California Coast Ranges
The Coast Ranges of California span 400 miles from Del Norte or Humboldt County, south to Santa Barbara County. The other three coastal California mountain ranges are the Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges and the Klamath Mountains. Physiographically, they are a section of the larger Pacific Border province, which in turn are part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division. UNESCO has included the "California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve" in its Man and the Biosphere Programme of World Network of Biosphere Reserves since 1983; the northern end of the California Coast Ranges overlap the southern end of the Klamath Mountains for 80 miles on the west. They extend southward for more than 600 miles to where the coastline turns eastward along the Santa Barbara Channel, around the area of Point Conception. Here the southern end meets Sierras de los Angeles; the rocks themselves that comprise the mountains are of a great variety and varying geologic ages. Most of the rocks were formed during the Tertiary and Jurassic periods.
Most were deposited on the sea bottom as sediments, but in many places had the cracks and other gaps infused with molten lava or other masses of igneous rock, which were forced in molten condition into the sedimentary rocks. All of the range has been folded and faulted during several periods, with erosion of the softer rock giving much of the current appearance; the California Ranges had a high production of mercury following the discovery of gold in the Sierra Nevada. In the Cache Creek Basin, Cenozoic cinnabar deposits near Clear Lake are the northernmost of a group of similar deposits associated with volcanism and migration of a transform fault system. During 1877, these deposits hit their peak production of mercury, producing 2,776 metric tons; these abandoned mines are still a source of mine waste runoff in Cache Creek and other downstream bodies of water. The Northern Coast Ranges are a section of the California Coast Ranges, they run parallel to the Pacific Coast from the North San Francisco Bay Area to coastal Del Norte County.
The Klamath Mountains, including the Siskiyou Mountains sub-range, lie to the northeast. The Southern Coast Ranges lie to the south; the Northern Coast Ranges run north-south parallel to the coast. Component ranges within the Northern Coast Ranges include the Mendocino Range of western Mendocino County and the Mayacamas and Vaca Mountains and the Marin Hills of the North Bay, they include the King Range, which meet the sea in the "Lost Coast" region. The southernmost peak of the Northern Coast Ranges is Mount Tamalpais; the highest point in the Northern Coast Ranges is Mount Linn, at 8,098 ft.. The Northern Coast Ranges consist of two main parallel belts of mountains, the Outer Northern Coast Ranges lying along the coast, the Inner Northern Coast Ranges running inland to the east, they are separated by a long system of valleys. The northern valley portion is drained by the Eel River and its tributaries, the southern by the Russian River. A series of short rivers, including the Mattole and Navarro rivers, drain the western slopes of the ranges.
The eastern slopes of the ranges drain into the Sacramento Valley. Clear Lake lies in the southeast portion of the range, drains eastward via Cache Creek. U. S. Route 101 runs north-south in the valleys between the Outer and Inner Northern Coast Ranges; the seaward face of the coastal Outer Northern Coast Ranges is part of the Northern California coastal forests ecoregion, home to lush forests of Coast Redwood and Coast Douglas-fir. The inland and dryer Inner Northern Coast Ranges, are part of the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, home to a number of plant communities including: mixed evergreen forest. A major specific plant community of the inner ranges is Mediterranean California Lower Montane Black Oak-Conifer Forest, which supports high biodiversity within the California Coast Ranges, including the nominate California Black Oak. Columbian Black-tailed Deer are the most widespread large mammal, after humans, of the Northern Coast Ranges; the rivers in the ranges are home to several species of salmon.
The Southern Coast Ranges, of the California Coast Ranges in the Pacific Coast Ranges System, run north and south, parallel to the Pacific Coast in north-central through north-southern California. The Southern Coast Ranges begin on the San Francisco Peninsula and in the East San Francisco Bay Area, run south into Santa Barbara County; the Transverse Ranges lie to the south. The San Joaquin Valley is on the east, Pacific Ocean on the west; the Southern Coast Ranges include the Berkeley Hills, the Diablo Range, the Santa Cruz Mountains, the Gabilan Range, the Santa Lucia Range and Sierra de Salinas, the Temblor Range, the Sierra Madre Mountains. As for the Northern Coast Ranges, there are Outer Southern Coast Ranges along the Pacific Ocean on the west, Inner Southern Coast Ranges to the east, inland to the San Joaquin Valley; the central and southern San Francisco Bay and the Salinas Valley lie between them. The highest point of the Southern Coast Ranges is Junipero Serra Peak in the Santa Lucia Range, at 5,862 feet.
Other peaks include Mount Diablo at 3,864 feet, Mount Hamilton at 4,196 feet. The Southern Coast Ranges have a predominantly Mediterranean climate, are within the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion. However, the moister areas of the Santa Cruz Mountains lie within the Northern California coastal forests ecoregion, characterized by forests of Coast redwood. Isolated groves of Coast redwoods are found in the Big Sur region of the Santa Luci
Monterey County, California
Monterey County the County of Monterey, is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 415,057; the county seat and largest city is Salinas. Monterey County comprises CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it borders the Monterey Bay. The northern half of the bay is in Santa Cruz County. Monterey County is a member of the regional governmental agency, Association of Monterey Bay Area Governments; the coastline, including Big Sur, State Route 1, the 17 Mile Drive on the Monterey Peninsula, has made the county world-famous. The city of Monterey was the capital of California under Mexican rule; the economy is based upon tourism in the coastal regions and agriculture in the Salinas River valley. Most of the county's people live near the northern coast and Salinas Valley, while the southern coast and inland mountain regions are sparsely populated. Monterey County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood.
Parts of the county were given to San Benito County in 1874. The area was populated by Ohlone and Esselen tribes; the county derives its name from Monterey Bay. The bay was named by Sebastián Vizcaíno in 1602 in honor of the Conde de Monterrey the Viceroy of New Spain. Monterrey is a variation of Monterrei, a municipality in the Galicia region of Spain where the Conde de Monterrey and his father were from. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,771 square miles, of which 3,281 square miles is land and 491 square miles is water; the county is 1.5 times larger than the state of Delaware, similar in population and size to Santa Barbara County. Los Padres National Forest Pinnacles National Park Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge Ventana Wilderness Monterey County has habitat to support the following endangered species: Hickman's potentilla Santa Cruz Long-toed Salamander Santa Cruz Tarweed Southern Steelhead Trout Yadon's piperia Generally, the western/southern parts of the Monterey Peninsula, Carmel Valley and eastern parts of Prundale were the county's most affluent and educated.
These areas had a median household income above that of the California or the U. S. overall and comprised 8%-10% of neighborhoods. Educational attainment was at least on part with, or above and national levels, in these areas while the percentage of people living in poverty was a third or less than national and statewide average. Social deprivation was concentrated in the central and eastern parts of Salinas, central areas of Monterey, Marina and King City. In central and eastern Salinas up to 46% of individuals lived below the poverty line and those without a secondary educations formed a plurality or majority of residents. Overall, the Salinas metropolitan area, defined as coterminous with Monterey County, was among the least educated urban areas in the nation. 8% of neighborhoods, as defined by Census Block Groups, had a median household income above $100,000 per year, about 60% above the national median. This coincided with the top 20 census block groups in the county listed below. Most affluent neighborhoods * Asterisk denotes a hypothetical rank among Monterey County's 226 Census Block Groups.
About 4.5% of neighborhoods, as defined by Census Block Groups, had a median household income below $30,000 per year, about 60% below the national median. This coincided with the 10 poorest of the 20 lowest income neighborhoods listed in the table below. Least affluent neighborhoods * Asterisk denotes a hypothetical rank among Monterey County's 226 Census Block Groups; the 2010 United States Census reported that Monterey County had a population of 415,057. The racial makeup of Monterey County was 230,717 White, 12,785 African American, 5,464 Native American, 25,258 Asian, 2,071 Pacific Islander, 117,405 from other races, 21,357 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 230,003 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 401,762 people, 121,236 households, 87,896 families residing in the county. The population density was 121 people per square mile. There were 131,708 housing units at an average density of 40 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 55.9% White, 3.8% Black or African American, 1.1% Native American, 6.0% Asian, 0.5% Pacific Islander, 27.8% from other races, 5.0% from two or more races.
46.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 6.3% were of German and 5.4% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 52.9% spoke English, 39.6% Spanish and 1.6% Tagalog as their first language. There were 121,236 households out of which 39.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.5% were non-families. 21.2%
A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water that has a concentration of salts and other dissolved minerals higher than most lakes. In some cases, salt lakes have a higher concentration of salt than sea water. An alkalic salt lake that has a high content of carbonate is sometimes termed a soda lake. Saline lake classification: subsaline 0.5–3 ‰ hyposaline 3–20 ‰ mesosaline 20–50 ‰ hypersaline greater than 50 ‰ Salt lakes form when the water flowing into the lake, containing salt or minerals, cannot leave because the lake is endorheic. The water evaporates, leaving behind any dissolved salts and thus increasing its salinity, making a salt lake an excellent place for salt production. High salinity will lead to a unique halophilic flora and fauna in the lake in question. If the amount of water flowing into a lake is less than the amount evaporated, the lake will disappear and leave a dry lake. Brine lakes consist of water that has reached salt saturation or near saturation, may be saturated with other materials.
Most brine lakes develop as a result of high evaporation rates in an arid climate with a lack of an outlet to the ocean. The high salt content in these bodies of water may come from minerals deposited from the surrounding land. Another source for the salt may be that the body of water was connected to the ocean. While the water evaporates from the lake, the salt remains; the body of water will become brine. Because of the density of brine, swimmers are more buoyant in brine than in fresh or ordinary salt water. Examples of such brine lakes are the Great Salt Lake. Bodies of brine may form on the ocean floor at cold seeps; these are sometimes called brine lakes, but are more referred to as brine pools. It is possible to observe waves on the surface of these bodies. Man-made bodies of brine are created for edible salt production; these can be referred to as brine ponds. Aral Sea Bakhtegan Lake Caspian Sea Dead Sea Don Juan Pond Great Salt Lake Laguna Verde Lake Assal Lake Bumbunga Lake Elton Lake Eyre Lake Gairdner Lake Hillier Lake Mackay Lake Natron Lake Paliastomi Lake Texoma Lake Torrens Lake Urmia Lake Van Lake Vanda Little Manitou Lake Lough Hyne Maharloo Lake Mono Lake Namtso Salton Sea Sambhar Salt Lake Sawa Lake Sutton Salt Lake List of bodies of water by salinity Media related to Salt lakes at Wikimedia Commons
In geography and geology, fluvial processes are associated with rivers and streams and the deposits and landforms created by them. When the stream or rivers are associated with glaciers, ice sheets, or ice caps, the term glaciofluvial or fluvioglacial is used. Fluvial processes include the motion of erosion or deposition on the river bed. Erosion by moving water can happen in two ways. Firstly, the movement of water across the stream bed exerts a shear stress directly onto the bed. If the cohesive strength of the substrate is lower than the shear exerted, or the bed is composed of loose sediment which can be mobilized by such stresses the bed will be lowered purely by clearwater flow. However, if the river carries significant quantities of sediment, this material can act as tools to enhance wear of the bed. At the same time the fragments themselves are becoming smaller and more rounded. Sediment in rivers is transported as either suspended load. There is a component carried as dissolved material.
For each grain size there is a specific velocity at which the grains start to move, called entrainment velocity. However the grains will continue to be transported if the velocity falls below the entrainment velocity due to the reduced friction between the grains and the river bed; the velocity will fall low enough for the grains to be deposited. This is shown by the Hjulström curve. A river is continually picking up and dropping solid particles of rock and soil from its bed throughout its length. Where the river flow is fast, more particles are picked up. Where the river flow is slow, more particles are dropped. Areas where more particles are dropped are called alluvial or flood plains, the dropped particles are called alluvium. Small streams make alluvial deposits, but it is in the flood plains and deltas of large rivers that large, geologically-significant alluvial deposits are found; the amount of matter carried by a large river is enormous. The names of many rivers derive from the color. For example, the Huang He in China is translated "Yellow River", the Mississippi River in the United States is called "the Big Muddy".
It has been estimated that the Mississippi River annually carries 406 million tons of sediment to the sea, the Yellow River 796 million tons, the Po River in Italy 67 million tons. Body of water lacustrine – of or relating to a lake maritime – of or relating to a sea oceanic – of or relating to an ocean palustrine – of or relating to a marsh
East of Eden (novel)
East of Eden is a novel by Nobel Prize winner John Steinbeck, published in September 1952. Described as Steinbeck's most ambitious novel, East of Eden brings to life the intricate details of two families, the Trasks and the Hamiltons, their interwoven stories; the novel was addressed to Steinbeck's young sons and John. Steinbeck wanted to describe the Salinas Valley for them in detail: the sights, sounds and colors; the Hamilton family in the novel is said to be based on the real-life family of Samuel Hamilton, Steinbeck's maternal grandfather. A young John Steinbeck appears in the novel as a minor character. According to his third and last wife, Steinbeck considered it his magnum opus. Steinbeck stated about East of Eden: "It has everything in it I have been able to learn about my craft or profession in all these years." He further claimed: "I think everything else I have written has been, in a sense, practice for this." The story is set in the Salinas Valley, between the beginning of the twentieth century and the end of World War I, though some chapters are set in Connecticut and Massachusetts, the story goes as far back as the American Civil War.
In the beginning of East of Eden, before introducing his characters, Steinbeck establishes the setting with a description of the Salinas Valley in Central California. He outlines the story of the warmhearted inventor and farmer Samuel Hamilton and his wife Liza, immigrants from Ireland, he describes how they raise their nine children on a infertile piece of land. As the Hamilton children begin to grow up and leave the nest, a wealthy stranger, Adam Trask, purchases the best ranch in the Valley. Adam's life is seen in a intricate flashback. We see his tumultuous childhood on a farm in Connecticut and the brutal treatment he endured from his younger but stronger half-brother, Charles. Adam and Charles's father, was a Union Civil War veteran, wounded in his first battle and unable to return to service. C; as a young man, Adam spent his time first in the military and wandering the country. He was caught for vagrancy, escaped from a chain gang, burgled a store for clothing to use as a disguise, he wires Charles for $100 to pay for his travels home.
Adam sends money to the store to pay for the clothes and damage. After Adam makes his way home to their farm, Charles reveals that Cyrus had died and left them an inheritance of $50,000 each. Charles is torn with fear. A parallel story introduces a girl named Cathy Ames, who grows up in a town not far from the brothers' family farm. Cathy is described as having a "malformed soul", she leaves home one evening after setting fire to her family's home. She becomes a whoremaster's mistress, but he beats her viciously upon realizing that she is using him and leaves her to die on Adam and Charles's doorstep. Charles sees through Cathy's facade. Adam falls obsessively and irrationally in love, marries her. However, unbeknownst to Adam, Cathy seduces Charles at the time of her marriage and falls pregnant with twins, leaving open the question of whether Adam or Charles is the twins' father, she fails at a primitive abortion with a knitting needle. Adam – newly wed and newly rich – now arrives in California and settles with the pregnant Cathy in the Salinas Valley, near the Hamilton family ranch.
Cathy neither wants to be a mother. Though she warns Adam that she does not want to go to California and plans to leave as soon as she is able, Adam dismisses her, saying'Nonsense!' Shortly after Cathy gives birth to twin boys, she attempts to leave. Adam tries to lock her in the bedroom to stop her, she convinces him to open the door, shoots him in the shoulder, flees. Adam falls into a deep depression, he is roused out of it enough to name and raise his sons with the help of his Cantonese cook and Samuel, who helps Adam name the boys Aron and Caleb, after different characters in the Bible. Lee adopted family member. Lee and Samuel have long philosophical talks about the story of Cain and Abel, which Lee maintains has been incorrectly translated in English-language bibles. Lee tells about how his relatives in San Francisco, a group of Chinese scholars, spent two years studying Hebrew so they might discover what the moral of the Cain and Abel story was, their discovery that the Hebrew word "Timshel" means "thou mayest" becomes an important symbol in the novel, meaning that mankind is neither compelled to pursue sainthood nor doomed to sin, but rather has the power to choose.
Meanwhile, Cathy has become a prostitute at the most respectable brothel in the city of Salinas. She renames herself "Kate Albey" and embarks on a devious – and successful – plan to ingratiate herself with the madam, murder her, inherit the business, she makes her new brothel infamous as a den of sexual sadism. After Charles dies of natural causes, Adam visits her to give her money Charles left her. Kate renounces him and the entire human race, shows him pictures of the brothel's customers, all pillars of the community. Adam sees her for what she is and pities her, leaving Kate to hate him. Adam's sons, Caleb "Cal" and Aron – echoing Cain and Abel – grow up oblivious of their mother's situation, they are opposites: Aron is virtuous and dutiful, Cal wild and rebellious. At
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the US state of California. It is surrounded by a contiguous region known as the San Francisco Bay Area, is dominated by the large cities of San Jose, San Francisco and Oakland. San Francisco Bay drains water from 40 percent of California. Water from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, from the Sierra Nevada mountains, flow into Suisun Bay, which travels through the Carquinez Strait to meet with the Napa River at the entrance to San Pablo Bay, which connects at its south end to San Francisco Bay; the Guadalupe River enters the bay at its southernmost point in San Jose. The Guadalupe drains water from the Santa Cruz mountains and Hamilton Mountain ranges in southernmost San Jose, it enters the bay at the town of Alviso. It connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. However, this entire group of interconnected bays is called the San Francisco Bay; the bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on February 2, 2012. The bay covers somewhere between 400 and 1,600 square miles, depending on which sub-bays, wetlands, so on are included in the measurement.
The main part of the bay measures three to twelve miles wide east-to-west and somewhere between 48 miles 1 and 60 miles 2 north-to-south. It is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas; the bay was navigable as far south as San Jose until the 1850s, when hydraulic mining released massive amounts of sediment from the rivers that settled in those parts of the bay that had little or no current. Wetlands and inlets were deliberately filled in, reducing the Bay's size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bay's size. Despite its value as a waterway and harbor, many thousands of acres of marshy wetlands at the edges of the bay were, for many years, considered wasted space; as a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was dumped onto the wetlands and other parts of the bay as landfill. From the mid-19th century through the late 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and built on.
The deep, damp soil in these areas is subject to soil liquefaction during earthquakes, most of the major damage close to the Bay in the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 occurred to structures on these areas. The Marina District of San Francisco, hard hit by the 1989 earthquake, was built on fill, placed there for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, although liquefaction did not occur on a large scale. In the 1990s, San Francisco International Airport proposed filling in hundreds more acres to extend its overcrowded international runways in exchange for purchasing other parts of the bay and converting them back to wetlands; the idea was, remains, controversial. There are five large islands in San Francisco Bay. Alameda, the largest island, was created when a shipping lane was cut to form the Port of Oakland in 1901, it is now a suburban community. Angel Island was known as "Ellis Island West" because it served as the entry point for immigrants from East Asia, it is now a state park accessible by ferry.
Mountainous Yerba Buena Island is pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. Attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. From the Second World War until the 1990s, both islands served as military bases and are now being redeveloped. Isolated in the center of the Bay is Alcatraz, the site of the famous federal penitentiary; the federal prison on Alcatraz Island no longer functions, but the complex is a popular tourist site. Despite its name, Mare Island in the northern part of the bay is a peninsula rather than an island. San Francisco Bay is thought to represent a down-warping of the Earth's crust between the San Andreas Fault to the west and the Hayward Fault to the east, though the precise nature of this remains under study. About 560,000 years ago, a tectonic shift caused the large inland Lake Corcoran to spill out the central valley and through the Carquinez Strait, carving out sediment and forming canyons in what is now the northern part of the San Francisco Bay and Golden Gate strait.
Until the last ice age, the basin, now filled by the San Francisco Bay was a large linear valley with small hills, similar to most of the valleys of the Coast Ranges. As the great ice sheets began to melt, around 11,000 years ago, the sea level started to rise. By 5000 BC the sea level rose 300 feet; the valley become a bay, the small hills became islands. From 15,000 – 10,000 years ago, the Ohlone tribe inhabited the area, now the San Francisco Bay; the natives were displaced 5,000 years ago as the bay filled with water due to the rising sea level at the end of the ice age. The first European to see San Francisco Bay is N. de Morena, left at New Albion at Drakes Bay in Marin County, California by Sir Francis Drake in 1579 and walked to Mexico. The first recorded European discovery of San Francisco Bay was on November 4, 1769 when Spanish explorer Gaspar de Portolà, unable to find the port of Monterey, continued north close to what is now Pacifica and reached the summit of the 1,200-foot-high Sweeney Ridge, now marked as the place where he first sighted San Francisco Bay.
Portolá and his party did not realize what they had discovered, thinking they had arrived at a large arm of what is now called Drakes Bay. At the time, Drakes Bay went by the name Bahia de San
Jolon is an unincorporated community in Monterey County, United States. It is located 17 miles south at an elevation of 971 feet. Jolon is located in west of Salinas Valley, it is in a rural area six miles from Mission San Antonio de Padua, is part of Fort Hunter Liggett. The first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition, camped on the San Antonio River near today's Jolon on September 24, 1769, having crossed the Santa Lucia Range from the coast; the party continued north through Jolon Valley. The town was founded by Antonio Ramirez, who built an inn at the place in 1850; the Jolon post office was founded in 1872. Jolon was owned by William Randolph Hearst in the 1920s, who sold it to the US Army, its current owner; the ZIP Code is 93928, the community is inside area code 831. Jolon is mentioned in the chorus of the song "South Coast" as a place where, back in its frontier days, one could gamble. Jolon is the setting for John Steinbeck's novel To a God Unknown.
The town is the basis for the fictional town in the book. In the early 1920s William Randolph Hearst bought up thousands of acres in the rolling foothills of the Santa Lucia mountains east of Hearst Castle near San Simeon on California's Central Coast, he sent his architect, Julia Morgan, to the eastern side of the range, near Mission San Antonio, to design and oversee the building of a hacienda-style headquarters for the expansion of his ranching operation. The building was called the Milpitas Ranchhouse, or the Hacienda; that building, along with some 176,000 acres of land was sold to the U. S. Army in 1942, became headquarters for its wartime training on what became Fort Hunter Liggett. Known today as "The Hacienda" it is located within the boundaries of Fort Hunter Liggett, near the old town of Jolon, is open to the public, it is popular with history buffs who relish the unchanged landscape in which it and the nearby Mission San Antonio de Padua are located. This region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 74.4 °F.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Jolon has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps. Allen, Rebecca. "Using Oral History to Expand Knowledge of Late 19th and Early 20th-Century Ranching in the Jolon and King City Area, Monterey County". Proceedings of the Society for California Archaeology. 10: 116–120. Media related to Jolon, California at Wikimedia Commons Militarymuseum.org: Old Jolon