Salchow jump

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Figure skating element
1908 Olympic Games Ulrich Salchow.jpg
Ulrich Salchow, inventor of the salchow jump, in 1908
Element name:Salchow jump
Scoring abbreviation:S
Element type:Jump
Take-off edge:Back inside
Landing edge:Back outside
Inventor:Ulrich Salchow

The salchow jump is an edge jump in figure skating. It was named after its inventor, Ulrich Salchow, in 1909; the salchow is accomplished with a takeoff from the back inside edge of one foot and a landing on the back outside edge of the opposite foot. It is "usually the first jump that skaters learn to double, and the first or second to triple".[1] Timing is critical because both the takeoff and landing must be on the backward edge. A salchow is deemed cheated if the skate blade starts to turn forward before the takeoff, or if it has not turned completely backward when the skater lands back on the ice.

History[edit]

The salchow jump is an edge jump in the sport of figure skating, it was named after its inventor, Swedish world champion Ulrich Salchow in 1909. [2][3] According to writer Ellyn Kestnbaum, American skater Theresa Weld "received reprimands" at the 1920 Olympics "for performing a single salchow jump because her skirt would fly up to her knees, creating an image deemed too risque".[4][5]

In competitions, the base value of a single salchow is 0.40; the base value of a double salchow is 1.30; the base value of a triple salchow is 4.30; and the base value of a quadruple salchow is 9.70.[6]

Firsts[edit]

Japanese figure skater Miki Ando (2009)

Cecilia Colledge from Great Britain was the first woman to complete a double jump, the salchow, in competition, at the 1936 European Championships;[7] the first triple salchow by a male skater was completed by American Robbie Robertson at the 1955 World Championships. According to the ISU, the first triple salchow completed by a woman skater is "not definitely established";[8] the ISU also stated that Canadian Petra Burka was given credit for a triple salchow at both the 1962 Canadian Championships and the 1965 World Championships, but "a report"[8] from the 1961 European Championships gave credit to Austrian Helli Sengstschmid and Jana Mrazkova from Czechoslovakia. Timothy Goebel from the U.S. was the first man to perform a quadruple salchow in competition, at the 1997-1998 Junior Grand Prix final. Miki Ando from Japan was the first woman to complete a quadruple salchow, at the 2002-2003 Grand Prix final.[8]

Russian Ilia Klimkin was the first male skater to complete a quadruple salchow in combination, with a quadruple toe loop jump, at the Nebelhorn Trophy in 1999. Alexandra Trusova, also from Russia, was the first woman skater to complete a quadruple salchow in combination, also with a quadruple toe loop, at the 2018 World Junior Championships. Timothy Goebel was the first skater to complete three quadruples, two quadruple salchows in combination with the triple and quadruple toe loop jump. American Nathan Chen was the first skater to complete four quadruple jumps in the same program: two quadruple salchows, one in combination with the double toe, and the quadruple toe in combination with the double toe, and the quadruple toe, at the U.S. Championships in 2016. Chen was also the first skater to complete five quadruple jumps in the same program: the quadruple salchow, the quadruple lutz jump in combination with the triple toe, the quadruple flip jump, the quadruple toe in combination with the double toe and double loop, and the quadruple toe, at the 2017 U.S. Championships and the 2017 Four Continents Championships.[8] American pair skaters Tiffany Vise and Derek Trent were the first to complete a throw quadruple salchow, at the 2007 Trophee Eric Bompard.[9]

Execution[edit]

According to the ISU, the salchow jump is an edge jump, its takeoff is made from the back inside edge of one foot and its landing is made on the back outside edge of the opposite foot.[2] The skater enters into the jump with a backward approach, launches it using his or her inside edge, and lands on the opposite outside edge;[10] the free leg is extended behind the skater and swings toward the front as he or she springs into the air while, at the same time, drawing in his or her arms.[11] Skaters do not have to draw in their arms or free leg close to their bodies while performing the single salchow because bringing the free side of their bodies forward and around the opposite side of their bodies after they turn towards the back, is enough to produce the necessary rotation.[1]

The rotation in the air, with respect to a fixed point, is slightly less than 360 degrees because the takeoff edge curves in the same direction as the rotation in the air; when a skater pulls the arms into his or her body and/or brings his or her free leg inward, more rotations can be performed; for this reason, the salchow is "usually the first jump that skaters learn to double, and the first or second to triple".[1] As U.S. Figure Skating states, however, "timing is critical"[11] because both the takeoff and landing must be on the backward edge. A salchow is deemed cheated if the skate blade starts to turn forward before the takeoff, or if it has not turned completely backward when the skater lands back on the ice.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Kestnbaum, p. 284
  2. ^ a b Media Guide, p. 13
  3. ^ Hines, p. 193
  4. ^ Kestnbaum, p. 92
  5. ^ Eschner, Kat (6 February 2018). "A Brief History of Women's Figure Skating". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  6. ^ "Communication No. 2168: Single & Pair Skating". Lausanne, Switzerland: International Skating Union. 23 May 2018. p. 2. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  7. ^ Hines, p. xxiv
  8. ^ a b c d Media guide, p. 14
  9. ^ Media guide, p. 15
  10. ^ Park, Alice (22 February 2018). "How to Tell the Difference Between the 6 Figure Skating Jumps You'll See at the Olympics". Time Magazine. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  11. ^ a b "Identifying Jumps" (PDF). U.S. Figure Skating. p. 2. Retrieved 11 July 2019.

Works cited[edit]

  • Hines, James R. (2011). Historical Dictionary of Figure Skating. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6859-5.
  • "ISU Figure Skating Media Guide 2018/19". (Media guide) International Skating Union. 20 September 2018. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  • Kestnbaum, Ellyn (2003). Culture on Ice: Figure Skating and Cultural Meaning. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0819566411.