Triangular trade or triangle trade is a historical term indicating trade among three ports or regions. Triangular trade usually evolves when a region has export commodities that are not required in the region from which its major imports come, Triangular trade thus provides a method for rectifying trade imbalances between the above regions. Historically the particular routes were shaped by the influence of winds. Returning from North America, it is easiest to follow the Gulf Stream in a northeasterly direction using the westerlies. A similar triangle to this, called the volta do mar was already being used by the Portuguese, before Christopher Columbus voyage, to sail to the Canary Islands and the Azores. Columbus simply expanded the triangle outwards, and his became the main way for Europeans to reach, and return from. The use of African slaves was fundamental to growing cash crops. European goods, in turn, were used to purchase African slaves, who were brought on the sea lane west from Africa to the Americas.
A classic example is the colonial molasses trade, sugar from the Caribbean was traded to Europe or New England, where it was distilled into rum. The profits from the sale of sugar were used to manufactured goods, which were shipped to West Africa. The slaves were brought back to the Caribbean to be sold to sugar planters. The profits from the sale of the slaves were used to buy more sugar. The trip itself took five to twelve weeks, the first leg of the triangle was from a European port to Africa, in which ships carried supplies for sale and trade, such as copper, trinkets, slave beads and ammunition. When the ship arrived, its cargo would be sold or bartered for slaves, on the second leg, ships made the journey of the Middle Passage from Africa to the New World. Many slaves died of disease in the holds of the slave ships. Once the ship reached the New World, enslaved survivors were sold in the Caribbean or the American colonies, the ship returned to Europe to complete the triangle. Instead, the crops were transported mainly by a separate fleet which only sailed from Europe to the Americas.
The Triangular trade is a model, not an exact description of the ships route
National Historic Site (United States)
A National Historic Site is a protected area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS usually contains a historical feature directly associated with its subject. As of 2015, there are 50 NHPs and 90 NHSs, most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service. Some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or privately owned, one property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service. As of October 15,1966, all areas, including NHPs and NHSs. There are about 80,000 NRHP sites, the majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites, National Historic Sites are generally federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are currently 90 NHSs, of which 78 are official NPS units,11 are NPS affiliated areas, one is managed by the US Forest Service, and one by the Bureau of Land Management.
Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, in 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies, in the United States, sites are historic, while parks are historical. The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a legal invention. As such, a park is not itself historic, but can be called historical when it contains historic resources and it is the resources which are historic, not the park. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, and Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia.
It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon, list of World Heritage Sites in the Americas Designation of National Park System Units
Essex Institute Historic District
The Essex Institute Historic District is a historic district at 134-132,128,126 Essex Street and 13 Washington Square West in Salem, Massachusetts. It consists of a group of properties associated with the Essex Institute, founded in 1848. Listed by increasing number, they are, the Crowninshield-Bentley House, the Gardner-Pingree House, the John Tucker Daland House. The John Ward House, which fronts on Brown Street but shares the 132 Essex Street address, is another National Historic Landmark within the district. The Andrew Safford House at 13 Washington Square West, built in 1819, was said to be the most expensive home in New England at the time. The principal buildings of the district are the Daland House and the Phillips Library, the Daland House was built in 1851, the Library in 1857, and the combination now serve as the library and research facility of the Peabody Essex Museum. The Library is a two building, although the second floor is two normal stories high, and originally served as exhibition space.
They both stand near the John Ward House, which faces into the garden as well, just to the east of the Daland House stands the Gardner-Pingree House, an elegant Federal mansion built in 1804 by noted Salem architect Samuel McIntire. To its east, at the corner of Essex and Washington Square West, stands the Bentley-Crowninshield House, the Andrew-Safford House is behind the Bentley-Crowninshield House, facing Salem Common. The district was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972, all of the properties in the district were included in the Salem Common Historic District in 1976
It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named for the Massachusett tribe, which inhabited the area. The capital of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England is Boston, over 80% of Massachusetts population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution, during the 20th century, Massachusetts economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a leader in biotechnology, higher education, finance. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, in 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of Americas most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, in 1786, Shays Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention.
In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, in the late 18th century, Boston became known as the Cradle of Liberty for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution. The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, in the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams, both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world. Massachusetts public school students place among the top nations in the world in academic performance, the official name of the state is the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
While this designation is part of the official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has the position and powers within the United States as other states. Massachusetts was originally inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, and tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed approximately 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans, the first English settlers in Massachusetts, the Pilgrims, arrived via the Mayflower at Plymouth in 1620, and developed friendly relations with the native Wampanoag people. This was the second successful permanent English colony in the part of North America that became the United States, the event known as the First Thanksgiving was celebrated by the Pilgrims after their first harvest in the New World which lasted for three days
Albany, New York
Albany is the capital of the U. S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County. Roughly 150 miles north of New York City, Albany developed on the west bank of the Hudson River, the population of the City of Albany was 97,856 according to the 2010 census. With a Census-estimated population of 98,4242013, the Capital District is the third-most populous metropolitan region in the state and 38th in the United States. Fortune 500 companies that have offices in Albany include American Express, J. P. Morgan and Chase, Merrill Lynch, General Electric, Goldman Sachs, International Paper, and Key Bank. In the 21st century, the Capital District has emerged as an anchor of Tech Valley. This was the first European settlement in the state, settled by Dutch colonists who built Fort Nassau for fur trading in 1614 and they formed successful relations with both the Mahican and the Mohawk peoples, two major Native American nations in the region. The fur trade attracted settlers who founded a village called Beverwijck near Fort Orange, in 1664 the English took over the Dutch settlements, renaming the city as Albany, in honor of the Duke of Albany, the future James II of England and James VII of Scotland.
The city was chartered in 1686 under English rule. It became the capital of New York State in 1797, following the United States gaining independence in the American Revolutionary War, Albany is one of the oldest surviving settlements of the original British thirteen colonies, and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. Its charter is possibly the longest-running instrument of government in the Western Hemisphere. During the late 18th century and throughout most of the 19th, Albany was a center of trade, Albanys main exports at the time were beer, published works, and ironworks. Beginning in 1810, Albany was one of the ten most populous cities in the United States, in the 20th century, the city opened one of the first commercial airports in the world, the precursor of todays Albany International Airport. During the 1920s a powerful political machine controlled by the Democratic Party arose in the state capital and it marshalled the power of immigrants and their descendants in both cities.
In the early 21st century, Albany has experienced growth in the high-technology industry, Albany has been a center of higher education for over a century, with much of the remainder of its economy dependent on state government and health care services. The city has rebounded from the decline of the 1970s and 1980s. Albany is known for its history, culture, architecture. Albany won the All-America City Award in both 1991 and 2009, Albany is one of the oldest surviving European settlements from the original thirteen colonies and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. The Hudson River area was inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Mohican, who called it Pempotowwuthut-Muhhcanneuw
Charter Street Historic District
The Charter Street Historic District encompasses a small remnant of the oldest part of Salem, Massachusetts that has since been surrounded by more modern development. It includes three properties on Charter Street, the Pickman House, the Grimshawe House, and the Charter Street Cemetery, the district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. The Pickman House is located on Charter Street behind the Peabody Essex Museum, the house, built in 1664 and is located on Charter Street. The house was restored by Historic Salem in 1969 and purchased by the museum in 1983 and it stands just east of the cemetery entrance on the south side of Charter Street. The Grimshawe House is a Federal style three story frame house that was built c. 1770, which stands just west of the cemetery entrance and it is most significant for its association with writer Nathaniel Hawthorne, who courted his future wife Sophia Peabody in the house, which was owned by her father. The house and the adjacent cemetery feature in a number of Hawthornes works, most notably the unfinished Doctor Grimshawes Secret, the cemetery is a roughly rectangular plot of land that has been used as a burying ground since at least 1637
Bridge Street Neck Historic District
The Bridge Street Neck Historic District is a predominantly residential historic district in Salem, Massachusetts. Bridge Street, the spine of the district is a thoroughfare connecting Salem to the leading to Beverly. In addition to properties on Bridge Street, the district properties on side streets between March/Osgood Streets, and Howard/Webb Streets. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002, the City of Salem has approximately 19,000 total residences, of which 6% or about 1,200 units are located in the Bridge Street Neck neighborhood. Historically, the Bridge Street Neck grew as a gateway district organized along the road and bridge that connects Salem to the cities of Beverly. Land use along the road has traditionally focused on retail and commercial services that cater to residents of Salem and the surrounding communities. Single- and two-family homes are nestled behind commercial properties on both sides of Bridge Street, extending throughout the neck and all the way to the water, in August 2008, a new bridge and bypass road opened in order to alleviate the bottleneck traffic on Bridge Street.
This bypass connects Route 1A in Beverly directly to downtown Salem along the western coast of the Bridge Street Neck neighborhood, with access road entries located only at either end. In March to August 2009, a study was completed to generate strategies for the revitalization of the Bridge Street Neck neighborhood, the strategys vision is aimed at maintaining the residential character and scale of the neighborhood, and attracting more business and visitors to its commercial areas. The historical character of the neighborhood shall be reflected in its well maintained buildings and streets
Samuel McIntire was an American architect and craftsman, best known for the Chestnut Street District, a classic example of Federal style architecture. Born in Salem, Massachusetts to housewright Joseph McIntire and Sarah and he married Elizabeth Field on October 10,1778, and had one son. He built a home and workshop on Summer Street in 1786. Starting about 1780, McIntire was hired by Salems pre-eminent merchant and Americas first millionaire, Elias Hasket Derby, McIntire taught himself the Palladian style of architecture from books, and soon had a reputation among the citys elite for designing elegant homes. In 1792, he entered a proposal in the competition for the United States Capitol, after 1797, McIntire worked in the style of Boston architect Charles Bulfinch, who had made fashionable here the neoclassical manner of Scottish architect Robert Adam. Unlike Bulfinch, whose designs were featured across the East Coast and his wooden or brick houses were typically 3 stories tall, each with 4 rooms around a central hall.
McIntires Salem works include the Peirce-Nichols, the Peabody-Silsbee, the Gardner-White-Pingree, and his public buildings, all in Salem, are Assembly Hall, Hamilton Hall, Washington Hall and the courthouse. He was an artisan, especially in furniture, and his skill extended to sculpting. Among his works are busts of Voltaire and John Winthrop, the first governor of Massachusetts, both are now owned by the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester, Massachusetts. McIntires grave is in the Burying Point Cemetery, where his epitaph reads, In Memory of Mr. Samuel McIntire who died Feb.6,1811, in 1981, Salem created the Samuel McIntire Historic District. Containing 407 buildings, it is the citys largest and this district is the location of the largest collection of homes from this period in all of America. It includes McIntire commissions such as the Peirce-Nichols House and Hamilton Hall, the Witch House or Jonathan Corwin House is located in the District. Samuel McIntires house was located at 31 Summer Street in what is now the Samuel McIntire Historic District, in 2011, a mahogany side chair with carving attributed to Samuel McIntire sold at auction for $662,500, which set a world record for Federal furniture.
The chair was one of a set of eight chairs originally purchased by Elias Hasket Derby, Salems wealthiest merchant and thought to be Americas first millionaire, the set was hand-made and hand-carved in the late 18th century. Cousins and Phil Madison Riley, the Woodcarver of Salem, Samuel McIntire, His Life and Work. Boston, Brown & Company,1916 Lahikainen, Dean T. Samuel McIntire, the district is named for Salems celebrated architect-carver, Samuel McIntire, who lived at 31 Summer Street. His first major commission, the Peirce-Nichols House, and several of his works including Hamilton Hall, are among the buildings preserved within the district. This densely settled area of the city contains one of the greatest concentrations of notable pre-1900 domestic structures extant in the U. S
Salem is a coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, in the United States, located on Massachusetts North Shore. It is a New England bedrock of history and is considered one of the most significant seaports in Puritan American history, the citys reported population was 41,340 at the 2010 census. Salem and Lawrence are the county seats of Essex County, though the county government was abolished in 1999, much of the citys cultural identity reflects its role as the location of the Salem witch trials of 1692, as featured in Arthur Millers The Crucible. Tourists know Salem as a mix of important historical sites and a vibrant downtown that has more than 60 restaurants, cafes, in 2012, the Retailers Association of Massachusetts chose Salem for their inaugural Best Shopping District award. President Barack Obama signed executive order HR1339 on January 10,2013, more than one million tourists from all around the world visit Salem annually, bringing in at least $100 million in tourism spending each year.
More than 250,000 visited Salem over Halloween weekend in 2016, Salem is located at the mouth of the Naumkeag river at the site of an ancient American Indian village and trading center. It was first settled by Europeans in 1626, when a company of fishermen arrived from Cape Ann, led by Roger Conant. Conants leadership provided the stability to survive the first two years, but he was replaced by John Endecott, one of the new arrivals, Conant graciously stepped aside and was granted 200 acres of land in compensation. These New Planters and the Old Planters agreed to cooperate, in part due to the diplomacy of Conant. In 1628, Endecott ordered that the Great House be moved from Cape Ann, when Higginson arrived in Salem, he wrote that we found a faire house newly built for the Governor which was remarkable for being two stories high. A year later, the Massachusetts Bay Charter was issued creating the Massachusetts Bay Colony with Matthew Craddock as its governor in London, John Winthrop was elected Governor in late 1629, and arrived with the Winthrop Fleet in 1630, beginning the Great Migration.
In 1639, Endecotts was one of the signatures on the contract for enlarging the meeting house in Town House Square for the First Church in Salem. This document remains part of the records at City Hall. He was active in the affairs of the town throughout his life, Samuel Skelton was the first pastor of the First Church of Salem, which is the original Puritan church in North America. Endecott already had a relationship with Skelton, having been converted by him. Roger Conant died in 1679 at the age of 87, a statue commemorating him stands overlooking Salem Common. Salem originally included much of the North Shore, including Marblehead, most of the accused in the Salem witch trials lived in nearby Salem Village, now known as Danvers, although a few lived on the outskirts of Salem. Salem Village included Peabody and parts of present-day Beverly, Topsfield and Manchester-by-the-Sea were once parts of Salem
Essex County, Massachusetts
Essex County is a county in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of Massachusetts. As of the 2010 census, the population was 743,159 and it is part of the Greater Boston area. The largest city in Essex County is Lynn and it has two county seats and Lawrence. The county has been designated the Essex National Heritage Area by the National Park Service, the county was created by the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony on May 10,1643, when it was ordered that the whole plantation within this jurisdiction be divided into four sheires. Named after the county in England, Essex comprised the towns of Salem, Wenham, Rowley, Newbury and these large founding settlements were subdivided over the centuries to produce Essex Countys modern composition of cities and towns. Essex County is famous as the area that Elbridge Gerry districted into a shape in 1812 that gave rise to the word gerrymandering. Like several other Massachusetts counties, Essex County exists today only as a geographic region.
All former county functions were assumed by state agencies in 1999, communities are now granted the right to form their own regional compacts for sharing services. See also, League of Women Voters page on Massachusetts counties, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 828 square miles, of which 493 square miles is land and 336 square miles is water. All county land is incorporated into towns or cities, Essex County includes the North Shore, Cape Ann, and the lower portions of the Merrimack Valley. By 2050, it is predicted that whites will become the minority, as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 743,159 people,285,956 households, and 188,005 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,508.8 inhabitants per square mile, there were 306,754 housing units at an average density of 622.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 81. 9% white,3. 8% black or African American,3. 1% Asian,0. 4% American Indian,8. 2% from other races, and 2. 6% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 16. 5% of the population, in terms of ancestry,23. 3% were Irish,17. 1% were Italian,12. 6% were English,6. 1% were German, and 3. 6% were American. The average household size was 2.54 and the family size was 3.14. The median age was 40.4 years, the median income for a household in the county was $64,153 and the median income for a family was $81,173. Males had an income of $58,258 versus $44,265 for females. The per capita income for the county was $33,828, about 7. 7% of families and 10. 1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13. 3% of those under age 18 and 9. 4% of those age 65 or over
Chestnut Street District
The Chestnut Street District is a historic district bounded roughly by Broad, Flint and Summer Streets in Salem, Massachusetts. It is known as the McIntyre Historic District that was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1981 and containing 407 buildings and is the citys largest district. The first of the great brick Federal houses to be constructed was the Thomas Saunders House at number 39 Chestnut, built in 1805, leverett Saltonstall I was Salems first elected mayor. Hamilton Hall is a National Historic Landmark at 9 Chestnut Street in Salem, hamilton Hall was built in 1805 by Samuel McIntire and added separately to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970. The Ropes Mansion, called Ropes Memorial, is a Georgian Colonial mansion located at 318 Essex Street and it is now operated by the Peabody Essex Museum and open to the public. The Stephen Phillips House is located at 34 Chestnut Street, a classic car show is held every year at The Stephen Phillips House. The Phillips House is now owned and operated as a house museum by Historic New England and is open for public tours.
The Pickering House is a Colonial house and occupied by ten successive generations of the Pickering family including Colonel Timothy Pickering and this house is believed to be the oldest house in the United States continuously occupied by one family. It is located at 18 Broad Street, Massachusetts and is open to the public under the auspices of the nonprofit Pickering Foundation. The Witch House, was the home of Judge Jonathan Corwin and is the structure still standing in Salem. The Salem Athenaeum was founded in 1810 and is one of the oldest private library organizations in the United States, the Athenaeum is located at 337 Essex Street. In 1905, the Athenæum sold the building at 132 Essex Street to the Essex Institute, dedicated in 1907 The Francis Cox House was built in 1846 and is situated at the corner of Chestnut and Summer street. The Salem Public Library opened its doors on July 8,1889
Salem Willows Historic District
The Salem Willows Historic District of eastern Salem, Massachusetts encompasses a now residential area that had its origins as a 19th-century summer resort community. Development of the began in 1875, after Daniel Gardner purchased land at Juniper Point he had been leasing with the intent of developing it. There is evidence from an 1874 map that he may have begun development as early as 1874 and this development grew, and a significant number of modest cottage-style houses were built between and the early 20th century. The area became popular with day visitors, and hotels catering to tourists were built, although only one, the park is owned by the city, and continues to be used as a recreational area. The Salem Willows Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1994, winter Island Fort Pickering Fort Lee National Register of Historic Places listings in Salem, Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts