time. In 1132, the defeated army of Imad ad-Din Zengi, the ruler of Mosul, found their retreat blocked by the Tigris River opposite the fortress of Tikrit, where Saladin's father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub served as the warden. Ayyub gave them refuge in Tikrit. Mujahed al-Din Bihruz, a former Greek slave, appointed as the military governor of northern Mesopotamia for his service to the Seljuks, reprimanded Ayyub for giving Zengi refuge and in 1137 banished Ayyub from Tikrit after his brother Asad al-Din Shirkuh killed a friend of Bihruz. According to Baha ad-Din ibn Shaddad, Saladin was born on the same night that his family left Tikrit. In 1139, Ayyub and his family moved to Mosul, where Imad ad-Din Zengi acknowledged his debt and appointed Ayyub commander of his fortress in Baalbek. After the death of Zengi in 1146, his son, Nur ad-Din, became the regent of Aleppo and the leader of the Zengids. Saladin, who now lived in Damascus, was reported to have a particular fondness for the city, but information on his early childhood is scarce.
About education, Saladin wrote "children are brought up in the way in which their elders were brought up." According to his biographers, Anne-Marie Eddé and al-Wahrani, Saladin was able to answer questions on Euclid, the Almagest and law, but this was an academic ideal and it was study of the Qur'an and the "sciences of religion" that linked him to his contemporaries. Several sources claim that during his studies he was more interested in religion than joining the military. Another factor which may have affected his interest in religion was that, during the First Crusade, Jerusalem was taken by the Christians. In addition to Islam, Saladin had a knowledge of the genealogies and histories of the Arabs, as well as the bloodlines of Arabian horses. More he knew the Hamasah of Abu Tammam by heart, he spoke Arabic. Saladin's military career began under the tutelage of his uncle Asad al-Din Shirkuh, a prominent military commander under Nur ad-Din, the Zengid emir of Damascus and Aleppo and the most influential teacher of Saladin.
In 1163, the vizier to the Fatimid caliph al-Adid, had been driven out of Egypt by his rival Dirgham, a member of the powerful Banu Ruzzaik tribe. He asked for military backing from Nur ad-Din, who complied and
Home for the Holidays is the fifty-second album by American singer/guitarist Glen Campbell, released in 1993. "The Christmas Song" "Away in a Manger medley" "Away in a Manger" "O Little Town of Bethlehem" "The First Noel" "It Came Upon a Midnight Clear" "Little Drummer Boy" "What Child Is This?" "I'll Be Home for Christmas" "Hark The Herald Angels Sing medley" "O Come, O Come Emmanuel" "We Three Kings" "Hark the Herald Angels Sing" "Silent Night" "Have Yourself A Merry Little Christmas" "O Holy Night" Glen Campbell – vocals Shane Keister – keyboards, synthesizer Dann Huff – electric guitar Owen Hale – drums David Hungate – bass guitar John Willis – acoustic guitar Farrell Morris – percussion Cynthia Wyatt – harp Jim Horn – flute Bobby Taylor – oboe Tom McAninch – French horn Richard Steffen – trumpet Don Sheffield – trumpet Dan Oxley – trumpet Dennis Good – trombone Ernie Collins – bass trombone Toby Parrish – bagpipes Guest vocalist on "Away in a Manger medley" – Vince Gill Background vocals – Lura Foster, Jana King, Lisa Silver, Jon Ivey Choir – Sherry Huffman, Lisa Glasgow, Ellen Musick, Mark Ivy, Chris Willis Strings – Nashville String Machine Producer – Glen Campbell, Ken Harding, Bergen White Arranger – Bergen White Engineer – Warren Peterson Assistant engineers – Larry Jefferies, Robert Charles Production assistants- Debbie Harding, Brian Bush Photography – Sandra Gillard / Lightkeepers Recorded and mixed at Javelina Recording Studio, Nashville, TN Mastered by Hank Williams at Master Mix, Nashville, TN
Alan W. Heldman is an American interventional cardiologist. Heldman graduated from Harvard College, University of Alabama School of Medicine, completed residency and fellowship training at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, he held positions on the faculty of Johns Hopkins from 1995 to 2007. In 2007 he became Clinical Chief of Cardiology at the University of Miami, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, he published one of the first studies showing. His research interests include delivery of stem cells to the heart for repair of myocardial infarction, he is the principal investigator for a Phase I-II clinical trial of stem cell therapy for patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. His clinical interests include high risk and complex coronary intervention, treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, including with alcohol septal ablation, non-surgical treatments for valvular and structural heart disease, strategies to eliminate complications from interventional cardiology procedures.