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Salafi movement

The Salafi movement called Salafist movement and Salafism, is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to Western European imperialism. It had roots in the 18th-century Wahhabi movement that originated in the Najd region of modern-day Saudi Arabia, it advocated a return to the traditions of the salaf, the first three generations of Muslims, which they preached as the unadulterated, pure form of Islam. Those generations included the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his companions, their successors, the successors of the successors; the Salafist doctrine is based on looking back to the early years of the religion to understand how the contemporary Muslims should practise their faith. They reject religious innovation or bid'ah, support the implementation of sharia; the movement is divided into three categories: the largest group are the purists, who avoid politics. In legal matters, the Salafi are divided between those who, in the name of independent legal judgement, reject strict adherence to the four Sunni schools of law, others who remain faithful to these.

In the Persian Gulf states, the majority of the Salafis reside in Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia. 46.87 per cent of Qataris and 44.8 per cent of Emiratis are Salafis. Salafis are the "dominant minority" in Saudi Arabia; the 4 million Saudi Salafis make up 22.9 per cent of the population. They are concentrated in Najd. By contrast, Bahrain has 5.7 per cent Salafis, Kuwait has a population, 2.17 per cent Salafis. The Salafi literalist or fundamentalist creed has gained some acceptance in Turkey. At times, Salafism has been deemed a hybrid of other post-1960s movements. Salafism has become associated with literalist and puritanical approaches to Islam. Western observers and analysts incorrectly, associate the movement with the jihadis who espouse violent attacks against those they deem to be enemies of Islam as a legitimate expression of Islam. Academics and historians have used the term "Salafism" to denote "a school of thought which surfaced in the second half of the 19th century as a reaction to the spread of European ideas" and "sought to expose the roots of modernity within Muslim civilization".

However, some contemporary Salafis follow "literal, traditional... injunctions of the sacred texts", looking to Ibn Taymiyyah, or his disciple Ibn Kathir rather than the "somewhat adulterated interpretation" of 19th-century figures Muhammad Abduh, Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, Rashid Rida. Major figures in the movement include Ibn Taymiyyah, Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen, Rabee al-Madkhali, Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi'i, Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani, Saleh Al-Fawzan. Salafis consider the hadith that quotes Muhammad saying, "The best of my community are my generation, the ones who follow them and the ones who follow them." As a call to Muslims to follow the example of those first three generations, known collectively as the salaf, or "pious Predecessors". The salaf are believed to include Muhammad himself, the "Companions", the "Followers", the "Followers of the Followers". According to Bernard Haykel, "temporal proximity to the Prophet Muhammad is associated with the truest form of Islam" among many Sunni Muslims.

The Salafi da'wa is a methodology, but it is not a madh'hab in fiqh as is misunderstood. Salafis may be influenced by Shafi'i, Hanbali or the Hanafi schools of Sunni fiqh. Salafis place great emphasis on practicing actions in accordance with the known sunnah, not only in prayer but in every activity in daily life. For instance, many are careful always to use three fingers when eating, to drink water in three pauses, to hold it with the right hand while sitting. In legal matters, Salafis are divided between those who, in the name of independent legal judgement, reject strict adherence to the four schools of law and others who remain faithful to these. Salafi scholars from Saudi Arabia are bound by Hanbali fiqh and advocate following an Imam rather than having individuals try to interpret and understand scripture alone. Other Salafi scholars, believe that taqlid is unlawful. From their perspective, Muslims who follow a madhab without searching for direct evidence may be led astray; the latter group of preachers include Nasir al-Din al-Albani.

At the far end of the spectrum of belief, some Salafis hold that adhering to taqlid is an act of polytheism. Modern-day proponents of the Athari school of theology come from the Salafi movement. For followers of the Salafi movement, the "clear" meaning of the Qur'an, the prophetic traditions, has sole authority in matters of belief, they believe that to engage in rational disputation if one arrives at the truth, is forbidden. Atharis engage in an amodal reading of the Qur'an, as opposed to one engaged in Ta'wil, they do not attempt to conceptualize the meanings of the Qur'an rationally, believe that the "real" modality should be consigned to God alone. Historians and academics date the emergence of Salafism to late 19th-century Egypt. Salafis believe that the label "Salafiyya" existed from the first few generations of Islam and that it is not a modern movement. To justify th

Frank Schlesinger

Frank Schlesinger was an American astronomer. His work concentrated on using photographic plates rather than direct visual studies for astronomical research. Schlesinger attended New York City public schools, graduated from the College of the City of New York in 1890, he worked as a surveyor, becoming a special student in astronomy at Columbia in 1894. In 1896, he received a fellowship which enabled him to study full-time, he received a Ph. D. in 1898. After his graduation, he spent the summer at Yerkes Observatory as a volunteer assisting director George Ellery Hale, he was an observer in charge of the International Latitude Observatory, California, in 1898. From 1899 to 1903, he was an astronomer at Yerkes, where he pioneered the use of photographic methods to determine stellar parallaxes, he was director of Allegheny Observatory from 1903 to 1920 and Yale University Observatory from 1920 to 1941. At Yale he worked extensively with Ida Barney He compiled and published the Yale Bright Star Catalogue.

The first publication of the results of this work started in 1925 and the work concluded in the 1980s. He made major contributions to astrometry, he was elected to the American Philosophical Society, the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and served as president of the American Astronomical Society, the International Astronomical Union. Asked how to say his name, he told The Literary Digest "The name is so difficult for those who do not speak German that I am called sles'in-jer, to rime with messenger, it is, of German origin and means ` a native of Schlesien' or Silesia. In that language the pronunciation is shlayzinger, to rime with singer." Valz Prize of the French Academy of Sciences Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society Bruce Medal The crater Schlesinger on the Moon is named after him, as is the asteroid 1770 Schlesinger. He married Eva Hirsch in 1900 while in Ukiah, they had one child, Frank Wagner Schlesinger, who directed planetariums in Philadelphia and Chicago.

His wife died in 1928, in 1929 he married Mrs. Katherine Bell Wilcox. Barney, Ida. "An effect of a star's color upon its apparent photographic position". Astronomical Journal. 47. Bibcode:1938AJ.....47...86B. Doi:10.1086/105478. Barney, Ida. "On the accuracy of the proper motions in the General Catalogue Albany". Astronomical Journal. 48. Bibcode:1939AJ.....48...51B. Doi:10.1086/105546. Barney, Ida. "New reductions of astrographic plates with the help of the Yale photographic Catalogues". Astronomical Journal. 49. Bibcode:1940AJ.....49...39B. Doi:10.1086/105625. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Schlesinger, Frank". Encyclopedia Americana. Hockey, Thomas. "Frank Schleisinger". The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-387-31022-0. Retrieved August 22, 2012. Works by or about Frank Schlesinger at Internet Archive

Sloka, Latvia

Sloka is a residential area and neighbourhood of the city Jūrmala, Latvia. Sloka is first mentioned in historical records in 1255 under the names Schlocken, it developed as a fishing village at the river Slocene under the Livonian Order. During the 17th century the Duke of Courland established lime kilns, copper furnaces and a foundry in Sloka; as part of Courland, the village became Lutheran and the first church was built in 1567. The Sloka railway station was established in 1877. Under Russian law, Sloka gained town rights in 1878, it existed as a separate town until 1959 when it was merged with Ķemeri and the Riga district of Jūrmala to form the City of Jūrmala. Media related to Sloka at Wikimedia Commons