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Salmon

Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae. Other fish in the same family include trout, char and whitefish. Salmon are native to tributaries of the North Pacific Ocean. Many species of salmon have been introduced into non-native environments such as the Great Lakes of North America and Patagonia in South America. Salmon are intensively farmed in many parts of the world. Salmon are anadromous: they hatch in fresh water, migrate to the ocean return to fresh water to reproduce. However, populations of several species are restricted to fresh water through their lives. Folklore has it. Tracking studies have shown this to be true. A portion of a returning salmon run may spawn in different freshwater systems. Homing behavior has been shown to depend on olfactory memory. Salmon date back to the Neogene; the term "salmon" comes from the Latin salmo, which in turn might have originated from salire, meaning "to leap". The nine commercially important species of salmon occur in two genera.

The genus Salmo contains the Atlantic salmon, found in the north Atlantic, as well as many species named trout. The genus Oncorhynchus contains eight species which occur only in the North Pacific; as a group, these are known as Pacific salmon. Chinook salmon have been introduced in New Patagonia. Coho, freshwater sockeye, Atlantic salmon have been established in Patagonia, as well. † Both the Salmo and Oncorhynchus genera contain a number of species referred to as trout. Within Salmo, additional minor taxa have been called salmon in English, i.e. the Adriatic salmon and Black Sea salmon. The steelhead anadromous form of the rainbow trout migrates to sea, but it is not termed "salmon". There are a number of other species which are not true salmon, as in the above list, but have common names which refer to them as being salmon. Of those listed below, the Danube salmon or huchen is a large freshwater salmonid related to the salmon above, but others are marine fishes of the unrelated Perciformes order: Eosalmo driftwoodensis, the oldest known salmon in the fossil record, helps scientists figure how the different species of salmon diverged from a common ancestor.

The British Columbia salmon fossil provides evidence that the divergence between Pacific and Atlantic salmon had not yet occurred 40 million years ago. Both the fossil record and analysis of mitochondrial DNA suggest the divergence occurred by 10 to 20 million years ago; this independent evidence from DNA analysis and the fossil record indicate that salmon divergence occurred long before the glaciers began their cycle of advance and retreat. Atlantic salmon reproduce in northern rivers on both coasts of the Atlantic Ocean. Landlocked salmon live in a number of lakes in eastern North America and in Northern Europe, for instance in lakes Sebago, Ladoga, Saimaa, Vänern, Winnipesaukee, they are not a different species from the Atlantic salmon, but have independently evolved a non-migratory life cycle, which they maintain when they could access the ocean. Chinook salmon are known in the United States as king salmon or blackmouth salmon, as spring salmon in British Columbia. Chinook are the largest of all Pacific salmon exceeding 14 kg.

The name tyee is used in British Columbia to refer to Chinook over 30 pounds, in the Columbia River watershed large Chinook were once referred to as June hogs. Chinook salmon are known to range as far north as the Mackenzie River and Kugluktuk in the central Canadian arctic, as far south as the Central California coast. Chum salmon are known as dog, keta, or calico salmon in some parts of the US; this species has the widest geographic range of the Pacific species: in the eastern Pacific from north of the Mackenzie River in Canada to south of the Sacramento River in California and in the western Pacific from Lena River in Siberia to the island of Kyūshū in the Sea of Japan. Coho salmon are known in the US as silver salmon; this species is found throughout the coastal waters of Alaska and British Columbia and as far south as Central California. It is now known to occur, albeit infrequently, in the Mackenzie River. Masu salmon or cherry salmon are found only in the western Pacific Ocean in Japan and Russia.

A land-locked subspecies known as the Taiwanese salmon or Formosan salmon is found in central Taiwan's Chi Chia Wan Stream. Pink salmon, known as humpies in southeast and southwest Alaska, are found in the western Pacific from Lena River in Siberia to Korea, found throughout northern Pacific, in the eastern Pacific from the Mackenzie River in Canada to northern California in shorter coastal streams, it is the smallest of the Pacific species, with an average weight of 1.6 to 1.8 kg. Sockeye salmon are known in the US as red salmon; this lake-rearing species is found in the eastern Pacific from Bathurst Inlet in the Canadian Arctic to Klamath River in California, in the western Pacific from the Anadyr River in Siberia to northern Hokkaidō island in Japan. Although most adult Pacific salmon feed on small fish and squid, sockeye feed on plankton they filter through gill rakers. Kokanee salmon are the land-locked form of sockeye salmon. Danube salmon, or huchen, are the largest permanent freshwater salmonid

Replay! Shimokawa Mikuni Seishun Anison Cover III

Replay! ~Shimokawa Mikuni Seishun Anison Cover III~ is the 7th compilation album from Shimokawa Mikuni, released on July 21, 2010. This album released by Pony Canyon with copyright code PCCA-03209; this album is the result of her work, released to coincide with the 16th single, “Kimi ga Iru kara.”This album launched with 12 songs. That songs is a songs' collection that filled the anime theme song or airing on Japanese television channel until then; the songs are raised again with musical arrangements adjusted to the theme of this album. Completion of this album with the songs arrangement has accompanied the Shimokawa Mikuni's career that has passed through 11th years by adding a note of her work until then. On this album there are some songs that are done by collaboration with other musicians, such as Kitadani Hiroshi, Psychic Lover, Haruko Momoi, BBQ. All songs on this album are stored on the first disc in Audio CD Playback format. There is a song which included from the previous singles with different arrangements, "Minami Kaze".

The second disc contains collecting several videos from a variety of musical events performed by Shimokawa throughout her solo career. Tokyo-Shanghai Music Tour into “Live Tour 2009 ASIAN LOVERS” at Shanghai Theater Center Mikuni Shimokawa's website at Pony Canyon

Lodge Hill, Bristol

Lodge Hill is a hill and residential area of Bristol, England. It is in the electoral ward of Hillfields, separating the large outer urban areas of Fishponds and Kingswood. Cossham Memorial Hospital is at its peak, the highest point in Bristol at 369 ft, it has a population of 1,722. Lodge Hill once had commanding views of the Royal Forest of Kingswood, known to have been used by kings for hunting since Saxon times. Reached by Lodge Causeway at the top of the hill once stood King John’s Lodge or Kingswood Lodge, named after its most famous resident. A lodge is thought to have existed since the 13th century a two-storey building existed before 1610. During the mid-to-late 19th century an old iron smelting tower was incorporated into the building and it was known as Kingswood Castle, by now a substantial building with castellated roof lines. At one time it was used as a windmill and in 1928 the cellar still contained the vault of the original tower which had thick walls and an underground passage which led to Hill House, overlooking Staple Hill.

It was pulled down soon afterwards. The area around Lodge Hill was studded by coalpits, where the deepest was reported as 600 ft deep in 1793. A large coalpit known as the Kingswood Lodge Coalpit once existing on the hill between Cossham Memorial Hospital and Charlton Road. On 11 Apr 1833, five boys were rescued there after being trapped for six nights; the pit, belonging to Messrs. Brain & Co had an more serious incident six years when 11 workers died after water flooded the pit. In 1900 G. B. Britton & Sons, left their original premises in Waters Road and set up a larger factory on Lodge Road. In 1914 the factory was further expanded to provide army boots in the First World War and at its peak just before the Second World War employed 11,000 people. In 1941, the factory on Lodge road was requisitioned by the Ministry of Aircraft Production to build aircraft components. Boot and shoe manufacturing resumed in 1945 and included the TUF boot exported and manufactured overseas leading to a second factory on Lodge Road built in 1959.

Manufacturing ended and the factory shut in 2001, under the ownership of the UK Safe group who have relocated the sales and operations elsewhere in Bristol. The Chequers public house on Lodge Road served the area, was known for its live music but has been closed. GB Britton’s Lawn bowling Club still exists on Ingleside Road, the small park abreast Lodge Hill has great views of East Bristol